Transcript of "School Age Speech and Language Development"
Language Development and Literacy
EDT 571 Summer 1 2010Presented By: Jennifer Dodge Ashton Sprouse Harold Stanfield Rosie Amstutz David Ashdown
School Age: An OverviewAccording to CHALL, children this age are in stage 1 and 2 of the 5developmental stages. Stage 1 is initial reading or decoding stage while stage 2is the confirmation, fluency, and ungluing from print stage. The reading mistakes they make are semantically and syntactically plausible: “The dog is growling” . Often substituting a word that LOOKS similar but doesn’t work semantically because it doesn’t have the same meaning. (green for growling) Or they substitute a word they know for a word they don’t know, which has the same meaning semantically. (barking for growling) Children gain fluency through redundancy of high-frequency words and familiar text. They go from learning to read, to reading to learn. During this period they increase their receptive and expressive vocabularies, ability to clarify language ambiguities, use of decontextualized language, the number of functions for which they use language, conversation skills, and narrative abilities.
School Age: An Overview continued Lexical development: Children learn new words in at least three ways: direct instruction, contextual abstraction, and morphological analysis Direct instruction involves learning the meaning of a word directly from a more knowledgeable source; person or text. Children don’t begin using dictionaries to learn the meaning of words until about 2nd grade. Contextual abstraction involves using context clues in both spoken and written forms of language to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Morphological analysis involves analyzing the lexical, inflectional, and derivational morphemes of unfamiliar words to infer their meanings. Children can break down the parts of the word that they know in order to infer what the word means.
School Age…An Overview by AgeAt Four Years... Imitates your speech patterns accurately... e.g. We liked that, didn’t we? His speech is understood by strangers. His sentences contain four or more words and are grammatical. Vocabulary is large for e.g. knowing parts of his body, names of household objects, animals etc. Still make errors especially when he uses past sentences for example he may say ‘I taked it’. Always enjoys asking questions. Develops and refine his language and make fewer mistakes. Talks fluently and can repeat nursery rhymes and songs with very few errors.
At Five Years... Vocabulary is about 5000 words His speech is understood by strangers. Uses complex sentences correctly. Enjoys telling and hearing jokes & riddles. Understands that language can be written with symbols. Can give his full name, age and address and often his birthday. Is interested in reading and writing Recognizes his name and attempts to write it. Talks about the past, present and future, with a good sense of time. Is fluent in his speech and grammatically correct. Loves to be read stories and will then act out in detail later, either alone or with friends.
At Six Years... Can pronounce the majority of sounds of his own language. Talks fluently and with confidence. Can remember and repeat nursery rhymes and songs. Is steadily developing literacy skills... reading and writing... although his ability to read independently usually begins between 7 and 9 years of age. Will start to read by himself, although he will still want you to read him poems and stories. When you read a lot, he will develop the reading habit as well.
