Masters Thesis
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Masters Thesis

on

  • 592 views

The Effects of Triclosan on Five Marine Algae Species

The Effects of Triclosan on Five Marine Algae Species

Statistics

Views

Total Views
592
Views on SlideShare
589
Embed Views
3

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

2 Embeds 3

https://www.linkedin.com 2
http://www.slashdocs.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Masters Thesis Masters Thesis Presentation Transcript

  • The Effects of Triclosan on Five Marine Algae Species Melanie N. McHenry Department of Biology, Marine Science Program, Jackson State University, P.O. Box 18540, 1400 J.R. Lynch Street, Jackson, Mississippi, USA
  • Table of Contents
    • Introduction
    • Background
    • Objectives
    • Experimental Design
    • Data Analysis
    • Results
      • Effects of Triclosan on Algae Growth
      • Effects of Triclosan on Algae Growth Rates
      • Percent Inhibition
      • EC 50 of Triclosan
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • Special Thanks
    • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
    • This study was conducted in order to determine the effects of triclosan on marine algae
    • Triclosan is incorporated into a number of products which will enable triclosan to enter into the wastewater system
    • After the wastewater process, the water still contains amounts of triclosan
    • This water may be released into the marine environment
    • This study examined how triclosan will effect the marine environment, by examining a key component of this environment-algae
  • Background Information on Triclosan
    • 2,4,4'-trichloro-2’-hydroxydiphenylether
    Trade names: Irgasan Registered Trademark DP 300, Irgasan Registered Trademark PE 30, Irgasan Registered Trademark PG 60, and Irgacide Registered Trademark LP 10
  • Background Information on Triclosan Cont.
    • Biocidal Effects of Triclosan
    • Biocide: a chemical substance capable of killing different forms of living organisms
    • Algicide: a chemical substance that protects the water from infestation and growth of algae
      • Cell wall lysis
      • Inhibits Fatty-acid synthesis
  • Background Information Cont.
    • Triclosan Uses:
    • Found in ¾ of liquid soaps and ¼ of
    • bar soaps
    • Component of:
      • Antibacterial soaps, toothpaste, sponges, house cleaners, and product containers
      • Hospital materials, carpeting, sports accessories, and children’s toys
    • Studies are currently being conducted to determine the effectiveness of triclosan against the causative agents of tuberculosis, malaria, and toxoplasmosis
  • Background Information Cont.
    • Triclosan Levels Reported in Surface Waters
    Surface Water Levels (µg/L) Source U.S. Rivers 0.24 - 2.7 Kolpin DW., et al. 2002 U.S. Geological Survey 0.8 (average) Tromso-Sound, Norway 0.2 - 2.4 Weigel s., et al. 2004 Bayou St. John Lake (New Orleans, Louisiana) 29 ng/L Boyd, et al. 2004 Swiss Rivers 11 - 98 ng/L Balmer, 2005
  • Background Information Cont. Triclosan Levels in Waste Water Waste water Levels ( µ g/L) Source Primary Effluent 3.4 - 8.0 McAvoy, DC et al. 2002 Final Effluent: Activated Sludge Treatment 0.20 - 0.41 Weigel S. et al. : 2004 Trickling Filter Treatment 1.6 - 2.7 Switzerland Effluents 42 - 213 mg/L Balmer 2005
  • Background Information Contd.
    • Algae was chosen to evaluate the toxicity of Triclosan b/c they are:
    • At the base of grazing food chain in the aquatic environment
    • Major food source for rotifers, clams, oysters, and larval shrimp
    • Supply oxygen through photosynthesis
    • Little information is available on
    • triclosan effects on algae (Orvis et al. 2002, Balmer 2005 , Tatarazako et al. 2004)
  • Algae Used in this Study Tetraselmis chuii Nannochloropsis oculata Chaetocerus gracilis Isochrysis galbana Rhodomonas salina
