Environmental Influences

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  • 1. Environmental Influences SQA HIGHER BIOLOGY Unit 3: Control and Regulation
  • 2. What chemicals affect your growth? What chemicals effect the growth of plants? How does light effect growth?
  • 3. Learning Content
    • The importance of individual macroelements.
      • Symptoms of deficiency of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in plants.
      • The importance of iron and calcium in animals.
      • The inhibiting effect of lead on enzyme activity.
  • 4. Macro-elements in plants
    • What chemical elements does a plant need for growth?
    • Where does a plant get these elements from?
  • 5. Water culture experiments
    • Describe a water culture experiment.
      • Explain why light is blocked out.
      • Why is more than one seedling used?
    • Water culture experiments demonstrate deficiency symptoms – explain what this means.
  • 6. Water culture experiments
    • Results
    Reason Symptoms Element omitted
  • 7. Nitrate concentration and algal growth
    • Describe a method to investigate the effect of nitrate concentration on the rate of algal growth.
      • Include reasons for the stages in the method.
    • A set of results from this experiment are shown opposite,
      • summarise these as a line graph.
    2.10 3.0 2.10 2.5 2.00 2.0 1.11 1.5 0.48 1.0 0.16 0.5 0.05 0.0 Dry mass of algae (g) Mass of nitrate fertiliser (g)
  • 8. Lead
    • What effect does lead have on the acitivity of the enzyme catechol oxidase?
      • Describe an experiment which demonstrates this.
    • What effects can lead have on humans?
    • How can humans come into contact with lead?
    • Describe the correlation between tooth lead content and performance in a sample of school children.
    • What has been done to reduce the impact of lead on humans?
  • 9. Learning Content
    • The effect of vitamin D deficiency in humans.
    • The effect of drugs on fetal development: thalidomide, alcohol, nicotine.
  • 10. Vitamin D
    • Why is vitamin D essential to humans?
    • What are the deficiency symptoms for vitamin D?
      • How can this be prevented?
    • Why is the global distribution of rickets not uniform?
  • 11. Effects of drugs on foetal development
    • What is thalidomide?
    • What was it originally intended for?
    • What are the side effects of this drug?
    • How was it able to effect the foetus?
  • 12. Effects of drugs on foetal development
    • Alcohol & Nicotine
      • Produce a leaflet which explains the risks of smoking and drinking during pregnancy.
        • What are the current guidelines for pregnant women?
  • 13. Learning Content
    • Light.
      • The effect of light on vegetative shoot growth and development.
      • The effect of light on flowering in long-day and short-day plants.
      • The effect of light on the timing of breeding in birds and mammals.
  • 14. Vegetative Shoot
    • What is a vegetative shoot?
    • What effects does the absence of light have on vegetative shoot growth?
    • What is etiolation?
      • How can this be explained?
  • 15. Phototropism
    • What is meant by ‘positively phototrophic’?
    • How does it work?
    • What is the advantage to the plant of this mechanism?
  • 16. Flowering
    • What is meant by photoperiodism?
    • Long day (short night) plants
      • When do they flower?
      • Name 3 examples and their critical periods.
    • Short day (long night) plants
      • When do they flower?
      • Name 3 examples and their critical periods.
    • What are day neutral plants?
      • Name 3 examples.
  • 17. Flowering
    • What role do hormones play in photoperiodism?
      • Describe an experiment which demonstrates the role of hormones in communicating photoperiodism.
    • How is the hormone transported?
      • Describe an experiment which demonstrates this.
    • Describe and explain the distribution of long and short day plants according to latitude and season.
    • What is the biological significance of photoperiodism?
  • 18. Breeding
    • What is rhythmical behaviour?
    • What does endogenous mean?
    • Describe what is meant by seasonal breeders.
      • Describe an example of long day breeders
      • Describe an example of short day breeders
    • What is the biological significance of seasonal breeding?
    • How is migration & hibernation related to photoperiodism?