Kashmir
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Kashmir

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And another one for my Political Science class. Better see this if you are an ignorant person who does not know stuff about Independent India's longest conflict.

And another one for my Political Science class. Better see this if you are an ignorant person who does not know stuff about Independent India's longest conflict.

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Kashmir Kashmir Presentation Transcript

  • Kashmir
    A 60 year old conflict between India and Pakistan
    Roshan Murthy
  • Background
  • Outline
    Background
    Facts and Figures: J&K, Pakistan, India, China
    History: Before the British
    History: After Independence
    The Wars
    Recent Events and Current Status
    Why are they fighting?
    Challenges & Solutions
  • MAP - INDIAN
  • Afghanistan
    China
    Line of
    Actual Control
    (LAC)
    Pakistan
    Line of Control (LoC)
    MAP - REAL
    India
  • Jammu and Kashmir:
    Agricultural Economy: Main pillars Agriculture and Horticulture
    Textiles (“Cashmere wool”)
    Tourism : has declined greatly since 80s, resurging in recent years
    Literacy and Education: at par with respective national levels
    Amarnath Cave – Hindu Pilgrimage Site
    India Administered Kashmir: GDP: $11000m, Increasing, Large recipients of grants, one of the lowest poverty rates in the country at 4%, considered partly free
    Pakistan Administered Kashmir: Not much information, but generally worse off than Indian Kashmir, considered not free
  • Facts and Figures : J&K
  • Facts and Figures: P,I,C
    HDI
    GDP
    Military
    Expenditure
    Govt
    Society
    http://www.visualeconomics.com/how-countries-spend-their-money/
  • History: Before the British
    An important center of Hinduism and Buddhism in the uptil 1300s. Harmony between Hindus/Buddhists and Muslims (the name Kashmir comes from this culture)
    Waves of Islamic invaders started with the barbaric mongolDulucha in the 14th century. Killed, destroyed and converted.
    By the 19th century, Sikhs had conquered the area.
    1845: 1st Anglo-Sikh war , ended up separating the Sikh kingdom into 2, one of which became modern day J&K.
    It was now ‘princely state(1846)’ that Gulab Singh(a Hindu) was given as part of the treaty with the British.
    Still retained diverse ethnic groups, but was now predominantly islamic (sunni)
  • History: After Independence
    Maharaja Hari Singh (A Hindu) was the ruler.
    He did not wish to accede to either nation state and instead sought an independent state.
    Indian response: Ruler is autocratic, unpopular and decision must rest with popular leader Sheikh Abdullah (A muslim) <But just lip service
    Pakistani Response: If it had not been a princely state and had been under direct British administration, it would have been a part of Pakistan
    Pakistan decides to invade J&K to force the ruler to accede to Pakistan.
    Hari Singh appeals to India to protect his kingdom, India demands Hari Singh to accede to India if he wants protection. Mountbatten (The Governor General) supports accession to India.
  • Multiple Wars
    Indo-Pakistani war of 1947: 14 month war, India is beating invading tribesmen (Pathanimuslims) and pakistani regulars
    (India moved UNSC) The UN passes Resolution 47: immediate cease-fire, Pakistan must withdraw all military forces. Pakistan would have no say in J&Kpolitics. India would retain a minimum military. Impartial Plebiscite.
    Sheikh Abdullah favored India to militarily defeat Pakistan
    Resolution broken by Pakistan
    UN puts out 11 more proposals for resolutions, India rejects them. India musciling puppet govts to pass a constitution that establishes it as part of India
    War again in 1965 and 1971. India Wins; Agree on Bilateral Peace Talks
    Insurgency in 1989
    Then al-Qaeda, Hafiz Saeed and rising islamic extremism
    Kargil War in 1999. Indian Wins again.
  • Recent Events and Current Status
    Over 500,000 Indian troops estimated in Kashmir
    90s: Just like war: torture, custodial killings, youths signing up with militias
    50000 dead by 2000. Most militias killed or laid down arms
    In 2002, Pak and India almost go to war after terrorist attack on Indian Parliament. Nuclear War seemed possible.
    2004-2008: relatively period of reprive
    2008 a large pro-independence movement. Seemed a great turn towards non-violence. But state response was violent.
  • Challenges
    Everything.
    Literacy, Education Systems. Society, Economy, Industry, Infrastructure
    Hindu-Muslim peace and harmony
    Militancy and Terrorism
    Global Support and Resonance
    Human Rights issues
    Woman Rights
  • Plausible Outcomes/Solutions
    • Continued Deadlock: Issues of Islamic Extremism and Unresolved Legitimacy Issues ; Implausible that nation states agree to give up their respective areas, Independency for Kashmir preposterous.
    • Very dangerous to take extreme actions: Terrorists are volatile + Nuclear weapons In the area.
    • Fettered by 60 years of war-time actions
    • Seems Best to sweep it under the carpet for now
    • Best that the nation states can do is develop regions under their respective control and give greater autonomy
    • Build systems to involve local leadership to develop education, infrastructure, spread technology, modernize agriculture, increase exports etc.
    • India Pakistan pursue peace efforts and trade that circumvent this issue.
    • Discuss various scenarios if time permits
  • My Solutions
    Unbridled, vehement, complete extermination of militant and extremist forces in the area. By ?
    Pakistan must be forced to exterminate terrorist organizations in Pakistan
    Taliban and Afghani extremism must also end.
    Accompanied by continued/increased development of the Area.
    IMMEDIATELY IMPROVE: EDUCATION
    IMP: Providing cheap communications, internet and electrification
    IMP: Secularization of society, Modernization of economy
    (Synchronous) Demilitarization
    Complete Accession to the state of India
    Democratic Elections and all minority laws afforded.
  • Resources/Follow-Up
    Panel organized by Basharat Peer: http://fora.tv/2010/06/30/Solve_Kashmir_First_New_Thinking_on_the_S_Asia_Conflict#fullprogram
    Different Scenarios: http://aacounterterror.wordpress.com/2010/03/20/possible-solutions-for-kashmir/
    Hafiz Saeed denounces Indo-Pak peace talks: http://news.oneindia.in/2011/04/12/hafiz-saeed-denounces-india-pak-peace-talk-aid0120.html
    Hafiz Saeed: Character Analysis http://www.eurasiareview.com/hafiz-saeed-an-angel-or-a-demon-analysis-18042011/
    The Nation(PK) http://www.nation.com.pk (Search for India/Kashmir)
    Pictures of Kashmir: http://kashmirphotos.org/index.html
    J&K Clear, Concise History: http://www.jammu-kashmir.com/basicfacts/basics.html
    India behind terrorism in Pakistan: Saeedhttp://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Regional/Lahore/25-Mar-2011/India-behind-terrorism-in-Pakistan-Saeed
    More Autonomy and other sensible solutiions from academics http://www.hindustantimes.com/rssfeed/Srinagar/Give-Jammu-and-Kashmir-more-autonomy-say-interlocutors/Article1-687339.aspx