C) Making Food

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C) Making Food

  1. 1. Typical Plant Cell Revision! Cytoplasm Nucleus Cell membrane Sap vacuole Cell Wall Chloroplast
  2. 2. Making Food <ul><li>Green plants, unlike animals, do not rely on ready made food. </li></ul><ul><li>They manufacture their own food in a process called photosynthesis. </li></ul>Water + Carbon dioxide Glucose + Oxygen Light Raw materials Energy Products
  3. 3. Raw materials from environment H 2 O CO 2 Green plants make carbohydrate Animals eat plants containing carbohydrate
  4. 4. Raw materials and products of photosynthesis Soil Water (H 2 O) -Respiration -Stored as starch -Structural cellulose -Respiration Glucose Oxygen Atmosphere (Air) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Use of products Products Source of raw materials Raw materials
  5. 5. Investigation of the Requirements for Photosynthesis Light is required for photosynthesis Uncovered areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine Covered areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Light Conclusion Result Experiment Requirements of photosynthesis
  6. 6. Investigation of the Requirements for Photosynthesis Chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis Green areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine White areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Chlorophyll Light is required for photosynthesis Uncovered areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine Covered areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Light Conclusion Result Experiment Requirements of photosynthesis
  7. 7. Investigation of the Requirements for Photosynthesis CO 2 is required for photosynthesis No CO 2 – brown in the presence of iodine CO 2 - black Carbon Dioxide Chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis Green areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine White areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Chlorophyll Light is required for photosynthesis Uncovered areas turn blue black in the presence of iodine Covered areas turn brown in the presence of iodine Light Conclusion Result Experiment Requirements of photosynthesis CO 2 No CO 2
  8. 8. Leaf Structure Air space Lower epidermis Spongy layer Palisade layer Upper epidermis Xylem Phloem Vascular Bundle } Guard cells Stomata Waxy cuticle
  9. 9. <ul><li>Stomata are small holes. </li></ul><ul><li>Their size is controlled by two guard cells. </li></ul>Guard cells swell to close the pores (stomata). Plants close stomata in the dark or when losing too much water.
  10. 10. Stomata are needed for gas exchange in the leaf Carbon dioxide oxygen Guard cell If plant is photosynthesising
  11. 11. Stomata open and close at different times of the day. When it is light the plant needs CO 2 for photosynthesis so the stoma open. At night (darkness) they close.
  12. 12. Food Transport in Plants Sugar is used for root growth or stored as starch Sugar is used for growth of fruit or stored in fruit Sugar is used for growth of shoots and young leaves Sugar is made in leaves by photosynthesis
  13. 13. The Structure of the Stem and the Root Xylem Xylem Phloem Phloem Phloem } Vascular bundle
  14. 14. Tube like structure containing xylem and phloem to transport water and sugars. Vein
  15. 15. Xylem <ul><li>Xylem cells are dead and have no cell contents </li></ul><ul><li>Their end walls have disintegrated and their side walls became inlaid with a tough, waterproof substance called lignin </li></ul><ul><li>Lignin is arranged in the side wall in various patterns usually rings or spirals </li></ul><ul><li>This structure of cells is suitable for a transporting cell as it is essentially a tube </li></ul><ul><li>A number of these tubes laid end to end forms a rigid pipe </li></ul><ul><li>This adds considerable support to the stem </li></ul>
  16. 16. Structure of Xylem Rings of lignin Lignin deposited in the cell wall End wall disintegrated
  17. 17. Phloem <ul><li>Phloem contains two types of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sieve tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companion cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All phloem cells are alive and have quite thin walls </li></ul><ul><li>In sieve tubes the end walls have pores and allow contact with the next cell </li></ul><ul><li>This allows material to be transported from cell to cell </li></ul><ul><li>The companion cell lies next to the sieve tube </li></ul>
  18. 18. Comparing Xylem and Phloem Transports water & strengthens plant. Xylem Transports sugar. Phloem

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