At Seven Years... Understand 20,000-26,000 words Understands time intervals and seasons of the year Is aware of mistakes in other peoples speech. At Eight Years… Form complex and compound sentences much more easily and exhibit few lapses in grammar Carry on meaningful conversations with adult speakers and follow fairly complex instructions with little or no repetition Able to read age appropriate texts with ease and begin to demonstrate competence with writing simple compositions Have acquired various social amenities in common usage, such as please and thank you and will know when and where to use them
Language Development Looks & Sounds Like…. 5-6 years old ○ Phonology: can manipulate phonemes in words and blend and segment individual sounds ○ Syntax: Produces some sentences with passive voice Begins to use morphology to infer the meaning of new words ○ Semantics: Learns to read by decoding ○ Pragmatics: Uses mostly direct requests Uses repetition for conversational repair Produces at least four types of narratives(www.child-development-guide.com/language-development.html)
Language Development Looks & Sounds Like…. 7-8 years old ○ Phonology: can produce all American sounds and blends ○ Syntax: Uses noun phrases, adverbs, and conjunctions and some mental and linguistic verbs Comprehends so, if, but, or, before, after, and then Uses suffixes as -er, -ly, -y ○ Semantics: Begins to use multi-word definitions instead of single word definitions Uses dictionary to define new words Hones decoding skills to read unfamiliar words ○ Pragmatics: Comprehends indirect requests and hints Uses and understands most deictic terms Produces narrative plots containing beginning, end, problem, and resolution(www.child-development-guide.com/language-development.html)
Disorders that May Affect LanguageDevelopment & Literacy Acquisition Traumatic Brain Injury: damage Stuttering: can get easily to the frontal lobe deals with frustrated language functions: Broca’s Area Autism: delay in spoken ○ Spoken communication language, make believe play, ○ Fine coordination of speech output receptive motor movements Wernicke’s Area ○ Receptive speech area Mental retardation: 6 grade ○ Critical site for language level high, IQ less than 70 comprehension (down, fragile X, Fetal) Deaf: can hear mumbled or no sounds
Language DisordersWhat Can EducatorsDo?Giving Children TheirVoice"We believe that language is a requirement for reading. We teach languagefirst and then reading and writing. We focus on a childs unique languageproblems to teach him to read and to write. In elementary school the mostimportant skill is reading. At SLCD, we know that reading cannot be taughtwithout understanding a childs language deficits - that is why so manychildren are not learning to read elsewhere. Language and reading arepartners like parents and teachers."Dr. Tiegerman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ir7JBs2AYg&feature=related
School-Age: What Does PlayLook Like? New hobbies / interests Social skills Independence “Learning follows naturally when play is fun” (Raising Children Network).
School-Age: Milestones Shifting sources of language input Acquisition of Metalinguistic Competence
Milestone #1: Shifting Sources ofLanguage Input Developmental stages of reading ○ Initial reading / decoding (5-7 years) Semantically and syntactically probable Graphic resemblance Graphic resemblance and semantically probable ○ Confirmation, fluency & ungluing from print (7-8 years) ○ Reading to learn the new (9-14 years) ○ Multiple viewpoints (14-18 years) ○ Construction and reconstruction (18+)
Wernicke’s & Bocas Area Speaking the Written Word: To speak a word that is read, information must first get to the primary visual cortex. From the primary visual cortex, information is transmitted to the posterior speech area, including Wernickes area. From Wernickes area, information travels to Brocas area, then to the Primary Motor Cortex.
Speaking the Heard Word To speak a word that is heard, information must first get to the primary auditory cortex. From the primary auditory cortex, information is transmitted to the posterior speech area, including Wernickes area. From Wernickes area, information travels to Brocas area, then to the Primary Motor Cortex.
Phonological Development Ages 5 – 6 Awareness of the distinct sounds in syllables an words Blends sounds to make words Reading development improves Decoding skills improve Ability to segment sounds Ability to segment words into onset and rime Awareness of Spelling Sequence Use knowledge of spelling patterns in words to read new words encountered in text Ages 7 – 8 Sound manipulation develops ○ Say “rate” without the /r/
Pragmatic Development:Social Context Language Ages 5 – 6 Uses mostly direct requests Uses repetition for conversational repair Produces at least four types of narratives Ages 7 – 8 Comprehends indirect requests and hints Uses and understands most deictic terms (we, you, here, there, now, then, this, that, the former, the latter) Produces narrative plots containing beginning, end, problem, and resolution
Pragmatic Development cont’d. Development of Literate Language: Decontextualized language; the ability to use language itself to make meaning without context cues or environment to support meaning. Children “talk to learn” at this stage. They use language to communicate as well as engage in higher order cognitive functions such as reflecting, reasoning, planning, and hypothesizing.