  • Algae Information Algae Class Size (µm) Motile Flagella Isochrysis Prymnesiophyceae 4 – 8 yes 2 flagella Tetraselmis Chlorophyceae 12 - 14 4 flagella Nannochloropsis Eustigmatophyceae 1.5 - 2.5 no none Rhodomonas Cryptophyceae 16 – 30 yes Chaetocerus Baccillariophyceae 12 - 14 no
  • The Effects of Triclosan on Various Organisms (Balmer 2005, Russel 2004, Orvos et al. 2002) Organism L(E) 50 Algae Freshwater algae Anabaena flos-aquae 0.97 µg/L Scenedesmus subspicatus 2. 8 µg/L Selenastrum capricornutum 4.46 µg/L Navicula pelliculosa 19.1 µg/L Marine Algae Skeletonema costatum > 66.0 µg/L Fish Danio rerio and Oryzais latipes < 300 µg/L Pimephales promelas 260 µg/L Lepomis macrochirus 370 µg/L Seamonkeys Artemia 2000 µg/L Bacteria Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci 0.1 – 2 mg/L E. coli and K. pueumoniae 5,000 µg/L
  • Objectives
    • To determine the effects of Triclosan on selected marine algae species
    • To estimate the EC 50 values of Triclosan for five marine algae species
  • Experimental Design Treatment (ug/L) Replicate # Temperature (average) Salinity Light (lux) Control 0 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200 1 0.2 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200 2 1.0 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200 3 5.0 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200 4 25.0 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200 5 125 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200 6 250 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200 7 500 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200 Solvent Control 7.2% Ethyl Alcohol 3 25 o C 25ppt 2,200
  • Data Analysis
    • Algae growth rate was calculated using the equation:
    • U = (Ln N t – Ln N o )/( t – t o )
    • where: U = growth rate
    • N t = Algae #/mL at time t
    • N o = Algae #/mL at time 0
    • t = Sample time for counting algae #
    • t o = Initial time of the treatment.
    • Percent Inhibition of Algae by Triclosan was calculated as:
    • %Inhibition = ( U ct – U tox )/U ct * 100
    • where: U tox = Growth rate in the presence of Triclosan
    • U ct = Growth rate in the control
    • EC 50 values were estimated for each algae species
    • by applying a non-linear regression to the plot of Percent Inhibition against natural log of Triclosan Concentration.
  • Results: Effects of Triclosan on Algae Growth
    • Each triclosan treatment for each algae species experienced growth
    • As the time period increased, the more growth each species experienced
    • The higher the amount of triclosan in the treatment, the lower the algae species growth
  • Isochrysis galbana
  • Tetraselmis chuii
  • Nannochloropsis oculata
  • Rhodomonas salina
  • Chaetocerus gracilis
  • Results: Effects of Triclsoan on Algae Growth Rates
    • There is an inverse relationship between the triclosan treatment and the growth rate
    • There is an inverse relationship between the time period and the growth rate
    • SAS was run each day for each algae species to determine the significant difference of each growth rate
    • Not all the growth rates for each day were significantly different
  • Isochrysis galbana
  • Isochrysis growth rate ANOVA table 24 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 36.61077037 3.66107704 369.77 < 0.0001 Error 16 0.15841481 0.00990093 Total 26 36.76918519 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.995692 13.61679 0.099503 0.730741
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 1.85667 3 Control B 1.65000 3 Treatment 1 C 1.29333 3 Treatment 2 D 1.02333 3 Treatment 3 E 0.61333 3 Treatment 4 F 0.31000 3 Treatment 5 G -0.01000 3 Treatment 6 H -203333 3 Treatment 7 A 1.87333 3 Treatment 8
