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Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
Gene:its nature expression and regulation
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Gene:its nature expression and regulation

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  • 1. 11 Gene Expression Overview By Salwa Hassan Teama M.D. N.C.I. Cairo university
  • 2. 22  Gene ExpressionGene Expression  Eukaryotic CellEukaryotic Cell  The Gene StructureThe Gene Structure  Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis  Prokaryotes Vs EukaryotesProkaryotes Vs Eukaryotes
  • 3. 33 Gene ExpressionGene Expression Gene expressionGene expression is theis the process by which a genesprocess by which a genes information is converted intoinformation is converted into the structures and functions ofthe structures and functions of a cell by a process ofa cell by a process of producing a biologicallyproducing a biologically functional molecule offunctional molecule of eithereither protein or RNA (gene product)protein or RNA (gene product) is made.is made. GeneGene expressionexpression isis assumed to be controlled atassumed to be controlled at various points in thevarious points in the sequencesequence leading to proteinleading to protein synthesissynthesis..
  • 4. 44 Eukaryotic CellEukaryotic Cell
  • 5. 55 Gene StructureGene Structure  Eukaryotic gene structure:Eukaryotic gene structure: MostMost eukaryotic genes ineukaryotic genes in contrast to typicalcontrast to typical bacterial genes,bacterial genes, thethe coding sequencecoding sequence (exons)(exons) are interrupted byare interrupted by noncoding DNAnoncoding DNA (introns).(introns). The gene must haveThe gene must have ( Exon; start signals; stop( Exon; start signals; stop signals; regulatory controlsignals; regulatory control elements).elements).
  • 6. 66 Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis is theis the process in whichprocess in which cellscells buildbuild proteins fromproteins from information in a DNAinformation in a DNA gene in agene in a two majortwo major stepssteps:: I-Transcription and II-Translation   Transcription :: synthesis of an RNAsynthesis of an RNA (mRNA)(mRNA) that isthat is complementary to one ofcomplementary to one of the strands of DNA.the strands of DNA.  TranslationTranslation :: ribosomesribosomes read a messenger RNAread a messenger RNA and make proteinand make protein according to itsaccording to its instructioninstruction..
  • 7. 77 Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis
  • 8. 88 TranscriptionTranscription http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_124/Images/transcription.gif
  • 9. 99 Transcription  RNA polymeraseRNA polymerase copies both the exons and the introns.copies both the exons and the introns. The stretch of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA moleculeThe stretch of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule is called ais called a transcription unittranscription unit..  A transcription unit that is translated into proteinA transcription unit that is translated into protein containscontains codingcoding sequence that is translated into protein andsequence that is translated into protein and sequencessequences that direct and regulate protein synthesis;that direct and regulate protein synthesis;  Transcription proceeds in the 5' → 3' direction.Transcription proceeds in the 5' → 3' direction.  Transcription is divided into 3 phases: Initiation,Transcription is divided into 3 phases: Initiation, ElongationElongation and Termination.and Termination...
  • 10. 1010  RNA polymerase;RNA polymerase; eukaryotic nuclei containeukaryotic nuclei contain three RNA polymerasesthree RNA polymerases .. RNA polymerase IRNA polymerase I isis found in thefound in the nucleolusnucleolus;; the otherthe other twotwo polymerasespolymerases are locatedare located in thein the nucleoplasmnucleoplasm. The. The three nuclear RNAthree nuclear RNA polymerase have differentpolymerase have different roles in transcription.roles in transcription.  Polymerase IPolymerase I makes a largemakes a large precursor to the major rRNAprecursor to the major rRNA (5.8S,18S and 28S rRNA in(5.8S,18S and 28S rRNA in vertebrates).vertebrates).  Polymerase IIPolymerase II synthesizessynthesizes hnRNAs, which are precursorshnRNAs, which are precursors to mRNAs. It also maketo mRNAs. It also make most small nuclear RNAsmost small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs).(snRNAs).  Polymerase IIIPolymerase III makes themakes the precursor to 5SrRNA, theprecursor to 5SrRNA, the tRNAs and several other smalltRNAs and several other small cellular and viral RNAs.cellular and viral RNAs.
  • 11. 1111 Initiation The general transcriptionThe general transcription factors combine withfactors combine with RNA polymeraseRNA polymerase toto form a preinitiationform a preinitiation complex that iscomplex that is competent to initiatecompetent to initiate transcription as soon astranscription as soon as nucleotide are available.nucleotide are available.
