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4. Individual Differences

4. Individual Differences






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    4. Individual Differences 4. Individual Differences Presentation Transcript

    • Intelligence Unit 3 > Individual Differences
    • Individual Differences
      • Psychologists are also interested in why some people behave in ways, which you or I would not call ‘normal’.
      • Behaviour that is not considered ‘normal’ in our society is called ‘atypical behaviour’.
      • This simply means it is different from the accepted norm.
    • Key Issues
      • The psychology of individual differences is concerned with three key debates.
        • Get together into groups of three.
        • Each person in the group needs to take one of the debates.
        • Read the information on your debate and summarise the issues onto a handout.
        • In the next lesson you will have to exchange handouts and explain your debate.
      Free will and determinism Nature - Nurture Idiographic and nomothetic
    • Learning Content
      • Intelligence
        • Nature of intelligence, and the intelligence/IQ distinction; measurement of IQ; theoretical views of intelligence, including factor theories and information-processing approach.
        • Nature-nurture debate in intelligence: genetic relatedness and IQ, twins and adoption studies; effects of early deprivation and environmental enrichment; interactionist approaches.
        • Uses of IQ testing: educational selection; recruitment in employment and military organisations; effect of cultural biases on validity/reliability of IQ tests.
    • Intelligence
      • What is intelligence?
        • Can your group write a definition of intelligence?
      • “ The aggregate of the global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.” (Wechsler, 1944)
      • “ Innate, general cognitive ability.” (Burt, 1955)
      • “ The effective all-round cognitive abilities to comprehend, to grasp relations and reason.” (Vernon 1969)
      • “ Intelligent activity consists in grasping the essentials in a situation and responding appropriately to them.” (Heim, 1970)
    • Intelligence
      • Intelligence is very difficult to define.
      • What is meant by ability and capacity?
        • What is the relationship between these?
    • Theories of Intelligence
      • Factor theory approach
        • The psychometric approach by Spearman (1904) refers to the measurement of differences in individual behaviours and abilities.
        • His testing of school children led him to focus on the ability correlations which appeared between different subjects.
        • Some of the children had performed well in all the tests while others had not performed so well in any of the tests.
        • This led him to the conclusion that how a child performs on a test will be dependent upon their:
          • general ability level (‘g’ or general intelligence)
          • specific abilities (‘s’) that the child possesses.
    • Factor Theory
        • How did Thurstone (1938) challenge Spearman’s work?
          • List Thurstone’s seven separate factors.
        • How have Guilford & Vernon modified the factor theory?
        • Although following a similar path to Spearman, Cattell (1987) proposed an important modification to the ‘g’ factor by stating that it could be sub-divided into two important components:
          • fluid intelligence
          • crystallised intelligence
        • What is the difference between fluid & crystallised intelligence?
    • Factor Theory
        • How can factor theories be evaluated?
          • Variation
          • Data collection
          • Measuring not defining
          • Inherited assumed
    • Theories of Intelligence
      • Cognitive/Information Processing Theory
        • In contrast to the previous approaches Gardner (1985) put forward the idea that people have a number or multiple intelligences which are unrelated .
        • Gardner identified seven distinct intelligences.
          • Outline these intelligences.
          • In what ways do Garnder’s intelligences differ from factor analysis?
          • Where do your strengths lie?
        • Can you evaluate Gardner’s theory?
    • Cognitive/Information Processing
      • The theory put forward by Sternberg (1985) is known as a triarchic theory as he addresses three aspects of intelligence:
        • Contextual: How intelligence relates to the external world.
        • Componential: The cognitive processes that take place within the individual.
        • Experiential: Actual situations that require intelligence.
          • Make notes on each of these aspects.
        • How can Sternberg’s theories be evaluated?
    • Measuring Intelligence
      • As psychologists investigated different areas of human behaviour, they began to look for ways in which the science could be used to help people.
      • The first modern intelligence test was devised by Alfred Binet in 1905 at the request of the French education authorities.
        • In 1881, the French Government introduced compulsory schooling for all children.
        • This meant that slow learners, who had originally been kept at home, now had to attend school.
        • Binet devised a test which measured ability and considered that age of the child being tested.
        • He devised the concept of mental age which is the individual's mental development in relation to others.
    • Measuring Intelligence
        • Therefore, the six-year-old who can satisfactorily complete the work of a seven-year-old is said to have a mental age of seven.
        • Likewise, a child of eight who can only complete the work of a six-year-old is said to have the mental age of six.
        • Future researchers developed this work with Stern producing the idea of an intelligence quotient (IQ) in 1912.
        • The IQ was calculated as follows:
    • Measuring Intelligence
        • What value would you expect to get if the mental age & the chronological age are the same?
        • How was the test modified in 1986?
        • IQ testing is no longer focused on identifying low ability children, but is used in many aspects of life.
      IQ = Mental Age x 100 Chronological Age
    • Measuring Intelligence
      • What is normal distribution?
    • Measuring Intelligence
      • What is standard deviation?
      68.26% 95.44% 99.74% One standard deviation of the mean
    • Measuring Intelligence
      • Complete the (b) & (e) sections of the activity on page 301.
      • What must you do with an intelligence test before you can use it to measure IQ?
        • What is the IQ score telling you therefore?
      • What is meant be the following terms in relation to intelligence testing?
        • Reliable
        • Valid
        • Standardised
    • Measuring Intelligence
      • Outline the criticisms which have been made of intelligence testing.
    • Nature v Nurture
      • How does the nature/nurture debate apply to intelligence?
      • Explain what is meant by MZ and DZ.
      • Outline the intelligence studies performed using twins.
        • What do the results show?
        • How can this work be evaluated?
      • How have adoption studies been used to study genetic factors?
    • Nature v Nurture
      • What environmental factors have been studied by Harrell et al and Benton & Cook?
      • Outline the study conducted by Zajonc & Marcus.
        • What did they discover?
      • What are Sameroff & Seifer’s ten environmental factor effecting IQ scores?
        • How do these factors effect IQ?
      • What other studies support the views of Sameroff & Seifer?
    • Nature v Nurture
      • Rosenthal and Jacobson carried out a classic study of the effect of teacher expectations of success on IQ.
        • Outline their procedure.
        • What were the results?
    • Uses of IQ testing
      • Read the information on pages 307 to 309.
      • Summarise the information in your notes.
        • You could do these as a table, e.g.
      Explanation Example
    • Cultural, political & environmental factors
      • What is ethnocentrism?
      • How does this impact IQ testing?
      • What role has racism played in psychology?
      • Outline the case of Yerkes (1971).
      • What impact did Yerkes ‘findings’ have on:
        • the military?
        • minority ethnic groups in general?
        • immigration into the US?
      • What was lacking in Yerkes’ methodology?