Semantic Development:Meaning of Words in Context Ages 5 - 6 Learns to read by decoding Ages 7 – 8 Begins to use multiword definitions instead of single-word definitions Uses the dictionary to define new words Hones decoding skills to read unfamiliar words
Syntactic Development:Structure of Language Ages 5-6: Produces some sentences with passive voice Begins the use morphology to infer the meanings of new words Ages 7-8 Uses elaborated noun phrases, adverbs, and conjunctions, and some mental and linguistic verbs. Comprehends conjunctions such as because, so, if, but, or, before, after, and then. Uses adult ordering of adjectives, Uses full passives, Uses derivational suffixes such as -er, -y, and –ly Realize that many words are polysemous (have more than one meaning) and can provide multiple definitions for words with several similar meanings. Understands lexical ambiguity, such as: Homophones: words that sound alike and may be spelled alike or spelled differently (bear – bare) Homographs: words that are spelled the same and may sound alike or may sound different. (record – record) Homonyms: words that are spelled alike and sound alike but differ in meaning. They are a specific type of homophone. (brown bear – bear weight) Complex Syntax Development is the most important achievement in form for school-age children. It marks the development of a Literate Language Style. These are rarely used in conversation, but reflect advanced levels of grammar in written language.
What Does School AgeConversation Sound Like? Ranges from Oral language on one end to Literate language on the other, along a continuum. Oral language is the language necessary for communicating basic desires and needs. (phonology, syntax, morphology, and semantics). Highly contextualized, depends on the immediate context and environment. Refers to something physically available to the speaker “I want THAT”, along with gestures and facial expressions. Literate language is language used to monitor and reflect on experience, reason about, plan, and predict experiences. “No, remember Dad said we are supposed to share this”.
There are Four features of literate language:3.Elaborate noun phrases: a group of words consisting of a noun and one ormore modifiers providing additional information about the noun. IncludingArticles (a, an, the), Possessives (my, his, their), Demonstratives (this, thatthose), Quantifiers (every, each, some), WH-Words (what, which, whenever),and Adjectives (tall, long, ugly).5.Adverbs: a syntactic form that modifies verbs. Provide additionalinformation about Time, Manner, Degree, Place, Reason, and Affirmation orNegation.7.Conjunctions: Words that organize information and clarify relationshipsamong elements. Coordinating conjunctions (and, for, or, yet) andSubordinating conjunctions (after, although, as, because)9.Mental and linguistic verbs: Refer to various acts of thinking and speaking.Mental verbs include (think, know, believe) while Linguistic verbs include(say, tell, speak)“The way a speaker paints a picture for the listener is by using a variety oftechniques that go well beyond using the correct vocabulary and syntax”
Connections to Literacy Metalinguistic Competence: ability to think about and analyze language as an object or attention increases significantly during school age years Examples: ○ 1st grade students may have to identify the number of phonemes in a word ○ 7th grade students may have to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word by using knowledge of a root word
Connections to Literacy: Two Types of Metalinguistic Competence Phonological Awareness Obtaining the ability to blend sounds to make words supports a child’s reading development, particularly decoding skills Learning to read also improves a child’s phonemic awareness Ability to segment words is related to an awareness of spelling sequences in words and reading development Sound manipulation require children to analyze and manipulate the sound structures of individual words
Figurative Language Language used in non-literal and abstract ways. Used to evoke a mental image and sense impressions on other people. Types: ○ Metaphor & Simile (comparisons): Children’s ability to produce these is related to their performance on measures of general cognition, language, and academic achievement ○ Hyperbole (exaggerated statement): involves either an exploitation of paralinguistic cues or pragmatic cues ○ Idioms (contain both literal and figurative meaning): Children’s ability to comprehend the text they read predicts their understanding of idioms presented in context. ○ Irony (incongruity between what a speaker or writer sys and what actually happens): Puns and sarcasm ○ Proverbs (statements that express the conventional values beliefs and wisdom in society): one of most difficult to master. Understanding improves during the adolescent years and the presence of a supportive linguistic environment can facilitate adolescent’s understanding of proverbs