  • Isochrysis growth rate ANOVA table 48 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 8.75095556 0.87509556 198.57 < 0.0001 Error 16 0.07051111 0.00440694 Total 26 8.82146667 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.992007 12.11893 0.066385 0.547778
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 1.16667 3 Control B 0.91000 3 Treatment 1 C 0.72000 3 Treatment 2 D 0.57667 3 Treatment 3 E D 0.49000 3 Treatment 4 E 0.42333 3 Treatment 5 F 0.23667 3 Treatment 6 G -0.8000 3 Treatment 7 A 1.20667 3 Treatment 8
  • Isochrysis growth rate ANOVA table 72 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 2.49982222 0.24998222 1097.48 <0.0001 Error 16 0.00364444 0.00022778 Total 26 2.50346667 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.998544 2.538893 0.015092 0.594444
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.9600 3 Control B 0.8500 3 Treatment 1 C 0.82333 3 Treatment 2 D 0.75667 3 Treatment 3 E 0.67333 3 Treatment 4 F 0.56667 3 Treatment 5 G 0.48667 3 Treatment 6 H 0.31667 3 Treatment 7 I -0.08333 3 Treatment 8
  • Isochrysis growth rate ANOVA table 96 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 1.23659259 0.12365926 763.15 < <0.0001 Error 16 0.00259259 0.00016204 Total 26 1.23918519 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.997908 2.197527 0.012729 0.579259
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.83333 3 Control A 0.82667 3 Treatment 1 B 0.73333 3 Treatment 2 C 0.67333 3 Treatment 3 D 0.59333 3 Treatment 4 E 0.52667 3 Treatment 5 F 0.48333 3 Treatment 6 G 0.43333 3 Treatment 7 H 0.1100 3 Treatment 8
  • Tetraselmis chuii
  • Tetraselmis growth rate ANOVA table 24 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 10.17803704 1.01780370 81.79 < 0.0001 Error 16 0.1991037 0.01244398 Total 26 10.37714074 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.980813 55.36618 0.111553 0.201481
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.68000 3 Control B A 0.60667 3 Treatment 1 B 0.51000 3 Treatment 2 B 0.46333 3 Treatment 3 C 0.24333 3 Treatment 4 C 0.14667 3 Treatment 5 D -0.15667 3 Treatment 6 E -1.36667 3 Treatment 7 A 0.68667 3 Treatment 8
  • Tetraselmis growth rate ANOVA table 48 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 1.02720000 0.10272000 2.89 0.0287 Error 16 0.56946667 0.03559167 Total 26 1.59666667 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.643340 44.68205 0.188658 0.422222
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.6200 3 Control A 0.5933 3 Treatment 1 B A 0.5567 3 Treatment 2 B A 0.5400 3 Treatment 3 B A 0.4567 3 Treatment 4 B 0.4667 3 Treatment 5 B C 0.2367 3 Treatment 6 C -0.0267 3 Treatment 7 A 0.3467 3 Treatment 8
  • Tetraselmis growth rate ANOVA table 72 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 1.05683704 0.10568370 3.38 0.0149 Error 16 0.50061481 0.03128843 Total 26 1.55745185 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.678568 30.71321 0.176885 0.575926
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.8567 3 Control B A 0.7700 3 Treatment 1 B A 0.6933 3 Treatment 2 B A C 0.6300 3 Treatment 3 B A C 0.5733 3 Treatment 4 B C 0.5100 3 Treatment 5 C 0.3767 3 Treatment 6 0.1600 3 Treatment 7 A 0.6133 3 Treatment 8
  • Tetraselmis growth rate ANOVA table 96 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 0.77628889 0.07762889 3.08 0.0221 Error 16 0.40377778 0.02523611 Total 26 1.18006667 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.657835 21.69543 0.158859 0.73222
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.8967 3 Control A 0.8700 3 Treatment 1 A 0.8500 3 Treatment 2 A 0.8067 3 Treatment 3 A 0.7867 3 Treatment 4 A 0.7433 3 Treatment 5 A 0.6600 3 Treatment 6 A 0.3067 3 Treatment 7 B 0.6700 3 Treatment 8
  • Nannochloropsis oculata
  • Nannochloropsis growth rate ANOVA table 24 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 5.89219259 0.58921926 45.75 < 0.0001 Error 16 0.20605926 0.0128787 Total 26 6.09825185 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.966210 17.30140 0.113484 0.655926
