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ANATOMI FISIOLOGI MANUSIAHEMATOLOGI<br />Oleh:<br />NADIA FARHANAH SYAFHAN M.Si, Apt<br />
Blood separates into two main parts: plasma and formed elements. <br />Plasma accounts for 55% and formed elements 45% of ...
BLOOD<br />8% total body weight<br /> 5 L pada wanita dan 5,5 L pada pria<br />3 Tipe elemen sel : eritrosit, leukosit, p...
Composition of blood<br />
Blood constituents and its functions<br />
Blood constituents and its functions<br />
HEMOPOESIS<br />Hemopoesis atau hematopoesis ialah proses pembentukan darah. <br />Pranatal di hati dan limpa<br />Pascan...
HEMOPOESIS<br />Sel induk yang paling primitif disebut sebagai pluripotent stem cell. <br />Sel induk pluripotent mempunya...
HEMOPOESIS<br />Sel induk   sel progenitor yang semakin terspesialisasi  sel matur perifer :<br />	-  sel darah merah, <...
Blood cell formation in red bone marrow<br />
Hemopoesis<br />
The Red Blood Cells<br />Normally there are 4 to 6 million RBCs per mm3 of whole blood.<br />Red blood cells contain the p...
Physiology of red blood cells<br />
Red blood cells(erythrocytes or RBCs) are made in the red bone marrow of the skull, ribs, vertebrae, and the ends of long ...
(4). Epo is in bone marrow, <br />surrounded by millions <br />of cells including stem cells<br />Epo enters bone marrow<b...
The Red Blood Cells<br />The air pollutant carbon monoxide combines more readily with hemoglobin than does oxygen, resulti...
When worn out, the red blood cells are dismantled in the liver and spleen.<br />Iron is reused by the red bone marrow wher...
The White Blood Cells<br />White blood cells (leukocytes) have nucleiand defend against disease. <br />Leukocytes are divi...
White Blood Cellular Elements<br />
Monocytes can differentiate into macrophages that phagocytize microbes and stimulate other cells to defend the body.<br />...
RES (Reticulo Endothelial Systems)<br />Sel yang berasal dari monosit yang tersebar di seluruh tubuh dalam banyak organ da...
Memproses dan menyajikan antigen ke sel limfoid (antigen presenting cell) yang bereaksi dengan sel T dalam kelenjar limfe,...
Menghasilkan sitokin (misal IL-1) yang mengatur dan berperan dalam jaringan kerja dan gf  hemopoesis, peradangan dan resp...
Macrophage engulfing bacteria<br />
The Platelets and Blood Clotting<br />Red bone marrow produces large cells called megakaryocytes that fragment into platel...
Trombosit<br />
HEMOSTASIS<br />Tujuan: <br />Mempertahankan darah tetap cair<br />Berada di dalam pembuluh darah<br />Membeku darah saat ...
Hemostasis<br />Hemostasis normal membutuhkan 3 tanggapan:<br />Tanggapan normal pembuluh darah<br />Pembentukan sumbat tr...
Pembuluh darah<br />Peran utama -> mencegah perdaraha<br />			    Vasokostriksi<br />Endotel utuh -> trombosit & eritrosi...
Trombosit    <br />Segera setelah jejas, trombosit menggumpal dan mencegah perdarahan lebih lanjut.<br />Adesi<br />Agrega...
Blood clotting<br /><ul><li>Trapped red blood cells make a clot appear red. </li></li></ul><li>FIBRINOLISIS<br />Setelah f...
TERIMA KASIH<br />
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hematologi

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  1. 1. ANATOMI FISIOLOGI MANUSIAHEMATOLOGI<br />Oleh:<br />NADIA FARHANAH SYAFHAN M.Si, Apt<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Blood separates into two main parts: plasma and formed elements. <br />Plasma accounts for 55% and formed elements 45% of blood volume.<br />Plasma contains mostly water (90–92%) and plasma proteins (7–8%), but it also contains nutrients and wastes.<br />BLOOD<br />
  4. 4. BLOOD<br />8% total body weight<br /> 5 L pada wanita dan 5,5 L pada pria<br />3 Tipe elemen sel : eritrosit, leukosit, platelet<br />Albumin is a large plasma protein that transports bilirubin; globulins are plasma proteins that transport lipoproteins.<br />
  5. 5. Composition of blood<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Blood constituents and its functions<br />
  9. 9. Blood constituents and its functions<br />
  10. 10. HEMOPOESIS<br />Hemopoesis atau hematopoesis ialah proses pembentukan darah. <br />Pranatal di hati dan limpa<br />Pascanatal  terbatas di sumsum tulang <br />Untuk kelangsungan hemopoesis diperlukan sel induk hemopoetik (hematopoetic stem cell). <br />A stem cell is capable of dividing into new cells that differentiate into particular cell types.<br />
  11. 11. HEMOPOESIS<br />Sel induk yang paling primitif disebut sebagai pluripotent stem cell. <br />Sel induk pluripotent mempunyai sifat (Bakta IM, 2006):<br />self renewal: kemampuan memperbarui diri sendiri sehingga tidak akan pernah habis meskipun terus membelah;<br />proliferatif: kemampuan membelah atau memperbanyak diri;<br />diferensiatif: kemampuan untuk mematangkan diri menjadi sel-sel dengan fungsi tertentu.<br />
  12. 12. HEMOPOESIS<br />Sel induk  sel progenitor yang semakin terspesialisasi  sel matur perifer :<br /> - sel darah merah, <br /> - granulosit, <br /> - monosit, <br /> - trombosit dan limfosit<br />(Mehta AB dan Hoffbrand V, 2006)<br />
  13. 13. Blood cell formation in red bone marrow<br />