More Connections to Literacy Significant gains are made in language content form and use Lexical Development: Receptive and Expressive Vocabularies expand Ability to clarify language ambiguities, use decontextualized language, and narrative skills improve Contextual Abstractions: Use context clues to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words Morphological Analysis: analyzing the lexical, inflectional and derivational morphemes of unfamiliar words to infer their meanings (eg. “homo-” (same) “-phone” (sound)) Polysemous: understanding that words have multiple meanings improves making them more able to achieve full competence at the literate end of the oral-literate language continuum Lexical Ambiguity: words or phrases have more than one meaning. Students can notice the ambiguity, scrutinize the words and then arrive at the appropriate meaning. More complex syntax is demonstrated particularly in the use of persuasive writing
What Can Teachers Do to Support Literacy Development at this Age? Readers Theater Provides authentic approach to fluency instruction Students are more likely to rehearse and practice assigned readings if they know they are going to have to performing it for an audience Rehearsal is not aimed at reading for speed but at reading with meaningful expression to help an audience of listeners understand the passage. Goal is fluency instruction aimed at improving prosody and meaning. Improves accuracy and automaticity of word recognition. Research shows it improves reading performance. Also found to be more engaging and motivational activity for students.Young & Rasinski 2009
Writing Workshops: ABC Books Bridges oral language, reading and writing Parallels Rummelhart’s Interactive Theory Also ability to integrate technology: the partnership of literature and technology within writing instruction leads to authentic purpose for writing & engaging activities Use of ABC “anchor texts” : generally follow a consistent and predictable organizational pattern making it user friendly and effective as a mentor text for writers of all ages and stages. First Grade: Oral language mini-lesson based on ABC “anchor book” leads to ongoing conversations and peer collaboration leading to a class book. Fifth Grade: Oral language mini-lesson based on ABC “anchor book” leads to production of class powerpoint alphabet year book. Eighth grade: Oral language collaboration through conferring… conversations provide teacher and students opportunities to support one another during the creative process. Students created powerpoint alphabet books about topics they were interested in.Evers, Lang, & Smith 2009
What are Some Literacy Strategies that Can be Incorporated for Diverse Populations to form Standard English Expectations? K-PALS: Kindergarten Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies A supplemental peer-tutoring program developed by Vanderbuilt University. Higher performing readers are paired to practice skills identified as critical for beginners (phonemic awareness, letter-sound recognition, decoding, & Fluency) K-PALS was thought to be effective for ELLs because of the explicit phonics instruction and because of the use of the interactive teaching theory (high levels of student engagement, frequent opportunities for accurate response, and peer-mediated learning) Study Results: ○ K-PALS was shown to improve scores on phonemic awareness and letter-sound recognition of ELLs ○ No statistically significant difference with regards to Word Id and Word Attack subtests, spelling or Oral Reading.McMaster, Kung, Han, Cao 2008
What are Some Literacy Strategies that Can be Incorporated forDiverse Populations to form Standard English Expectations? MGR: Modified Guided Reading Guided Reading is a balanced literacy program providing differentiated, small-group reading instruction for 4-6 students with similar strengths and instructional needs or to heterogeneously grouped students. MGR approach uses the Interactive Theory as it divides the reading process into two components: reader’s experience/ background knowledge (top down) and reader’s cognitive processing (bottom-up) Aims to increase automaticity and improve comprehension of texts through an interactive reading process. Steps of MGR ○ Analyze Text to prepare for the introduction, shared and student reading, word work, and writing responses to the lesson. ○ Setting Scene or Introducing the Text to set a successful reading experience by mediating access to the text. ○ Shared Reading to allow opportunity to model fluent reading, discuss the story and vocabulary as the text is read aloud, make connections and scaffold the content or concepts that may be different for the students and focus on strategy demonstrations before the students read with guidance as needed fro the teacher. ○ Reading the Text …the students read the book to themselves while the teacher makes anecdotal notes as she listens and observes the students implementing strategies, stepping into guide by reinforcing and providing appropriate prompting as teachable moments present themselves. ○ Returning to the Text to engage the students in conversation similar to the introduction. Students share thoughts about the text, including questions and connections they may have had during reading. ○ Responding to the Text: extension of learning activities through art, writing, drama, which helps to expand the meaning of text. ○ Word Work: ELL students can apply and learn word=solving skills throughout the lesson and word work can be taught explicitly after the text has been read to minimize interruptions of the reading process. Research shows reading gains with use of MGRAvalos, Plasencia, Chavez, & Rascon 2007
