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Cells And Photosynthesis
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Cells And Photosynthesis

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Cells And Photosynthesis Cells And Photosynthesis Presentation Transcript

  • 4.1 Sunlight and Starch Production Today’s Learning Objectives:  State the difference by which animals and plants obtain food.  State the source of energy used by plants to make food.  Define the term ‘photosynthesis’.  Define the term ‘producer’.  Define the term ‘carbohydrate’.  Describe how to test a leaf for the presence of starch.  Compare photosynthesis in light and dark conditions  Show how starch production varies over a normal 24-hour period.
  • Green plants as producers Producers are green plants which make food by photosynthesis. Carbohydrates are molecules containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Photosynthesis is a process in which green plants make carbohydrate from raw materials using energy from sunlight.
  • Raw materials from environment H2O CO2 Green plants make carbohydrate Animals eat plants containing carbohydrate
  • Investigation of the Requirements for Photosynthesis Light is required for photosynthesis Uncovered areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine Covered areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Light ConclusionResultExperimentRequirements of photosynthesis
  • 4.2 The Role of Chlorophyll Today’s Learning Objectives:  Name the green substance in plants needed for photosynthesis.  What is meant by a variegated leaf?  Describe an experiment that shows that chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis.  Name and describe the structures in a cell which contain chlorophyll.  State the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis.  State the energy change which takes place in photosynthesis.  Name the compounds in which the energy absorbed during photosynthesis ends up.
  • Looking at Plant Cells Pond weed cells Plant leaf cells packed with chloroplasts Chloroplasts contain the pigment CHLOROPHYLL
  • Investigation of the Requirements for Photosynthesis Chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis Green areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine White areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Chlorophyll Light is required for photosynthesis Uncovered areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine Covered areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Light ConclusionResultExperimentRequirements of photosynthesis
  • 4.3 Raw Materials and Products Today’s Learning Objectives:  Name the raw materials for photosynthesis.  State the source of these raw materials.  State what glucose is converted to for storage.  Describe an experiment to show that carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis.  Name the products of photosynthesis.  Describe how green plants affect the composition of gases in the atmosphere.  Write a summary equation for photosynthesis.
  • Investigation of the Requirements for Photosynthesis CO2 is required for photosynthesis No CO2 – brown in the presence of iodine CO2 - black Carbon Dioxide Chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis Green areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine White areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Chlorophyll Light is required for photosynthesis Uncovered areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine Covered areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Light ConclusionResultExperimentRequirements of photosynthesis CO2 No CO2
  • Summary Equation for Photosynthesis Carbon dioxide Water + Chlorophyll Light Glucose Oxygen Raw materials Conditions Products
  • 4.4 Two Stages of Photosynthesis Today’s Learning Objectives:  Explain the term ‘photolysis’.  Name the raw materials and products of photolysis.  State the energy conversion which accompanies photolysis.  State what happens to the products of photolysis.  Name the molecule which transfers energy to the carbon fixation stage.  Explain the term ‘carbon fixation’ and state where the starting materials come from.  State how carbon fixation is controlled and how the energy needed is supplied.
  • Photosynthesis is more complicated than the summary equation suggests… The whole reaction has two separate stages: • Photolysis Stage • Carbon fixation stage
  • 1. Photolysis stage Photolysis is the process by which energy from sunlight splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen Light Energy Chlorophyll Chemical Energy ADP + Pi ATP Water (H2O) Hydrogen Oxygen + Used in stage 2 Used in stage 2 Released to air
  • 2. Carbon fixation stage The process by which carbon dioxide is combined with hydrogen to make glucose. Glucose Enzyme controlled reactions Hydrogen From stage 1 ADP + PiATP From stage 1 Carbon dioxide From Air
  • 4.5 Starch and Cellulose Today’s Learning Objectives:  Name the small molecules that link together to make starch and cellulose.  State the function of starch in plant cells.  State two properties of starch which make it suitable for this.  State the function of cellulose in plant cells.  State two properties of cellulose which make it suitable for this.  Describe how starch is stored in cells.  Describe the arrangement of cellulose fibres in cell walls.  Explain two properties of cell walls resulting from the arrangement of cellulose fibres.
  • Potato cell with starch granules X 1100 magnification Potato starch grains X 1000 magnification
  • Cellulose fibres in a cell wall
  • 4.6 Limiting Factors in Photosynthesis Today’s Learning Objectives:  Define the term ‘limiting factor’ in the context of photosynthesis.  Give three possible limiting factors in photosynthesis.  Describe a method of measuring rate of photosynthesis in a green plant.  Describe how increasing light intensity affects rate of photosynthesis.  Describe how increasing concentration of carbon dioxide affects rate of photosynthesis.  Describe how increasing temperature affects rate of photosynthesis.  Explain why very high temperatures causes rate of photosynthesis to drop to zero.
  • 4.7 Photosynthesis and Horticulture Today’s Learning Objectives:  Explain the term ‘supplementary lighting’.  Describe how heating and carbon dioxide enrichment is provided.  State two effects of supplementary lighting, CO2 enrichment and heating on the harvest of crops.  What is a disadvantage of providing supplementary lighting, CO2 enrichment and heating in horticulture.