Autism Spectrum Disorder


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A power point presentation on Autism Spectrum disorders I created in collaboration with a team of three other graduate students at the University of Dayton.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

  1. 1. Autism Spectrum Disorder Presented by: Steph Copeland Jen Hobbs Rosie Amstutz Lanre Oriowo
  2. 2. Definition of Autism The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act [IDEA 300.7 ©(1)(i)] ―A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change, a change in daily routines and unusual responses to sensory experiences.‖  (i) Autism does not apply if a childs educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disability.  (ii) A child who manifests the characteristics of autism after age 3 could be identified as having autism if the other criteria are satisfied.
  3. 3. Autism Spectrum Multiple levels of Autism, therefore now considered as a spectrum
  4. 4. Similarities within the Spectrum
  5. 5. More similarities within the Spectrum Marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors  eye-to- eye gaze,  facial expression,  body posture, and gestures to regulate social interaction. A lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people,  e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people). A lack of social or emotional reciprocity Delay in or total lack of, the development of spoken language  not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus. Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals. Repetitive motor mannerisms  Hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements).
  6. 6. Uniqueness within the spectrum Asperger’s Syndrome  Higher IQ  Reach milestones at the right time  Do not have communicative impairments Rett Syndrome  Usually only found in girls  Normal development until 6 – 18 months  Hypotonia - loss of muscle tone, no eye contact, decelerated head growth  Rapid developmental regression – hand wringing, unsteady walking, breathing irregularities, seizures. PDD – NOS  Diagnosed when child displays some autistic behaviors and meets some but not all criteria for PDDs.  Example from the book(pg 363) – an individual with severe impairments in social interactions and communication but no repetitive behavior CDD  Normal development until a certain age (between 2 and 10) and then regress
  7. 7. Prevalence ASD Prevalence – 1 in 91 children is diagnosed  1 in 58 boys is diagnosed with autism  Boys 4 times more likely to have ASD In order of most to least  PDD – NOS and Autism  About 10 in 10000  Asperger’s Syndrome  About 2.5 in 10000  Rett’s Syndrome & CDD  Less than 1 in 10000
  8. 8. Autism on the RISE!• Autism prevalence figures are growing • More children will be diagnosed with autism this year than with AIDS, diabetes & cancer combined.• Autism costs the nation over $35 billion per year, a figure expected to significantly increase in the next decade. • Autism receives less than 5% of the research funding of many less prevalent childhood diseases. ASD - fastest growing disability category in the IDEA  Greater awareness of Autism  Improved methods of identification  Increased awareness that autism can exist at different IQ levels
  9. 9. Theoretical CausesGenetic Disorders VaccinesExposure to Food SensitivitiesEnvironmental factors: o Yeast o Toxic Chemicals o Gluten o Heavy Metals o Casein
  10. 10. Is there a cure? Controversy with Jenny McCarthy Jenny McCarthy Story
  11. 11. Living with ASD
  12. 12. Teaching Strategies ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATIONS  Visual cues & Picture Schedule  To modify behavior  Aide with transitions  Assist with learning strategies  Teacher Aide  To support desired behavior DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONS  Assignments broken down into smaller tasks ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY/ADAPTATIONS  Communication  Pictures  Electronic devices  Shortened writing utensils, weighted pens, grips Highlighters  Sensory Input: core disk, weighted vest, fidgets, oral devices STRATEGIES  Prompts for transitions: verbal & visual cues, establish a social story  Repetitive instruction, rephrasing questions, redirection to activities, modeling of task, reinforcement  Look at antecedent behaviors to address behavior before it escalated to an undesirable behavior.  Movement prior to tasks—helps attending  Students need to know what is expected of him (beginning, middle, & end) and attach meaning to it
  13. 13. History of Social Stories Developed by Carol Gray for persons with autism in early 1991  Written for children and adults with autism spectrum disorders by students at Jenison High School in Jenison, MI. Autism Social Story Guidelines  Write a social story from the perspective of the person with autism. Create a word picture – what they would see and experience  Use a combination of different types of sentences, following the recommended ratio: Descriptive, Perspective, Directive  May be supplemented with additional, optional types of sentences: Affirmative, Control, Cooperative
  14. 14. Social Story
  15. 15. The Sky is the Limit!
  16. 16. Questions?
  17. 17. Resources rvasive.php rvasive.php social-story.html