Multicultural Focus:Strategies for students’ native language, social skills,and cognitive abilities to help them learn to read English Use culturally familiar Allow students to write in both informational texts in the native language and English classroom Children can read about something that sparks their interests Use of Boardmaker for Students can demonstrate their communication and intelligence by providing new knowledge understanding: visual cues to their peers & relating their personal experiences Students can identify with test, react to Explicit Instruction text, and connect text to prior knowledge Use of cognates (words that are Model correct grammar spelled the same or nearly the same) and has the same Reader’s Theater meaning in two languages Language Profile Create interactive learning environment…lots of peer work and hands on activities
State Indicators:Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition & Fluency
Phonemic Awareness, WordRecognition and Fluency Standard Use letter sound correspondence knowledge and structural analysis to decode words. Demonstrate fluent oral reading, using sight words and decoding skills, varying intonation and timing as appropriate for text.
Phonemic Awareness, WordRecognition and FluencyKindergarten First Grade Read own name Identify and say the beginning and ending sounds in words Rhyming words Consonant blends Syllables Recognizing Letters (upper and lower Vowels (long and short patterns) case), and common sounds of letters Sounds out unfamiliar words (using Distinguish letters from words knowledge of common word families) Hear and say phonemes in sounds Blend 2-4 phoneme sounds into words Read one syllable words by sight Read aloud with changes in voice, timing Reread stories modeling patterns of and expression, more fluid reading change in timing, voice and expression Decoding skills - patterns onsets & rimes
Phonemic Awareness, WordRecognition and FluencySecond Grade Third Grade Read multi-syllables by Use knowledge of complex sight word families to sound out unfamiliar words (e.g. –ould or –ight) Knowledge of common word families to sound out unfamiliar words (e.g. Read passages fluently –ite or –ate) with changes in tone, voice, timing and expression to demonstrate meaningful Read text using fluid and comprehension automatic decoding skills
Phonemic Awareness, WordRecognition and Fluency In the classroom Phonemic Awareness Fluency Rhyming words Show by example Phonics Dance/Chants Echo reading Music Buddy reading Hunk and Chunk Small group reading 1 on 1 reading/assessment Word Recognition Repetition of words Word wall
State Indicators:Acquisition of Vocabulary Standard
Acquisition of VocabularyStandard Use context clues to determine the meaning of new vocabulary. Read accurately high-frequency sight words. Apply structural analysis skills to build and extend vocabulary and to determine word meaning. Know the meaning of specialized vocabulary by applying knowledge of word parts, relationships and meanings. Use resources to determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words.
Acquisition of Vocabular yStandardKindergarten First Grade Recognize and understand words, Synonyms, Antonyms, and signs and symbols seen in everyday Homophones life Classify words into categories (colors, Identify words in common categories fruit, vegetables) such as color, number and directional words Recognize common sight words. Determine the meaning of unknown Compound words (predict the words, with assistance. meaning using knowledge of individual words) Contractions and abbreviations (Jan) Read root words and their inflectional endings (ed, ing)
Acquisition of Vocabular yStandardSecond Grade Third Grade Use knowledge of word order and in- Use context clues to determine the sentence context clues to support meaning of homophones, homonyms word identification. and homographs Read accurately high-frequency sight Decode and determine the meaning words. of words by using knowledge of root words and their various inflections Determine the meaning of common compound words by explaining the Determine the meaning and relationship between the words pronunciations of unknown words contained in the compound. using dictionaries, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars. Prefixes and Suffixes – determine the meaning, un-, pre-, and –er, -est, -ful, -less.