  • 12. 1212 Initiation  The enzymeThe enzyme RNA polymeraseRNA polymerase recognizes arecognizes a promoter,promoter, which lies upstream of the gene.which lies upstream of the gene. The polymeraseThe polymerase binding causes thebinding causes the unwindingunwinding of the DNA double helix.of the DNA double helix. This is followed by initiation of RNA synthesis at theThis is followed by initiation of RNA synthesis at the starting point.starting point.  TheThe RNA polymeraseRNA polymerase starts building the RNA chain, itstarts building the RNA chain, it assembles ribonucleotides triphosphates: ATP; GTP;assembles ribonucleotides triphosphates: ATP; GTP; CTP and UTP into a strand of RNA.CTP and UTP into a strand of RNA.  After the first nucleotide is in place, the polymerase joinsAfter the first nucleotide is in place, the polymerase joins a second nucleotide to the first, forming the initiala second nucleotide to the first, forming the initial phosphodiester bond in the RNA chain.phosphodiester bond in the RNA chain.
  • 13. 1313 Elongation  RNA polymeraseRNA polymerase directs the sequential binding ofdirects the sequential binding of riboncleotides to the growing RNA chain in the 5`-3`riboncleotides to the growing RNA chain in the 5`-3` direction.direction.  Each ribonucleotide is inserted into the growing RNAEach ribonucleotide is inserted into the growing RNA strand following the rules of base pairing. This process isstrand following the rules of base pairing. This process is repeated till the desired RNA length isrepeated till the desired RNA length is synthesized…………………….synthesized…………………….
  • 14. 1414 TerminationTermination  Other regions at the end of genes; calledOther regions at the end of genes; called terminators,terminators, signal termination. These work in conjunction with RNAsignal termination. These work in conjunction with RNA polymerase to loosen the association between RNApolymerase to loosen the association between RNA product and DNA template. The result is that the RNAproduct and DNA template. The result is that the RNA dissociate from RNA polymerase and DNA and so stopdissociate from RNA polymerase and DNA and so stop transcription.transcription.  The product isThe product is immature RNA or pre mRNA (Primaryimmature RNA or pre mRNA (Primary transcript).transcript).
  • 15. 1515 RNA Processing Pre-mRNA → mRNAPre-mRNA → mRNA  Capping:Capping: Synthesis of the cap. The 5` cap is a 7- methylguanosine (m7G)Synthesis of the cap. The 5` cap is a 7- methylguanosine (m7G) . The cap protects the mRNA from being degraded by enzymes;. The cap protects the mRNA from being degraded by enzymes; enhancement of mRNA translatability.enhancement of mRNA translatability.  SplicingSplicing:: Step-by-step removal of introns present in the pre-mRNA andStep-by-step removal of introns present in the pre-mRNA and joining of the remaining exons. The removal of introns and joining of exonsjoining of the remaining exons. The removal of introns and joining of exons takes place on a special structures called spliceosomes.takes place on a special structures called spliceosomes.  Polyadenylation:Polyadenylation: Synthesis of the poly (A) tail involves cleavage of its 3'Synthesis of the poly (A) tail involves cleavage of its 3' end and then the addition of about 200end and then the addition of about 200 adenineadenine residues to form aresidues to form a poly (A)poly (A) tail; This completes the mRNA moleculetail; This completes the mRNA molecule (mature mRNA),(mature mRNA), which is nowwhich is now ready for export to the cytosol for protein synthesis.ready for export to the cytosol for protein synthesis.
  • 16. 1616 RNA Processing
  • 17. 1717 RNA SplicingRNA Splicing
  • 18. 1818 Alternative SplicingAlternative Splicing  Alternative splicing:Alternative splicing: is a very common phenomenon in higheris a very common phenomenon in higher eukaryotes. It is a way to get more than one protein producteukaryotes. It is a way to get more than one protein product out of the same gene and a way to control gene expressionout of the same gene and a way to control gene expression in cells.in cells.
  • 19. 1919 TranslationTranslation http://www.nature.com/embor/journal/v4/n9/images/embor923-f3.jpg
  • 20. 2020 TranslationTranslation Translation is the process by which ribosomes read theTranslation is the process by which ribosomes read the genetic message in the mRNA and produce a proteingenetic message in the mRNA and produce a protein product according to the message's instruction.product according to the message's instruction.