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 1.32667 3 Control B 0.92667 3 Treatment 1 C B 0.85000 3 Treatment 2 C 0.71000 3 Treatment 3 D 0.51333 3 Treatment 4 E 0.29333 3 Treatment 5 F -0.08333 3 Treatment 6 F 0.09333 3 Treatment 7 A 1.27333 3 Treatment 8
  • Nannochloropsis growth rate ANOVA table 48 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 4.89813333 0.48981333 4.00 0.0069 Error 16 1.95913333 0.12244583 Total 26 6.85726667 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.714298 32.77111 0.349923 1.067778
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 1.6300 3 Control B A 1.5067 3 Treatment 1 B A 1.3900 3 Treatment 2 B A C 1.1600 3 Treatment 3 B A C 1.1033 3 Treatment 4 B C 0.9500 3 Treatment 5 C 0.5600 3 Treatment 6 0.2100 3 Treatment 7 A 1.1000 3 Treatment 8
  • Nannochloropsis growth rate ANOVA table 76 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 4.89813333 0.48981333 4.00 0.0069 Error 16 1.95913333 0.12244583 Total 26 6.85726667 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.714298 32.77111 0.349923 1.067778
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment 1.63000 3 Control B 1.5067 3 Treatment 1 B 1.3900 3 Treatment 2 B C 1.1600 3 Treatment 3 B C 1.1033 3 Treatment 4 B C 1.1000 3 Treatment 5 D C 0.9500 3 Treatment 6 D 0.5600 3 Treatment 7 B A C 0.2100 3 Treatment 8
  • Nannochloropsis growth rate ANOVA table 96 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 2.04006667 0.20400667 20.12 <0.0001 Error 16 0.16220000 0.01013750 Total 26 2.20226667 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.926349 19.52945 0.100685 0.515556
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.73667 3 Control B A 0.7100 3 Treatment 1 B A 0.66333 3 Treatment 2 B A 0.63000 3 Treatment 3 B C 0.54667 3 Treatment 4 C 0.41000 3 Treatment 5 D 0.23333 3 Treatment 6 E -0.06333 3 Treatment 7 A 0.77333 3 Treatment 8
  • Rhodomonas salina
  • Rhodomonas growth rate ANOVA table 24 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 3.28800000 0.32880000 31.99 <0.0001 Error 16 0.16446667 0.01027917 Total 26 3.45246667 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.952363 12.48257 0.101386 0.812222
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 1.13667 3 Control B A 1.09333 3 Treatment 1 B C 0.95333 3 Treatment 2 C 0.91667 3 Treatment 3 D C 0.78667 3 Treatment 4 D 0.69333 3 Treatment 5 E 0.34667 3 Treatment 6 F 0.14333 3 Treatment 7 A 1.24000 3 Treatment 8
  • Rhodomonas growth rate ANOVA table 48 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 1.68814815 0.16881481 2.29 0.0675 Error 16 1.17988148 0.07374259 Total 26 2.86802963 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.588609 35.55775 0.271556 0.763704
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 1.1267 3 Control A 1.05333 3 Treatment 1 A 0.7267 3 Treatment 2 B A 0.8233 3 Treatment 3 B A 0.7600 3 Treatment 4 B A 0.7267 3 Treatment 5 B C 0.5567 3 Treatment 6 C 0.2333 3 Treatment 7 B A 0.8667 3 Treatment 8
  • Rhodomonas growth rate ANOVA table 72 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 1.36481481 0.13648148 3.80 0.0087 Error 16 0.57394815 0.03587175 Total 26 1.93876296 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.703962 27.97460 0.189398 0.677037
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.9300 3 Control A 0.8933 3 Treatment 1 A 0.8367 3 Treatment 2 A 0.8100 3 Treatment 3 B A 0.7167 3 Treatment 4 B A 0.6300 3 Treatment 5 B C 0.4567 3 Treatment 6 C 0.1800 3 Treatment 7 B A 0.6400 3 Treatment 8
  • Rhodomonas growth rate ANOVA table 96 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 0.97977037 0.09797704 3.17 0.0196 Error 16 0.49503704 0.03093981 Total 26 1.47480741 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.664338 29.90695 0.175897 0.599148