Acquisition of Vocabular yStandard In the classroom Use a broad range of Read stories multiple vocabulary words in the times classroom everyday. Compound word puzzles Classify objects with pictures Read books (wide variety Use synonyms, of genres) antonyms, homophones, Go over new vocabulary prefixes, and suffixes. words before reading.
Acquisition of Vocabular yStandard In the classroom Play is important Children learn best from Helps children understand active involvement (over, their world better under, behind, in front, greater, more, less) Helps children act out Demonstration of meaning is words. (children should hear, see and act out key – (stomp, slither, top, words) bottom, clap, smooth, strong, enormous) – This helps “What I hear, I forget. children to understand words What I see, I remember. immediately and is long What I do, I know.” - lasting. Confucius
Music Energize learning Provide a break from activities sitting Focus concentration Establish a positive Increase attention learning state Improve memory Build a sense of Change brain wave anticipation states Repetition helps Is fun
Reading Process: Concepts of Print,ComprehensionStrategies and Self-Monitoring StrategiesStandard Establish a purpose for reading and use a range of reading comprehension strategies to understand literary passages and text. Make predictions from text clues and cite specific examples to support predictions. Draw conclusions from information in text. Apply reading skills and strategies to summarize and compare and contrast information in text, between text and across subject areas. Demonstrate comprehension by responding to questions (e.g., literal, informational and evaluative). Apply and adjust self-monitoring strategies to assess understanding of text.
Reading Process: Concepts of Print,ComprehensionStrategies and Self-Monitoring StrategiesStandardKindergarten First Grade Demonstrate and understanding that Establish a purpose for reading print has meaning. Visualize information in texts and Hold book right side up, front to back, demonstrate this by drawing left to right. pictures. Know difference between illustration and print. Recall important information in fictional and non-fiction texts. Predict what will happen next using pictures and content as a guide Create and use graphic organizers (Venn diagrams or webs) with Compare information in texts using prior teacher assistance knowledge and experience (comprehension) Recall info from a story by sequencing Independently read books for pictures. various purposes.
Reading Process: Concepts of Print,ComprehensionStrategies and Self-Monitoring StrategiesStandardSecond and Third Grades Predict content, events and outcomes from illustrations and prior experience and support with examples from text or knowledge. Compare and contrast information in texts. Summarize text by recalling main ideas and some supporting details Monitor reading comprehension by identifying word errors and self-correcting.
Reading Applications:Informational, Technical andPersuasive Text Standard Use text features and structures to organize content, draw conclusions and build text knowledge. Ask clarifying questions concerning essential elements of informational text. Identify the central ideas and supporting details of informational text. Evaluate two and three step directions for proper sequencing and completeness.
Reading Applications:Informational, Technical andPersuasive Text Standard Kindergarten Sequencing of events in text, telling the main idea First Grade Ask questions, identify central ideas and supporting details Second Grade/Third Grade Arrange information in sequential order, classify ideas from text.
Reading Processes/Applications In the Classroom Relate print to life experiences Model reading Teach students how to make predictions Praise when they make good predictions Sequencing of stories using cards (individual, small or large groups) Venn Diagrams or Webs Use organizers to clarify ideas for writing
Reading Applications:Literary Text Standard Compare and contrast plot across literacy works. Use supporting details to identify and describe main ideas, characters and setting. Recognize the defining characteristics and features of different types of literary forms and genres. Explain how an author’s word choice and use of methods influences the reader. Identify the theme of a literary text.