  • 21. 2121 Requirement for translationRequirement for translation  RibosomesRibosomes  tRNAtRNA  mRNA templatemRNA template  Amino AcidsAmino Acids  Initiation factorsInitiation factors  Elongation factorsElongation factors  Termination factorsTermination factors  Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase enzymesAminoacyl tRNA synthetase enzymes  Energy sourceEnergy source TranslationTranslation
  • 22. 2222 RibosomesRibosomes are the siteare the site ofof protein biosynthesisprotein biosynthesis using the mRNA as ausing the mRNA as a template, the ribosometemplate, the ribosome traverses each codon oftraverses each codon of the mRNA, pairing it withthe mRNA, pairing it with the appropriate aminothe appropriate amino acid. This is done usingacid. This is done using molecules ofmolecules of transfertransfer RNARNA (tRNA) containing a(tRNA) containing a complementarycomplementary anticodonanticodon on one end and theon one end and the appropriate amino acidappropriate amino acid on the other.on the other. http://www.molecularexpressions.com/cells/ribosomes/images/ribosomesfigure1.jpghttp://www.molecularexpressions.com/cells/ribosomes/images/ribosomesfigure1.jpg
  • 23. 2323 tRNAtRNA  Act asAct as adaptorsadaptors that can bind anthat can bind an amino acid at one end and interactamino acid at one end and interact with the mRNA at the other.with the mRNA at the other. mRNAmRNA  Source ofSource of coding informationcoding information for thefor the protein synthesis system.protein synthesis system.  Contains start and stop signals forContains start and stop signals for translation.translation.  Eukaryotic mRNA isEukaryotic mRNA is cappedcapped. This is. This is used as the recognition feature forused as the recognition feature for ribosome binding.ribosome binding.  The site at which protein synthesisThe site at which protein synthesis begins on the mRNA is especiallybegins on the mRNA is especially crucial, since it sets thecrucial, since it sets the readingreading frameframe for the whole length of thefor the whole length of the messagemessage.. An error of one nucleotideAn error of one nucleotide either way at this stage would causeeither way at this stage would cause every subsequent codon in theevery subsequent codon in the message to be misread, so that amessage to be misread, so that a nonfunctional protein would result,nonfunctional protein would result, the rate of initiation thus determinesthe rate of initiation thus determines the rate at which the protein isthe rate at which the protein is synthesizedsynthesized..
  • 24. 2424  Amino acidsAmino acids are the monomersare the monomers which arewhich are polymerizedpolymerized to produceto produce proteinsproteins.. The amino acids areThe amino acids are loaded ontoloaded onto tRNAtRNA molecules formolecules for use in the process ofuse in the process of translationtranslation..  Initiation factorsInitiation factors help thehelp the ribosome, initiator tRNA, and otherribosome, initiator tRNA, and other components assemble the at thecomponents assemble the at the correct location on the mRNA andcorrect location on the mRNA and ensure that protein synthesisensure that protein synthesis starts in the correct readingstarts in the correct reading frameframe ..  Elongation factorsElongation factors are responsibleare responsible for moving the ribosome along thefor moving the ribosome along the mRNA and maintain the correctmRNA and maintain the correct reading framereading frame.. Facilitate removalFacilitate removal ofof ""usedused"" tRNAs and bringing intRNAs and bringing in ""newnew"" tRNAs.tRNAs.  Termination factorsTermination factors recognizerecognize the stop codons and releasethe stop codons and release proteins and ribosomes.proteins and ribosomes.  Aminoacyl tRNA synthetaseAminoacyl tRNA synthetase enzymes:enzymes: It catalyze theIt catalyze the covalent attachment of ancovalent attachment of an amino acids to the end of theamino acids to the end of the corresponding tRNA.corresponding tRNA.  Energy source:Energy source: ATP or GTPATP or GTP which are synthesized in thewhich are synthesized in the mitochondria.mitochondria.
