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Total PHP
 

Total PHP

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    Total PHP Total PHP Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to Open source PHP & Joomla Asst. Prof Roshni M. Raval
    •  
    • What You Should Already Know
      • HTML/XHTML
      • JavaScript
      • CSS
    • HTML For describing web pages
    • What is HTML?
      • HTML stands for H yper T ext M arkup L anguage
      • For describing web pages.
      • Not a programming language, it is a markup language
      • A markup language is a set of markup tags
      • HTML follows w3c rules.
      • Div based code.
    • Java Script Is a Library for interactive UI and client side validation
    • Why JavaScript?
      • JavaScript is a scripting language
      • JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages
      • Lightweight programming language
      • Embedded directly into HTML pages
      • Interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation)
      • Everyone can use JavaScript without purchasing a license
      • jQuery
    • ..continue
      • JavaScript is the most popular scripting language on the internet, and works in all major browsers, such as.
      • Internet Explorer
      • Firefox,
      • Chrome,
      • Opera,
      • and Safari.
    • What JavaScript can do?
      • JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool.
      • Can put dynamic text into an HTML page.
      • Can react to events.
      • Can read and write HTML elements.
      • Can be used to validate data.
      • Can be used to create cookies.
    • CSS CSS stands for C ascading S tyle S heets
    • What is CSS?
      • Styles define how to display HTML elements.
      • External Style Sheets can save a lot of work.
      • External Style Sheets are stored in CSS files.
    • PHP H ypertext P re p rocessor
    • PHP Introduction
      • PHP is a server-side scripting language.
      • PHP is a powerful tool for making dynamic and interactive Web pages.
      • PHP is the widely-used, free, and efficient alternative to competitors such as Microsoft's ASP.
      • Script execution results are sent to a browser as an HTML page
      • PHP is a type-less language
    • PHP Structure
      • Tradition: Start with an HTML file
      • Add special tags to separate PHP code from HTML statements
      • (i.e. <?php
      • ……
      • ?>)
      • Web server parses the PHP file, producing HTML
    • Example: myfirst.php
        • <html>
        • <body>
        • <?php
        • //A comment
        • /*Or comment like this*/
        • print(&quot;<b>Hello world</b>&quot;);
        • $v = 5;
        • print(&quot;<p>Hello again &quot; . $v );
        • print(&quot;<p>Hello a third time $v&quot;);
        • ?>
        • </body>
        • </html>
    • Variables
      • All variables start with a dollar sign, $
        • $u = 5;
        • $v = “hello”;
        • $w = 1.22;
        • $x = $u + $v; //arithmetic with + - ONLY
        • $y = $v . $v; //concatenation with period operator
        • $x = $u . $u; //produces 55, not 10
    • Printing
        • $u = 5;
        • print( “5 hello” ); //print anything in quotes
        • print( $u . “hello” ); //prints 5hello
        • print( “$u Hello” ); //prints 5 Hello
        • echo ‘Hello’;
        • echo ‘Hello’ . $u;
    • String-Related Functions
        • $v = “hello”;
        • strlen( $v); //returns 5
        • trim( $v); //trims any spaces on either side of a string
        • $x = strtolower ($v); //$x has hello
        • $x = strtoupper($v); //$x has HELLO
        • $str = “abcdef”;
        • $a = substr( $str, 3, 3 );
      # of characters to copy Start position, zero indexed Source string “ def” Can be negative to start from right side
    • Getting HTML Form Data
      • There are 3 ways to get form data in PHP
        • Global variables – this is a bad way because of security problems. PHP creates a variable with a name matching the form field name in the source HTML.
        • POST variable associative array
          • Prior to version 4.1, $HTTP_POST_VARS
          • 4.1 and after,
          • $_POST
        • GET variable associative array
          • Same as POST, but use GET
    • Examples
      • Global variables (HTML has field with name ‘abc’)
          • print ($abc);
      • POST
          • print($_POST(‘abc’)); //4.1 and after
      • GET
          • print($_GET(‘abc’)); //4.1 and after
    • Comparing Strings
      • strcmp( $a, $b ); //works like C function
      • Returns:
      • – 1 if first string less than second string
      • 0 if the same
      • 1 if first string greater than second string
      • It is case sensitive
    • PHP Syntax Similarities
      • Has a switch statement
      • for loop is the same, but uses PHP variable syntax
        • for ($i=0; $i < 10; $i++ ){ …. }
      • while and if are also what you’d expect
      • Standard logical operators: ==, &&, <, > …
    • Other Useful Functions
      • round ($a); //rounds a number
      • is_numeric($v); //returns true/false
      • rand($start, $end); //Produces int rand
    • Creating Functions
        • function myfunc( $a, $b, $c ) {
        • //this is my code
        • return $x;
        • }
    • External PHP Files
      • Can use require or include
        • Require will produce a fatal error if the file cannot be found
        • Include will just ignore a missing script file
        • require(‘my.php’);
        • include(‘my.php’);
        • The files can contain PHP and/or HTML
    • Arrays
      • Creating an array
        • $a = array(1,2,3,4,5);
      • Accessing array elements
        • $v = $a[2];
        • $a[2] = 5;
        • $a[] = 1; $a[] = 2; $a[] = 3; //appends to array
    • Iterating Over Arrays
        • for ($i=0; $i<count($a); $i++ ) {
        • print ($a[i]);
        • }
        • foreach( $a as $item ) {
        • print( “<p>$item”);
        • }
      Array variable Local variable. Set to next array element each iteration.