Writing Process Standard Generate ideas for written compositions. Develop audience and purpose for self-selected and assigned writing tasks. Use organizers to clarify ideas for writing assignments. Use revision strategies and resources to improve ideas and content, organization, word choice and detail. Edit to improve sentence fluency, grammar, and usage. Apply tools to judge the quality of writing. Publish writing samples for display or sharing with others, using techniques such as electronic resources and graphics.
Writing Process Standard Kindergarten Use correct sentence structures when expressing thought and ideas. Use resources to enhance vocabulary. First Grade Develop a main idea for writing Determine purpose and audience Construct complete sentences with subjects and verbs Add descriptive words and details. Second Grade Organize writing with a developed beginning, middle and end. Use a range of complete sentences, including declarative, interrogative and exclamatory. Include transitional words and phrases Third Grade Develop a clear main idea for writing.
Writing Applications Standard Compose writings that convey a clear message and include well-chosen details. Write responses to literature that demonstrate an understanding of a literary work. Write friendly letters and invitations complete with date, salutation, body, closing and signature.
Writing Conventions StandardKindergarten First Grade Print capital and lowercase letters Print legibly (spacing) Spell words correctly with regular short Space between words vowel patterns and most common long vowel words Letter name-alphabetic spelling Spell high-frequency words correctly Punctuation marks at end of sentences Create phonetically-spelled written word that can usually be read by the writer and others Spell unfamiliar words using strategies such as segmenting, sounding out and matching familiar words and word parts Use nouns, verbs and adjectives
Writing Conventions StandardSecond Grade Third Grade Spell words with consonant blends and Spell multi-syllabic words correctly digraphs Spell plurals and verb tenses correctly Spell contractions, compounds and homonyms Begin to use spelling patterns and rules correctly (e.g. dropping silent e before adding –ing) Use correct spelling of words with common suffixes such as –ion, -ment, Use nouns, verbs and adjectives and –ly. correctly Use personal pronouns Use irregular pronouns Use past and present verb tenses (e.g. Use past, present and future verb “we were rather than “we was”) tenses Use conjunctions
Communication: Oral and VisualStandard Use active listening strategies to identify the main idea and to gain information from oral presentations. Connect prior experiences insights and ideas to those of a speaker. Follow multi-step directions. Speak clearly and at an appropriate pace and volume. Deliver a variety of presentations that include relevant information and clear sense of purpose.
Exceptional ChildrenEnglish Language LearnersAll Children
Boardmaker Uses Picture Symbols – Schedules, Static Communication Devices Games Choice-making Communication All Students (Games, Worksheets)
Boardmaker Uses Games Develop symbol recognition Build logic skills Reinforce vocabulary Improve visual perception Support symbol-word correspondence Practice work beginnings and endings
Boardmaker Uses Games (Working with every child) Adjusting and adapting games to suit any learner’s ability. Customize words, symbols or images for increased motivation. Configuring hints and feedback for each user. Weather Graphs
References Avalos, M., Plasencia, A., Chavez, C., & Rascón, J. (2007). Modified Guided Reading: Gateway to English as a Second Language and Literacy Learning. The Reading Teacher, 61(4), 318-29. Evers, A., Lang, L., Smith, S. (2009). An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories. The Reading Teacher, 62(6), 461-470. McMaster, K., Kung, S., Han, I., Cao, M. (2008). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: A “Tier 1” Approach to Promoting English Learners Response to Intervention. Exceptional Children, 74(2), 194-214. Rubin, K.H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J.G. (1998). Peer interactions, relationships and groups. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (eds), Handbook of child psychology, vol 3: Social, emotional and personality development (5th ed). New York: Wiley & Sons. Northwest Regional Education Laboratory (2005). Literacy Development. http://www.netc.org/focus/challenges/literacy.php. Young, C., Rasinski, T. (2009). Implementing Readers Theatre as an Approach to Classroom Fluency Instruction. The Reading Teacher, 63(1), 4-13.
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