  • 25. 2525 Preparatory steps forPreparatory steps for protein synthesisprotein synthesis:: First,First, aminoacyl tRNAaminoacyl tRNA synthetase join aminosynthetase join amino acid to their specificacid to their specific tRNAtRNA.. Second,Second, ribosomes mustribosomes must dissociatedissociate into subunits atinto subunits at the end of each round ofthe end of each round of translationtranslation.. The protein synthesis occur in 3The protein synthesis occur in 3 phasesphases:: 11--Accurate and efficientAccurate and efficient initiationinitiation occurs, the ribosomes binds tooccurs, the ribosomes binds to the mRNA, and the first aminothe mRNA, and the first amino acid attached to its tRNAacid attached to its tRNA.. 22--ChainChain elongationelongation,, thethe ribosomes adds one aminoribosomes adds one amino acid at a time to the growingacid at a time to the growing polypepyide chainpolypepyide chain.. 33--Accurate and efficientAccurate and efficient terminationtermination,, the ribosomesthe ribosomes releases the mRNA and thereleases the mRNA and the polypeptidepolypeptide.. TranslationTranslation
  • 26. 2626 TranslationTranslation: Initiation The initiation phase ofThe initiation phase of protein synthesisprotein synthesis requires over 10requires over 10 eukaryotic Initiationeukaryotic Initiation Factors (eIFs):Factors (eIFs): FactorsFactors are needed to recognizeare needed to recognize the cap at the 5` end ofthe cap at the 5` end of an mRNA and binding toan mRNA and binding to the 40s ribosomalthe 40s ribosomal subunit.subunit.  Binding the initiator MetBinding the initiator Met--tRNAiMettRNAiMet (methionyl- tRNA) to the 40S small(methionyl- tRNA) to the 40S small subunit of the ribosomesubunit of the ribosome..  Scanning to find the start codonScanning to find the start codon byby binding to the 5` cap of the mRNAbinding to the 5` cap of the mRNA and scanning downstream until theyand scanning downstream until they find the firstfind the first AUG (initiation codon)AUG (initiation codon)..  The start codon must be locatedThe start codon must be located and positioned correctly in the Pand positioned correctly in the P site of the ribosome and the initiatorsite of the ribosome and the initiator tRNA must be positioned correctlytRNA must be positioned correctly in the same site.in the same site.  Once the mRNA and initiator tRNAOnce the mRNA and initiator tRNA are correctly bound, the 60S largeare correctly bound, the 60S large subunit binds to form 80 s initiationsubunit binds to form 80 s initiation complex with release of the eIFcomplex with release of the eIF factors.factors.
  • 27. 2727  The large ribosomalThe large ribosomal subunit contains threesubunit contains three tRNA binding sites,tRNA binding sites, designated A, P, and E.designated A, P, and E. TheThe A siteA site binds anbinds an aminoacyl-tRNA (a tRNAaminoacyl-tRNA (a tRNA bound to an amino acid);bound to an amino acid); thethe P siteP site binds abinds a peptidyl-tRNA (a tRNApeptidyl-tRNA (a tRNA bound to the peptidebound to the peptide being synthesized); andbeing synthesized); and thethe E siteE site binds a freebinds a free tRNA before it exits thetRNA before it exits the ribosome.ribosome.
  • 28. 2828 ElongationElongation  Transfer of properTransfer of proper aminoacyl-tRNA fromaminoacyl-tRNA from cytoplasm to A-site ofcytoplasm to A-site of ribosome;ribosome;  Peptide bond formation;Peptide bond formation; Peptidyl transferasePeptidyl transferase forms a peptide bondsforms a peptide bonds between the amino acidbetween the amino acid in the P site and thein the P site and the newly arrived aminoacylnewly arrived aminoacyl tRNA in the A site. ThistRNA in the A site. This lengthens the peptide bylengthens the peptide by one amino acids.one amino acids.
  • 29. 2929 ElongationElongation  Translocation;Translocation; translocation of the newtranslocation of the new peptidyl t-RNA with itspeptidyl t-RNA with its mRNA codon in the A sitemRNA codon in the A site into the free P site occursinto the free P site occurs Now the A site is free forNow the A site is free for another cycle ofanother cycle of aminoacyl t-RNA codonaminoacyl t-RNA codon recognition andrecognition and elongation. Eachelongation. Each translocation eventstranslocation events moves mRNA , onemoves mRNA , one codon length through thecodon length through the ribosomes.ribosomes.
