Cells And Respiration

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  • 1. 3.1 Food and Energy
    • Today’s Learning Objectives:
    • Name the type of energy stored in food
    • Describe the energy change when food is burned
    • State units used to measure energy content of food
    • Define the term respiration
    • Name the food molecule which is the main source of
    • energy in cells
    • Describe how respiration is controlled
    • Describe what happens to the chemical energy in
    • food during respiration
  • 2. Respiration is a chemical process in which energy is released from food molecules in cells. During respiration glucose is broken down in a series of reactions controlled by enzymes. The main food molecule used in cells is glucose. G
  • 3. 3.2 Adenosine Triphosphate
    • Today’s Learning Objectives:
    • Give full name of ATP and a diagram of structure.
    • Name molecule ATP is formed from in cells with a
    • diagram of its structure.
    • Draw a diagram to show the formation of ATP and
    • how energy is involved.
    • Explain where the energy for the formation of ATP
    • comes from.
    • Use a diagram to show breakdown of ATP and how energy is involved.
    • Explain what energy formed is used for.
    • State effect of ATP on muscle fibres
    • Calculate a percentage decrease in muscle fibres
  • 4. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an important substance found in all living cells
    • It forms using up energy released by respiration
    • of glucose.
    • The ATP molecules are used by the cell as an
    • immediate source of energy… (cell batteries!!)
  • 5. An adenosine molecule joined to three inorganic phosphates (Pi).
    • The ATP molecule is made from a simpler molecule:
    Adenosine di phosphate…adenosine joined to only two inorganic phosphates
    • An ATP molecule:
    Adenosine Pi Pi Pi Adenosine Pi Pi
  • 6. The Role of ATP
    • The energy released when glucose is broken down
    • during respiration is not used directly by the cell
    G respiration glucose energy Energy stored by forming ATP
  • 7. An enzyme joins an inorganic phosphate group (Pi) onto an A D P molecule to form an A T P molecule. A T P: contains a high level of chemical energy + Pi + energy Adenosine Pi Pi A D P Enzyme Adenosine Pi Pi Pi
  • 8. You have to move muscles and need that stored energy. How is it released…? Enzyme + + Adenosine Pi Pi Pi Energy A D P Released for all cell activities Adenosine Pi Pi Pi A T P
  • 9. This forms a continuous cycle of ATP-ADP-ATP… Storing and releasing energy when needed G glucose respiration A D P + Pi A T P Used in cell activities e.g muscle contraction
  • 10.
    • Place the following sequence of events in the correct order to produce a summary:
    • Energy released during respiration is stored through the formation of ATP
    • ?. The ATP molecules formed contains a high level of chemical energy (stored energy)
    • ?. The ADP and Pi formed in this change is now available for making more ATP molecules.
    • ? When energy is required (e.g. for muscle movement), an enzyme breaks down ATP to form ADP plus a phosphate group.
    • ? An enzyme joins an inorganic phosphate group onto an ADP molecule to produce ATP
    • ? The breakdown releases the chemical energy to be used for cell activities.
  • 11. The Role of ATP Correct order
    • Energy released during respiration is stored through the formation of ATP
    • An enzyme joins an inorganic phosphate group onto an ADP molecule to produce ATP
    • 3. The ATP molecule formed contains a high level of chemical energy (stored energy)
    • 4 When energy is required (e.g. for muscle movement), an enzyme breaks down ATP to form ADP plus a phosphate group.
    • 5 The breakdown releases the chemical energy to be used for cell activities.
    • 6. The ADP and Pi formed in this change is now available for making more ATP molecules.
  • 12. 3.3 Aerobic Respiration
    • Today’s Learning Objectives:
    • Define the term ‘ aerobic respiration’.
    • Define the term ‘ glycolysis’.
    • Draw a flow diagram for glycolysis
    • Describe conditions necessary for glycolysis
    • Describe conditions necessary for breakdown of
    • pyruvic acid and name products of this reaction
    • State the ATP yields for each different stage of
    • aerobic respiration
    • Make calculations involving ATP numbers
  • 13. Aero bic respiration is the process of release of energy from food in cells using oxygen. This happens in 2 stages: 1. Glycolysis 2. Breakdown of pyruvic acid
  • 14.
    • Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose resulting in the formation of pyruvic acid.