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.8600 3 Control B A 0.7567 3 Treatment 1 B A C 0.6900 3 Treatment 2 B A C 0.6567 3 Treatment 3 B A C 0.6000 3 Treatment 4 B C 0.5467 3 Treatment 5 D C 0.4167 3 Treatment 6 D 0.1667 3 Treatment 7 B A C 0.6000 3 Treatment 8
  • Chaetocerus gracilis
  • Chaetocerus growth rate ANOVA table 24 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 35.12774815 3.51277481 34.51 < 0.0001 Error 16 1.62859259 0.010178704 Total 26 36.75634074 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.955692 32.94112 0.319041 0.968519
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 2.0967 3 Control B A 1.7767 3 Treatment 1 B A 1.5867 3 Treatment 2 B C 1.2633 3 Treatment 3 D C 0.9100 3 Treatment 4 D 0.6700 3 Treatment 5 E 0.0433 3 Treatment 6 F -1.6967 3 Treatment 7 A 2.0667 3 Treatment 8
  • Chaetocerus growth rate ANOVA table 48 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 4.85472593 0.48547259 2.86 0.0298 Error 16 2.71705926 0.16981620 Total 26 7.57178519 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.641160 50.82853 0.412088 0.810741
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 1.3067 3 Control B A 1.1767 3 Treatment 1 B A 1.0633 3 Treatment 2 B A 0.9633 3 Treatment 3 B A 0.9000 3 Treatment 4 B A 0.8033 3 Treatment 5 B 0.5367 3 Treatment 6 C -0.2133 3 Treatment 7 B A 0.7600 3 Treatment 8
  • Chaetocerus growth rate ANOVA table 72 hours Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 1.06761482 0.10676148 3.04 0.0233 Error 16 0.56248148 0.03515509 Total 26 1.63009630 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.654940 29.31336 0.187497 0.639630
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.9167 3 Control B A 0.8300 3 Treatment 1 B A 0.7700 3 Treatment 2 B A 0.6967 3 Treatment 3 B A 0.6500 3 Treatment 4 B A 0.6200 3 Treatment 5 B 0.5600 3 Treatment 6 C 0.5233 3 Treatment 7 B 0.5600 3 Treatment 8
  • Chaetocerus growth rate ANOVA table 96 hour Source of Variation Degrees of Freedom Sum of Squares Mean Square F-Value Pr > F Model 10 0.65040000 0.06504000 2.63 0.0412 Error 16 0.39600000 0.02475000 Total 26 1.04640000 R-Square Coefficient Var Root MSE YIELD Mean 0.621560 27.76259 0.157321 0.56667
  • Means with the same letter are not significantly different t Grouping Mean N Treatment A 0.7800 3 Control B A 0.7433 3 Treatment 1 B A C 0.6733 3 Treatment 2 B A C 0.5967 3 Treatment 3 B A C 0.5533 3 Treatment 4 B D C 0.5033 3 Treatment 5 D C 0.4500 3 Treatment 6 D 0.2367 3 Treatment 7 B A C 0.5633 3 Treatment 8
  • Results: Percent Inhibition
    • The Percent Inhibition decreased as the time period increased
    • However, this trend had noticeable exceptions in concentrations with lower amounts of triclosan
  • Percent Inhibition: Isochrysis Percent Inhibition Initial Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Control (0µg/L) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Treatment 1 (0.2µg/L) n/a 11.27 22.10 11.62 12.28 Treatment 2 (1.0µg/L) n/a 30.40 38.49 21.35 19.11 Treatment 3 (5.0µg/L) n/a 44.80 50.69 29.52 28.48 Treatment 4 (25µg/L) n/a 66.73 58.22 40.98 36.59 Treatment 5 (125µg/L) n/a 83.19 63.75 49.47 41.86 Treatment 6 (250µg/L) n/a 100.60 79.30 67.29 47.90 Treatment 7 (500µg/L) n/a 208.44 166.54 108.72 86.96 Treatment 8 (ethyl alcohol control) n/a -0.65 -3.10 14.09 0.72
  • Percent Inhibition: Tetraselmis Percent Inhibition Initial Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Control (0µg/L) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Treatment 1 (0.2µg/L) n/a 12.55 4.13 14.98 4.20 Treatment 2 (1.0µg/L) n/a 26.30 7.89 20.47 7.27 Treatment 3 (5.0µg/L) n/a 33.20 14.67 30.24 10.73 Treatment 4 (25µg/L) n/a 64.64 25.66 35.64 14.12 Treatment 5 (125µg/L) n/a 79.14 26.39 42.91 18.79 Treatment 6 (250µg/L) n/a 122.51 71.78 61.49 33.29 Treatment 7 (500µg/L) n/a 432.19 288.66 90.46 78.05 Treatment 8 (ethyl alcohol control) n/a -1.59 -0.54 -2.60 0.57