    • Other Array Functions
        • $m = max($a); //returns max value in array
        • $m = min($a); //returns min value in array
        • $s = array_sum($a); //returns sum or array values
        • sort($a); //sorts the items in the array. Changes
        • //the array itself
        • Optional second argument is “sort flags” to control the sort.
    • Associative Arrays
      • Arrays containing key/value pairs
        • $s = array( ‘a’=>’alpha’, ‘b’=>’beta’, … );
        • print ( $s[‘b’] );
      • The parameter to the left of => is the key.
      • The right parameter is the value.
    • SQL – Structured Query Language
      • A language for accessing relational databases
      • Relational databases have tables
      • Tables have fields and contain rows of data
    • SQL Syntax – SELECT
      • Used for retrieving data from a database
        • SELECT [fields] FROM [tables] WHERE [expr]
        • Examples
        • select * from users
        • select abc, def from mytable where ghi=5
    • SQL Syntax – INSERT
      • Used to insert new data in a table
        • INSERT INTO [table] [field names] VALUES [values]
        • Examples
        • insert into users (abc,def,ghi) values (‘111’,22,’cc)
        • insert into xyz values (1,2,3,4,5)
    • SQL Syntax – UPDATE
      • Updating one or more values in existing rows in a table
        • UPDATE [table] SET [name=value pairs] WHERE [expression]
        • Examples
        • update mytable set a=‘aaa’, b=55 where c=11
    • PHP and MySQL Database
      • 5 steps
        • Connect to the Mysql DBMS
        • Pick a database
        • Execute an SQL statement
        • If the SQL was a ‘select’, retrieve the data
        • Close the connection
    • Connecting to MySQL DBMS
        • $con = mysql_connect( /* 3 arguments */ );
        • Your MySQL DBMS server process network location
        • Your MySQL user ID
        • Your MySQL user password
        • For tonight only,
        • mysql_connect(‘www.freesql.org’,’upeworkshop’,’upeworkshop’);
    • Selecting a Database
        • mysql_select_db( ‘upeworkshop’ );
    • Executing an SQL Statement
        • mysql_query( /*SQL statement*/ );
        • Proper form for any SQL not a Select
        • if ( !mysql_query ( “update a ….” ); ) {
        • echo mysql_error(); //for easy debugging, not for final user-oriented website
        • } //returns true/false if it worked, or not
    • For Select SQL Statements
        • $r = mysql_query( ‘select * from abc’ );
        • while ( $row = mysql_fetch_row( $r ) ) { … }
        • $row contains a row of data
        • returns false when no more rows available
        • Iterating through the fields in the row
        • foreach ( $row as $item ) { … }
        • OR access the fields using index position (zero indexed)
        • OR put results in an associative array – less error prone
        • while ($row = mysql_fetch_assoc($r)){
        • echo $row[‘firstname’];
        • }
    • Closing a Connection
        • mysql_close( $con );
    • What is other than core PHP ?
    • What is CMS?
      • A content management system is software that keeps track of every piece of content on your Web site, much like your local public library keeps track of books and stores them.
      • Content can be simple text, photos, music, video, documents, or just about anything you can think of.
    • Famous CMS
    • Joomla
      • Joomla is an free and open source content management system (CMS), which enables you to build Web sites and powerful online applications.
      • Extensible
      • Written in PHP
      • It uses OOP techniques
      • Based on MVC framework.
    • Real world examples
      • Corporate Web sites or portals
      • Online magazines, newspapers, and publications
      • E-commerce and online reservations
      • Government applications
      • Small business Web sites
      • Non-profit and organizational Web sites
      • Community-based portals
    • Servers
      • WAMP
      • LAMP
      • MAMP
      • XAMPP
    • Source
      • HTML/CSS/JS : http://www.w3schools.com
      • PHP : http://www.php.net
      • MySQL : http://www.mysql.com
      • Server : http://www.wampserver.com
      • Joomla : http://www.joomla.org/
    •