  • 30. 3030 TerminationTermination  Translational termination requires specific protein factorsTranslational termination requires specific protein factors identified asidentified as releasing factors, RFsreleasing factors, RFs in E. coli and eRFs inin E. coli and eRFs in eukaryotes.eukaryotes.  The signals for termination are the same in both prokaryotesThe signals for termination are the same in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These signals are termination codonsand eukaryotes. These signals are termination codons present in the mRNA. There are 3present in the mRNA. There are 3 termination codons, UAG,termination codons, UAG, UAA and UGA.UAA and UGA.
  • 31. 3131 TerminationTermination  After multiple cycles ofAfter multiple cycles of elongation andelongation and polymerization of specificpolymerization of specific amino acids into proteinamino acids into protein molecules, a nonsensemolecules, a nonsense codon = terminationcodon = termination codon of mRNA appear incodon of mRNA appear in the A site. The isthe A site. The is recognized as terminalrecognized as terminal signal by eukaryoticsignal by eukaryotic releasing factors (eRF)releasing factors (eRF) which cause the releasewhich cause the release of the newly synthesizedof the newly synthesized protein from theprotein from the ribosomal complex.ribosomal complex.
  • 32. 3232 Protein Synthesis httphttp://://bioinfobioinfo..bactbact..wiscwisc..eduedu//themicrobialworldthemicrobialworld//lysozymelysozyme..gifgif
  • 33. 3333 Protein Synthesis www.bseinquiry.gov.uk/report/volume2/fig1_2.htm Reading the instruction meansReading the instruction means translating the code in the RNAtranslating the code in the RNA fromfrom basesbases ((building block of DNA and RNA)building block of DNA and RNA) toto amino acidsamino acids (building block of(building block of proteinsproteins).).
  • 34. 3434 Prokaryotic vs. EukaryoticProkaryotic vs. Eukaryotic  Eukaryotic DNA is wound aroundEukaryotic DNA is wound around histoneshistones to formto form nucleosomesnucleosomes and packaged asand packaged as chromatinchromatin. Chromatin. Chromatin has a strong influence on the accessibility of the DNA tohas a strong influence on the accessibility of the DNA to transcription factorstranscription factors and the transcriptional machineryand the transcriptional machinery includingincluding RNA polymerase.RNA polymerase.  Eukaryote genes are not grouped in operons. eachEukaryote genes are not grouped in operons. each eukaryote gene is transcribed separately, with separateeukaryote gene is transcribed separately, with separate transcriptional controls on each gene.transcriptional controls on each gene.  Protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm whileProtein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm while transcription and RNA processing take place in thetranscription and RNA processing take place in the nucleus.nucleus.  Essentially all humans' genes contain introns. A notableEssentially all humans' genes contain introns. A notable exception is the histone genes which are intronless.exception is the histone genes which are intronless.
  • 35. 3535 Prokaryotic vs. EukaryoticProkaryotic vs. Eukaryotic  Eukaryotic mRNA is modified throughEukaryotic mRNA is modified through RNA splicingRNA splicing..  Eukaryotic mRNA is generally monogenicEukaryotic mRNA is generally monogenic (monocistronic); code for only one polypeptide.(monocistronic); code for only one polypeptide.  Eukaryotes have a separate RNA polymerase for eachEukaryotes have a separate RNA polymerase for each type of RNA.type of RNA.  Eukaryotic mRNA containEukaryotic mRNA contain no Shine-Dalgarnono Shine-Dalgarno sequencesequence to show the ribosomes where to start translating.to show the ribosomes where to start translating. Instead, most eukaryotic mRNA have caps at their 5`Instead, most eukaryotic mRNA have caps at their 5` end which directs initiation factors to bind and beginend which directs initiation factors to bind and begin searching for an initiation codon.searching for an initiation codon.  Eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation begins withEukaryotic protein synthesis initiation begins with methionine not N formyl- methionine.methionine not N formyl- methionine.  In eukaryotes, polysomes are found in the cytoplasm.In eukaryotes, polysomes are found in the cytoplasm.
