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Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
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Nervous System

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  • 1. 12.1 The Brain <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. </li></ul><ul><li>State the function of the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla. </li></ul><ul><li>State the function of the pituitary gland. </li></ul><ul><li>State the function of the hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to interpret information about brain injuries. </li></ul>
  • 2. Cerebrum Controls conscious decision, personality, memory and creativity. Cerebellum Controls balance and coordinates muscle movement Medulla Connects brain to spinal cord. Controls breathing rate and heart beat. Hypothalamus and Pituitary Hypothalamus is a monitoring centre (e.g. water balance, temperature). The pituitary gland releases regulating hormones (e.g ADH).
  • 3. 12.2 Sensing and Responding <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the brain spinal, cord and peripheral nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the main parts of the central nervous system (CNS). </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the passage of nerves through the nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of the CNS. </li></ul><ul><li>State the direction in which nerve impulses travel along sensory and motor nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the motor and sensory strips of the cerebrum </li></ul>
  • 4. The Nervous System Brain, spinal cord and nerve fibres communicating with sense organs, muscles, glands and internal organs
  • 5. Central nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord, protected by skull and vertebrae. Peripheral Nervous System: Nerves that spread to every part of the body and connect with sense receptors, skin, muscle and internal organs.
  • 6. 12.3 Cells of the Nervous System <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>State the general name given to nerve cells. </li></ul><ul><li>State the function of a sensory neurone. </li></ul><ul><li>State the function of relay neurones. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the fibres of a relay neurone are usually highly branched. </li></ul><ul><li>State the function of a motor neurone. </li></ul>
  • 7. Neurons <ul><li>The nervous system consists of 100 billion nerve cells (neurons). </li></ul><ul><li>80% of these are found in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is passed from neurone to neurone by electrochemical impulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons come in various shapes and sizes but have a similar overall structure. </li></ul>
  • 8. Sensory neurons Carry information from sense organs to CNS. Motor neurons Carry information from CNS to muscles and glands. Relay neurons Connect neurones. Receive info from sensory neurones and transmit to motor neurones.
  • 9. Sensory neurons Carry information from sense organs to CNS. Receptor Sensory fibre Axon fibre Cell body with nucleus Impulses to CNS
  • 10. Relay neurons Connect neurones. Receive information from sensory neurones and transmit to motor neurones. Impulses from sensory neurone Impulses to other neurones Cell body with nucleus Main relay fibre
  • 11. Motor neurons Carry information from CNS to muscles and glands. Effector: Muscle or gland Cell body with nucleus Axon fibre Impulses from CNS
  • 12. <ul><li>In the spinal cord a neuron may have an axon of 2-3 feet long (tip of spine to big toe). </li></ul><ul><li>In the brain it may only be one thousandth of an inch long. </li></ul><ul><li>A bundle of elongated axons from hundreds/ thousands of neurons forms a nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves spread to every part of the body and connect with sense receptors, skin, muscle and internal organs. </li></ul><ul><li>This is collectively called the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). </li></ul>
  • 13. 12.4 Nervous System in Action <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how a stimulus affects the nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the five main sense organs and the stimuli they detect. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of effectors. </li></ul><ul><li>State the role of the CNS in conscious responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Dive the function of sensory and motor nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>State what is meant by a response and describe some examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the flow of information in the nervous system. </li></ul>
  • 14. Sense Organs Light information Chemicals in air Chemicals in food Sound information Temperature, pressure, touch and pain.
  • 15. Flow of Information Receptor cells in your nose detect a pungent smell. The brain processes this as unpleasant (possibly dangerous). You choose to move. Muscles in you legs move you away from the smell. Receptors CNS Effectors
  • 16. 12.5 Reflex Responses <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>State what is meant by a reflex response. </li></ul><ul><li>Give some examples of reflex responses and explain their specific values. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what a reflex arc is. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what a synapse is and explain their value. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the direction of flow of nerve impulses in a reflex arc. </li></ul>
  • 17. Reflex Responses <ul><li>Usually occurs in response to a dangerous stimulus requiring a rapid response. </li></ul><ul><li>The reflex response results in a quick reaction without the information being processed by the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The necessary speed of the reflex reaction protects the body by preventing or minimising danger. </li></ul>
  • 18. Reflex Arc Animation
  • 19. 12.6 Control of Body Temperature <ul><li>Today’s Learning Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the location and temperature of the body core and shell. </li></ul><ul><li>State the location of the temperature monitoring centre in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the receptor cells of the hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the hypothalamus functions when temperature change is detected. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe responses of the skin to a decrease and increase in body temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>State the response of skeletal muscles to a decrease in body temperature. </li></ul>

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