4. Adaptations
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4. Adaptations

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    4. Adaptations 4. Adaptations Presentation Transcript

    • Animal and Plant Adaptations Unit 2: Genetics and Adaptation SQA HIGHER BIOLOGY
    • Maintaining a Water Balance
      • Plants
        • The transpiration stream.
        • Stomatal mechanism.
        • Adaptations in xerophytes and hydrophytes.
      • Animals
        • Osmoregulation in freshwater fish and saltwater bony fish.
        • Adaptations associated with salmon and eel migration.
        • Water conservation in a desert mammal.
    • Water Balance in Plants
      • Why do plants need to maintain a water balance?
        • Why do plants need water?
      • What is transpiration?
      • How does water enter the root?
      • What is root pressure?
      • What is capillarity?
      • Where does water exit the plant?
      • Explain the cohesion-tension theory.
    • Transpiration
    • Transpiration
      • How are mineral ions absorbed and transported through the plant?
      • Represent the process of transpiration as a flow chart. E.g.
      Water enters root hair cell by osmosis. Water diffuses through epidermis to cortex.
    • Stomata
      • Describe the distribution of stomata.
      • Describe the mechanism of stomatal opening and closing.
    • Investigating Stomata
      • Investigating opening and closing of stomata using Commelina communis
        • Describe the method.
        • What factors would need to be kept the same?
        • Why is an average calculated?
        • How accurate do you think this experiment is?
        • Describe the expected results.
        • What do these results tell you regarding the mechanism of stomatal opening and closing?
    • Disadvantage
      • Outline the disadvantages of transpiration to plants.
    • Transpiration Rate
      • How can transpiration rate be measured?
      • What factors can influence the rate of transpiration?
        • For each explain why.
    • Adaptations
      • Copy and complete the following tables:
      Xerophytes: Definition… Hydrophytes: Definition… Example Explanation Physiological Adaptation Example Explanation Structural Adaptation Example Explanation Structural Adaptation
    • Water Balance in Animals
      • Define the term adaptation.
      • How do adaptations come about?
      • Outline the three types of adaptation.
        • Structural
        • Physiological
        • Behavioural
    • Aquatic Animals
      • What problems to aquatic animals face?
      • What is osmoregulation?
      • What particular problems to freshwater fish face?
      • What particular problems to saltwater fish face?
    • Freshwater Fish Describe the adaptations of freshwater fish to deal with these problems.
    • Saltwater Fish Describe the adaptations of saltwater fish to deal with these problems.
    • Aquatic Animals
      • Why are the osmoregulation mechanisms of the Atlantic Salmon & Eel special?
      • Summarise the life cycle of an Atlantic salmon as a flowchart.
      • How do migratory fish alter their osmoregulation to suit the environment?
      • What advantage does this adaptation convey to the organism?
    • Desert Mammals
      • What selection pressures are desert mammals faced with?
      • Summarise the kangaroo rat’s water balance as two pie charts.
      • Describe the physiological and behavioural adaptations of the kangaroo rat.
      • Explain what is meant by ‘modification of a response by an individual’.