WORKS STRESS&STRESS MANAGEMENTPresented byB.K.SamantaRoshan.k1st Semester
STRESS• Stress is an individual’s response to a disturbing factor inthe Environment, and the consequence of such reaction.• Stress obviously involves interaction of the Person andthe environment.• Stress is an adaptive response to an external situationthat results in Physical, Psychological and or Behavioraldeviations for Organizational Participants.• The Physical or Psychological demands from theenvironment that cause stress are called Stressors.
How an individual experiences Stress depends on• The Person’s Perception of the Situation• The Person’s Past Experience.• The Presence or Absence of Social Support.Symptoms of Stress :• Symptoms of stress vary from the psychological, inthe form of Anxiety and Depression.• Physical, in the form of Headaches, Insomnia, BowelProblems and Impotence.
• In its severest forms stress can lead toHypertension, Heart Attacks and Mental Breakdown.• Now a days it is also being blamed for causing cancer.Sources of Stress• Stressors originate at Individual, Group, Organizationaland Extra-Organizational Levels.Individual level Stressors :• These relate directly to a Person’s Personality and JobResponsibilities.• The most common individual level Stressors are Type ofPersonality, Role Overload, Role Conflict and RoleAmbiguity.
Personality Type• Type A Personality is Stress Prone as it is associated withthe following Behavioral Patterns :• Always Moves, Walks and Eats Rapidly.• Feels impatient with the pace of things, hurriesothers, dislikes waiting.• Does several things Simultaneously.• Feels guilty when relaxing.• Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time.• Uses nervous gestures such as clenched fist, bangingthe hand on the table.• Does not have time to enjoy life.
• Type A Personalities, in this sense, bring stress onthemselves.• The Type B Personality, on the other hand, is less StressProne.• Following are the typical characteristics of Type BPersonality: Is not concerned about time. Is Patient. Does not Brag Play to Fun, not to win. Relaxes without feeling Guilty. Has no Pressing Deadlines. Is mild-mannered. Is never in a hurry.
Group Level Stressors :• Group Level Stressors are caused by Group Dynamicsand Managerial Behaviors.• Managers create Stress for Employees by• Exhibiting Inconsistent Behaviors.• Failing to Provide Support.• Showing Lack of Concern.• Providing inadequate Direction.• Creating a High Productivity Environment.• Focusing on Negatives while ignoring GoodPerformance.
• Sexual Harassment is yet another Group LevelStressor.• Sexual Harassment refers to unwelcome conduct of aSexual nature that affects the job-related performanceof an Employee adversely.• Another serious Interpersonal Stressor is the risingwave of Physical Violence and Aggression in theWorkplace.• Workplace Violence includes Assaults, Rape andThreats using a Weapon.
Organizational Stressors :• Organizational Stressors affect large number ofEmployees.• Organizational Climate is a Prime Example.• A High Pressure Environment that places chronic workdemands on Employees fuels the Stress Response.• In Contrast, Participative Management can reduceOrganizational Level Stressors.• Poor Lighting, Loud Noise, Improper placement ofFurniture, and a Dirty and Smelly Environment cancreate Stress.
• Organizational Structure defines the level ofdifferentiation, the degree of Rules andRegulations, and where decisions are made.• Excessive Rules and lack of Participation in decisionthat affect an employee are examples of Structuralvariables that might be potential stressors.• Organizational Leadership represents Managerialstyle of the Organization’s Senior Executives.• Some Chief Executive Officers create a culturecharacterized by Tension, Fear , and Anxiety.• They establish unrealistic pressures to perform in theshort run, impose excessively tight controls etc.
Extra Organizational Stressors : Extra Organizational Stressors are caused by factorsoutside the Organization. For Instance, conflicts associated with one’s career andfamily life are stressful. Home Life certainly impact’s one’s attitudes andperformance at work. Death of a Spouse, Injury to one’s child, Failure in Schoolor at Work and other life events can be stressful. Socioeconomic Status represents a combination of Economic Status as measured by Income Social Status assessed by Educational Level Work Status as indexed by Occupation.
Effects of Stress Stress has Behavioral, cognitive and PhysiologicalConsequences. Research Studies indicate that Stress is negatively related toJob Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment andPerformance and positively related to Turnover.Burnout Burnout is a troublesome outcome of Stress. Burnout is a state of mind resulting from prolonged exposureto emotional stress. It manifests through Emotional Exhaustion and acombination of Negative Attitudes.
• Burnouts occurs due to prolonged exposure to Stress andthat too in phases.• The Three key phases of Burnout are• Emotional Exhaustion• Depersonalization• Feeling a lack of Personal Accomplishment• Emotional Exhaustion is due to a combination ofPersonal, Job and Organizational Stressors.• People who expect a lot from themselves and theOrganization in which they work tend to create moreinternal stress, which in turn leads to EmotionalExhaustion.
• Emotional Exhaustion is fuelled by having too muchwork to do, by role conflict and by the type ofinterpersonal interactions encountered at work.• Overtime, Emotional Exhaustion leads toDepersonalization, which is the state of psychologicallywithdrawing from one’s job.• This finally results in a feeling of beingunappreciated, ineffective or inadequate.• The addictive effect of these three phases is a host ofnegative attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.
Stress Management Stress Reduction Strategies may be categorized into Individual Strategies Organizational StrategiesIndividual Strategies : First Step in managing Stress is to understand that theindividual is exposed to Stressors. Stress cannot be managed unless we know that whatcauses stress and how these causes are affecting usPsychologically, Physiologically and Organizationally.
Individual Strategies to cope with Stress include : Muscle Relaxation Biofeedback Meditation Cognitive Restructuring Time ManagementOrganizational Strategies :Organizational Strategies help reduce the harmful effects ofStress in three ways: Identify and then modify or eliminate work stressors Help Employees modify their perception andunderstanding of work stress. Help Employees cope more effectively with theoutcomes of the Stress.
Organizational Strategies aimed at removing Stress ofteninclude removing Stress often include :• Improvements in the Physical Environment• Job redesign to remove stressors• Changes in workloads and deadlines• Structural Reorganization• Changes in work schedules, more flexible hours• Greater level of Employee Participation.• Workshops dealing with Role clarity and RoleAnalysis.
ORGANISATIONAL INITIATIVES :• Team building• Time management workshops• Job burnout workshops• Training in relaxation techniques• Career counseling
MENTAL TECHNIQUES• Time management• Organize• Problem solving attitude• Think Positive
PHYSICAL TECHNIQUES• Body Scan – “relax-let go”• Deep breathing• Exercise• Meditation• Nutrition• Rest• Laughter
WORKPLACE SKILLS• Delegate• Anticipate problems• Be assertive• Be decisive• Organize• Balance work and personaltime
10 Ways to Relieve Stress:1. Take a few deep breaths. This makes you breathe slower andhelps your muscles relax.2. Exercise - take a walk during the day.3. Think positive. Remember the things that are good in your life.4. Take a good stretch. Stretching makes muscles relax and helpsyou feel less tense.5. Massage the tense muscles. The muscles in the back of your neckand upper back usually get tense when you are stressed.6. Take hot baths or showers to help you relax.7. Listen to soothing music.8. Talk to your family and friends about your feelings. It isimportant for them to know how you feel so they can help you.
“winners don’t do different things ,they do things differently”-By Shiv KheraWilliam James ~ The greatest weapon against stress is our abilityto choose one thought over another ~In times of great stress or adversity, its always best to keepbusy, to plow your anger and your energy into something positive.