  • 36. 3636 Prokaryotic vs. EukaryoticProkaryotic vs. Eukaryotic  Bacterial genetics are different.Bacterial genetics are different.  Prokaryote genes are grouped in operons.Prokaryote genes are grouped in operons.  Prokaryotes have one type of RNA polymerase for allProkaryotes have one type of RNA polymerase for all types of RNA,types of RNA,  mRNA is not modifiedmRNA is not modified  The existence of introns in prokaryotes is extremely rare.The existence of introns in prokaryotes is extremely rare.  To initiate transcription in bacteria, sigma factors bind toTo initiate transcription in bacteria, sigma factors bind to RNA polymerases. RNA polymerases/ sigma factorsRNA polymerases. RNA polymerases/ sigma factors complex can then bind to promoter about 40complex can then bind to promoter about 40 deoxyribonucleotide bases prior to the coding region ofdeoxyribonucleotide bases prior to the coding region of the gene.the gene.  In prokaryotes, the newly synthesized mRNA isIn prokaryotes, the newly synthesized mRNA is polycistronic (polygenic) (code for more than onepolycistronic (polygenic) (code for more than one polypeptide chain).polypeptide chain).  In prokaryotes, transcription of a gene and translation ofIn prokaryotes, transcription of a gene and translation of the resulting mRNA occur simultaneously. So manythe resulting mRNA occur simultaneously. So many polysomes are found associated with an active gene.polysomes are found associated with an active gene.
  • 37. 3737 References & Further Reading  Robert F.Weaver. Molecular Biology. Fourth Edition. Page 600. McGraw-Hill International Edition.Robert F.Weaver. Molecular Biology. Fourth Edition. Page 600. McGraw-Hill International Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-110216-2ISBN 978-0-07-110216-2  InnisInnis,David H.,David H. GelfandGelfand,John J. Sninsky PCR Applications: Protocols for Functional Genomics: ISBN:0123721865,John J. Sninsky PCR Applications: Protocols for Functional Genomics: ISBN:0123721865  DanielDaniel H. Farkas. DNA Simplified: The Hitchhiker's Guide to DNA. Washington, DC: AACC Press, 1996, ISBN 0-H. Farkas. DNA Simplified: The Hitchhiker's Guide to DNA. Washington, DC: AACC Press, 1996, ISBN 0- 915274-84-1.915274-84-1.  William B. Coleman,Gregory J. Tsongalis:William B. Coleman,Gregory J. Tsongalis: MolecularMolecular DiagnosticsDiagnostics: For the: For the ClinicalClinical LaboratorianLaboratorian:: ISBNISBN 1588293564...1588293564...  Robert F. Mueller,Ian D. Young.Robert F. Mueller,Ian D. Young. EmeryEmery''ss ElementsElements ofof MedicalMedical GeneticsGenetics: ISBN.: ISBN. 044307125X044307125X  DanielDaniel P.P. StitesStites,Abba T. Terr. Basic Human Immunology: ISBN.,Abba T. Terr. Basic Human Immunology: ISBN. 08385054300838505430  Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walter. Molecular Biology of theBruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walter. Molecular Biology of the cell. ISBN. 9780815341055cell. ISBN. 9780815341055  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/  www.medscape.comwww.medscape.com  www.ebi.ac.uk/2can good introduction to bioinformatics and molecular biologywww.ebi.ac.uk/2can good introduction to bioinformatics and molecular biology  http://www.genomicglossaries.comhttp://www.genomicglossaries.com  http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/nomenclature/guidelines.html defines the nomenclature for human geneshttp://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/nomenclature/guidelines.html defines the nomenclature for human genes  http://www.accessexcellence.orghttp://www.accessexcellence.org  http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/Codons.htmlhttp://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/Codons.html  http://www.web-books.com/MoBio/http://www.web-books.com/MoBio/  http://www.expasy.orghttp://www.expasy.org  http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPROTSYn.htmlhttp://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookPROTSYn.html  Cell & Molecular Biology online: http://www.cellbio.com/recommend.htmlCell & Molecular Biology online: http://www.cellbio.com/recommend.html  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/glossary/glossary.shtml%20http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/glossary/glossary.shtml%20  http://www.genome.gov/10000715http://www.genome.gov/10000715  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer/mapping.htmlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/About/primer/mapping.html  http://www.lilly.com/research/discovering/targets.htmlhttp://www.lilly.com/research/discovering/targets.html  http://www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtmlhttp://www.informatics.jax.org/expression.shtml  www.wikipdia.comwww.wikipdia.com  http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/pev/page2.htmlhttp://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/tutorials/pev/page2.html  http://www.genome.ou.edu/protocol_book/protocol_index.htmlhttp://www.genome.ou.edu/protocol_book/protocol_index.html
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