    The chemical energy from the pyruvic acid is released in the next stage… G Glucose Enzyme controlled reactions Pyruvic acid (contains chemical energy)
  • 15. 2. Breakdown of pyruvic acid Energy released by this stage allows a large quantity of A T P to be produced in the cells. Pyruvic acid + oxygen Enzyme controlled reactions Carbon dioxide + water
  • 16. Total = 38 ATP molecules/ glucose + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water Overall A T P production during aer obic respiration: G Glucose Pyruvic acid 2 A D P + 2 Pi 2 A T P 36 A D P + 36 Pi 36 A T P
  • 17. 3.4 Anaerobic Respiration in Animals
    • Today’s Learning Objectives:
    • Define the term ‘anaerobic respiration’ .
    • Draw a flow diagram of stages and products in
    • anaerobic respiration.
    • State the ATP yields for the different stages in
    • anaerobic respiration in animals.
    • Define the term ‘muscle fatigue’.
    • Explain muscle fatigue using the anaerobic
    • respiration pathway.
    • Relate muscle fatigue to exercise.
    • Explain the terms ‘oxygen debt’ and ‘recovery
    • period’.
    • Explain how lactic acid can be converted back to
    • pyruvic acid.
  • 18. Anaero bic respiration is the breakdown of glucose in cells without oxygen. This could happen in animal cells if not enough oxygen is getting to muscles during heavy exercise. Cells would have to change from: aer obic respiration to anaer obic respiration
  • 19. As with aerobic respiration this happens in 2 stages: 1. Glycolysis (exactly the same as aerobic respiration) 2. Breakdown of pyruvic acid (but without oxygen) Pyruvic acid NO oxygen Enzyme controlled reactions Lactic Acid
  • 20. Overall A T P production during anaer obic respiration in animals : G Glucose Pyruvic acid 2 A D P + 2 Pi 2 A T P (No oxygen) Lactic Acid No A T P molecules formed! Total = 2 ATP molecules/ glucose
  • 21. 3.5 Anaerobic Respiration in Plants and Yeast
    • Today’s Learning Objectives:
    • Draw a flow diagram of stages and products in
    • anaerobic respiration in plants and yeasts
    • State the ATP yields for the different stages in
    • anaerobic respiration in plants and yeasts.
    • Explain why anaerobic respiration in plants and
    • yeasts is irreversible.
    • Describe an experiment used to investigate anaerobic respiration in yeast.
    • Compare aerobic respiration with anaerobic respiration in both animals and plants. Use: glycolysis, ATP yields, and overall products.
  • 22. Just as in animals, glucose is only partially broken down in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic conditions can occur when root cells of plants grow in muddy soil or there has been floods. Yeast cells are deprived of oxygen when used in brewing and bread-making.
  • 23. As with anaerobic respiration in animals this happens in 2 stages: 1. Glycolysis (exactly the same as aerobic respiration) 2. Breakdown of pyruvic acid (but without oxygen) Pyruvic acid NO oxygen Enzyme controlled reactions Ethanol + Carbon dioxide (lost- reaction irreversible)
  • 24. Overall A T P production during anaer obic respiration in plants and yeasts : Total = 2 ATP molecules/ glucose G Glucose Pyruvic acid 2 A D P + 2 Pi 2 A T P (No oxygen) Ethanol + CO2 No A T P molecules formed!
  • 25. 3.6 Uses of Respiration in Yeast
    • Today’s Learning Objectives:
    • State which type of respiration takes place in yeast
    • under different conditions.
    • Name the food source in yeast and the products of
    • respiration under these different conditions.
    • Explain why yeast is used in bread making.
    • Explain why yeast is used in beer making.
    • Explain why germinated barley is used in beer
    • making.
    • Explain why there is a limit to the concentration of
    • alcohol produced during anaerobic respiration.
  • 26. Yeast - Unicellular fungus - Cell is dividing - Ferment sugars (used in brewing and bread making) These circles are formed when the cell divides. The new cell ‘ buds off’ and leaves a scar.
  • 27. During ae robic respiration, yeast uses up glucose and oxygen and produces carbon dioxide and water. As oxygen is used up the yeast changes over to anae robic respiration and converts glucose to carbon dioxide and ethanol (alcohol).
  • 28. 3.7 Investigating Anaerobic Respiration
    • Today’s Learning Objectives:
    • Write an aim for an investigation about a factor
    • affecting rate of anaerobic respiration by yeast in
    • dough.
    • Identify the altered, controlled and measurable
    • variables.
    • Describe a method for the investigation.
    • Draw an appropriate table of results and a fully
    • labelled line graph.
    • Make an appropriate conclusion from the graph.
    • Make an evaluation of the investigation