  14. 14. Hemopoesis<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. The Red Blood Cells<br />Normally there are 4 to 6 million RBCs per mm3 of whole blood.<br />Red blood cells contain the pigment hemoglobin for oxygen transport; <br />hemogobin contains heme, a complex iron-containing group that transports oxygen in the blood. <br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Physiology of red blood cells<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Red blood cells(erythrocytes or RBCs) are made in the red bone marrow of the skull, ribs, vertebrae, and the ends of long bones.<br />The kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin to increase blood cell production when oxygen levels are low.<br />The Red Blood Cells<br />
  25. 25. (4). Epo is in bone marrow, <br />surrounded by millions <br />of cells including stem cells<br />Epo enters bone marrow<br /> through blood vessel<br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. The Red Blood Cells<br />The air pollutant carbon monoxide combines more readily with hemoglobin than does oxygen, resulting in oxygen deprivation and possible death.<br />Red blood cells lack a nucleus and have a 120 day life span. <br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. When worn out, the red blood cells are dismantled in the liver and spleen.<br />Iron is reused by the red bone marrow where stem cells continually produce more red blood cells;<br />the remainder of the heme portion undergoes chemical degradation and is excreted as bile pigments into the bile. <br />Lack of enough hemoglobin results in anemia. <br />The Red Blood Cells<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32. The White Blood Cells<br />White blood cells (leukocytes) have nucleiand defend against disease. <br />Leukocytes are divided into granular andagranular based on appearance.<br />Granular leukocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) contain enzymes and proteins that defend the body against microbes.<br />The agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes) have a spherical or kidney-shaped nucleus.<br />
  33. 33. White Blood Cellular Elements<br />
  34. 34. Monocytes can differentiate into macrophages that phagocytize microbes and stimulate other cells to defend the body.<br />Lymphocytes are involved in immunity.<br />An excessive number of white blood cells may indicate an infection or leukemia; <br />HIV infection drastically reduces the number of lymphocytes.<br />The White Blood Cells<br />
  35. 35. RES (Reticulo Endothelial Systems)<br />Sel yang berasal dari monosit yang tersebar di seluruh tubuh dalam banyak organ dan jaringan.<br />Fungsi:<br /><ul><li>Memfagositosis dan menghancurkan patogen dan debris selular
  36. 36. Memproses dan menyajikan antigen ke sel limfoid (antigen presenting cell) yang bereaksi dengan sel T dalam kelenjar limfe, limpa, timus, sumsum tulang dan jaringan.
  37. 37. Menghasilkan sitokin (misal IL-1) yang mengatur dan berperan dalam jaringan kerja dan gf  hemopoesis, peradangan dan respon selular.</li></li></ul><li>
  38. 38. Macrophage engulfing bacteria<br />
  39. 39. The Platelets and Blood Clotting<br />Red bone marrow produces large cells called megakaryocytes that fragment into platelets at a rate of 200 billion per day. <br />
  40. 40. Trombosit<br />
  41. 41. HEMOSTASIS<br />Tujuan: <br />Mempertahankan darah tetap cair<br />Berada di dalam pembuluh darah<br />Membeku darah saat keluar pembuluh darah<br />Koordinasi :<br />Pembuluh darah<br />Trombosit<br />Faktor-faktor pembekuan<br />Natural inhibitor (penghambat alamiah)<br />Protein fibrinolitik<br />
  42. 42. Hemostasis<br />Hemostasis normal membutuhkan 3 tanggapan:<br />Tanggapan normal pembuluh darah<br />Pembentukan sumbat trombosit<br />Pembentukan sumbat fibrin yang insoluble<br />Selanjutnya, sistem fibrinolisis berperan :<br />Mengontrol trombosis<br />Mengontrol fibrinolisis & inflamasi<br />Menghancurkan dan menyingkirkan kelebihan fibrin<br />
  43. 43. Pembuluh darah<br />Peran utama -> mencegah perdaraha<br />  Vasokostriksi<br />Endotel utuh -> trombosit & eritrosit terpisah<br /> sekresi zat yg mencegah pembekuan<br />Trauma -> trombosit menggumpal <br /> -> proses pembekuan dimulai<br /> -> Disebut mekanisme hemostatik primer<br />Mekanisme hemostatik sekunder -> mengontrol pembentukan bekuan fibrin.<br />Mekanisme hemostatik primer dan sekunder berjalan simultan.<br />
  44. 44. Trombosit <br />Segera setelah jejas, trombosit menggumpal dan mencegah perdarahan lebih lanjut.<br />Adesi<br />Agregasi Membentuk fibrin <br />Sekresi prokoagulan<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Blood clotting<br /><ul><li>Trapped red blood cells make a clot appear red. </li></li></ul><li>FIBRINOLISIS<br />Setelah fibrin terbentuk -> FIBRINOLISIS.<br />Fungsi : menyingkirkan bekuan dan menjamin darah mengalir kembali.<br /> <br /> Plasmin ← Plasminogen<br /> <br /> t-PA <br />Fibrin akan diubah menjadi FDPs<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52. TERIMA KASIH<br />
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