Survey A variety of methods that involve asking questions. Self reporting: Participants asked how they feel, what their views are, what they have experienced. This contrasts with experimental methods: Where behaviour is recorded and inferences made about underlying thoughts and attitudes. Questionnaires Interviews
Questionnaires Now go back through that list and think how they were obtained. e.g. telephone Activity: In groups list all the uses of questionnaires that you can think of.
Questionnaires usually involve collecting large amounts of data from a lot of people. Samples groups have to be representative. Data usually quantitative rather than qualitative and standardised by asking all participants the same questions. Designing questionnaires can be difficult. Activity In your groups note down any problems with designing questions/ the types of questions to avoid e.g bias, offending people…
When designing questionnaires you have to avoid:
leading or biased questions (don’t you think that…).
- assumptions (all families have a car, all children have two parents). -double barrelled questions (two questions in one: do you enjoy Psychology or is it too hard). - strong emotive language (Do you think that KFC is the most disgusting thing you can eat?)
Make brief notes on the types of questionnaire: Postal surveys Telephone surveys Internet surveys State the pro’s and con’s of each Text book pages 148 and 152 Activity Activity Produce a mind map of the pro’s and con’s of questionnaires as a data gathering technique. Text book pages 148 and 149
Describe the different degrees of observer participation. Higher txt book p156-158
What is an observation schedule and why is it important? Higher txt book 155-156, Caldwell p222
Describe advantages and weaknesses of observations. Caldwell p205-206
The Case Study Offers a rich amount of detail about a particular person, group or thing. It is also grounded in real life. Can involve one or more of a number of research Methodologies: - Case history : school, health records etc - Interviews : with individual, friends, relatives, teachers, social workers etc. - Questionnaires/psychometric tests . - Diaries : kept by individual. - Observation - Experimental tasks e.g memory tests.
Problems: Subjectivity -Lengthy interviews and observations. -Strong likelihood that researcher will communicate expectations to the participant. -Resulting data may be biased. Ethical Issues -Concerns over privacy and confidentiality of individuals life histories being published. -Suggested that real names are not used in case studies (although this does not always happen).