Discuss What does your skeleton do for you? Activity Lets see how many bones on the class skeleton we can identify!
Notes <ul><li>Use the Success Guides to complete the diagram showing the functions of the skeleton. </li></ul>Functions of the Skeleton <ul><li>Now label your cut out of the skeleton with the bones we identified on the model. </li></ul>
Skull Shoulder Blade Rib Cage Sternum Vertebrae Hip Pelvis Knee Cap Metatarsals Tibia Fibula Femur Metacarpals Ulna Radius Humerus Collar Bone
Colour in the bones of your skeleton to show those: mainly for protection mainly for support mainly for movement Remember!! Some bones will be used for more than one purpose. The three functions are not always clear cut. Notes
Activity Have a look at the radiographs. What bones you can see in each one!
Discuss Do you think bones are made of living or dead tissue? Flat Bones Short Bones Irregular Bones Long Bones
Hard mineral made by bone cells Blood vessels Flexible fibres containing bone cells Marrow cavity
Testing Composition of Bone Fresh chicken bones Immersed in dilute acid for 24 hours to dissolve minerals out of bone Roasted for 2 hours to destroy the organic fibres of living cells The bone becomes flexible The bone becomes brittle
Activity Use the bioviewers to look at the bone cells. Notes Structure of Bone -Copy the box with the above heading from p58 of Success Guides. -Stick in and label your own copy of the cross section of bone. -Using p146 of the Torrance book, explain how the living cells build the hard mineral.
Activity Your are designers at a factory that makes high tech robots. You have been asked to design a robot’s knee joint. Draw a sketch in your groups to show how the knee will function efficiently.
Types of Joint Hinge joint Ball and socket joint Gliding joint Pivot joint
Types of Joint -Write a definition of what a joint is. -Glue in you diagrams of a ball and socket, and hinge joint. -Underneath each diagram explain the type of movement performed by the joint. -Give examples of the parts of the body that have these joints. Notes
-Stick in your copy of a synovial joint. - Add the synovial membrane and capsule, and label the diagram. -Make a table to describe the function of all the structures in a synovial joint. Notes
Rheumatoid Arthritis Use the posters to write summary points explaining what arthritis is. Notes
Muscles <ul><li>Muscles provide the force needed to move bones at the joints. </li></ul>Muscle cell relaxed (long and thin) Muscle cell contracted (short and fat)
Antagonistic Muscle Pairs <ul><li>Biceps muscles contract . </li></ul><ul><li>This pulls the forearm up. </li></ul><ul><li>Triceps muscles are relaxed . </li></ul><ul><li>Triceps muscles contract. </li></ul><ul><li>This pulls the forearm down. </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps muscles are relaxed . </li></ul>
<ul><li>Use the Muscles and Movement box on page 59 of the Success Guides to write notes on how muscles work to move bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Stick and label your diagrams of the biceps and triceps working to move the forearm </li></ul>Notes