  • Percent Inhibition: Nannochloropsis Percent Inhibition Initial Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Control (0µg/L) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Treatment 1 (0.2µg/L) n/a 30.70 10.46 4.95 2.54 Treatment 2 (1.0µg/L) n/a 35.82 16.51 7.85 4.46 Treatment 3 (5.0µg/L) n/a 46.84 30.71 12.78 6.76 Treatment 4 (25µg/L) n/a 60.74 34.51 20.63 13.38 Treatment 5 (125µg/L) n/a 77.83 44.57 43.61 20.90 Treatment 6 (250µg/L) n/a 106.07 75.01 55.89 39.63 Treatment 7 (500µg/L) n/a 89.70 93.71 95.22 95.37 Treatment 8 (ethyl alcohol control) n/a -49.15 -21.24 -9.21 -9.08
  • Percent Inhibition: Rhodomonas Percent Inhibition Initial Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Control (0µg/L) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Treatment 1 (0.2µg/L) n/a 4.10 22.20 4.82 14.02 Treatment 2 (1.0µg/L) n/a 16.60 28.75 10.38 21.23 Treatment 3 (5.0µg/L) n/a 20.02 30.98 14.93 22.55 Treatment 4 (25µg/L) n/a 31.18 34.81 25.45 33.28 Treatment 5 (125µg/L) n/a 39.50 36.92 32.12 36.87 Treatment 6 (250µg/L) n/a 68.58 57.83 60.78 56.97 Treatment 7 (500µg/L) n/a 87.38 92.06 90.54 91.51 Treatment 8 (ethyl alcohol control) n/a -13.41 -9.31 1.15 -1.61
  • Percent Inhibition: Chaetocerus Percent Inhibition Initial Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Control (0µg/L) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a Treatment 1 (0.2µg/L) n/a 0.73 11.37 10.10 9.02 Treatment 2 (1.0µg/L) n/a 11.43 21.11 16.12 18.73 Treatment 3 (5.0µg/L) n/a 29.20 27.17 25.50 26.78 Treatment 4 (25µg/L) n/a 49.11 31.30 28.84 32.09 Treatment 5 (125µg/L) n/a 62.57 41.25 31.98 37.08 Treatment 6 (250µg/L) n/a 96.98 65.26 46.86 46.52 Treatment 7 (500µg/L) n/a 181.22 125.25 95.00 83.40 Treatment 8 (ethyl alcohol control) n/a -15.51 0.30 8.33 -1.95
  • EC 50 of Triclosan
    • Overall, as the time period increased, the EC 50 increased for each algae species
    • This was due to the reduction in triclosan’s strength as time went on
    • More triclosan was required for the same effect
  • Isochrysis galbana
  • The time Period and its corresponding EC 50 value Time Period EC 50 value Day 1 2.10 μg/mL Day 2 2.44 μg/mL Day 3 3.97 μg/mL Day 4 4.81 μg/mL
  • Tetraselmis chuii
  • The time period and its corresponding EC 50 value Time Period EC 50 value Day 1 10.0 μg/mL Day 2 77.7 μg/mL Day 3 83.8 μg/mL Day 4 >500 μg/mL
  • Nannochloropsis oculata
  • The time period and its corresponding EC 50 value Time Period EC 50 value Day 1 2.10 μg/mL Day 2 2.44 μg/mL Day 3 3.97 μg/mL Day 4 4.81 μg/mL
  • Rhodomonas salina
  • The time period and its corresponding EC 50 value Time Period EC 50 value Control (0µg/L) 109 μg/mL Treatment 1 (0.2µg/L) 98 μg/mL Treatment 2 (1.0µg/L) 168 μg/mL Treatment 3 (5.0µg/L) 128 μg/mL
  • Chaetocerus gracilis
  • The time period and its corresponding EC 50 value Time Period EC 50 value Control (0µg/L) 46.2 μg/mL Treatment 1 (0.2µg/L) 68 μg/mL Treatment 2 (1.0µg/L) 183 μg/mL Treatment 3 (5.0µg/L) 162 μg/mL
  • Discussion: Compare Marine to Freshwater Algae Time Period Marine Algae Species EC 50 values Isochrysis Nannochloropsis Rhodomonas Chaetocerus Tetraselmis 24hr 10.8 6.3 109 46.2 10.0 48hr 68.5 72 98 68 77.7 72hr 182 165 168 183 83.8 96hr 164 360 128 162 >500 Freshwater Algae Species L(E) 50 values Navicula pelliculosa Selenastrum capricornutum Scenedesmus subspicatus Skeletonema costatum Anabaena flosaquae 96hr 19.1 µg/L 4.46 µg/L 2. 8 µg/L > 66.0 µg/L 0.97 µg/L
  • Discussion: Comparison of Algae, cont. (Orvos et. al 2002).
    • Triclosan toxicity is less for marine algae than freshwater algae
      • Marine algae EC 50 ranges from 128 to > 500 for the 96hr time period
      • Freshwater algae EC 50 ranges from 0.97 to 19.1 for the 96hr time period
    • Caused by a difference in the sensitivity of marine and freshwater species
    • Not relating to the salinity of the environment
  • Discussion: Comparison of EC 50 and L(E) 50 Values of Other Organisms Time Period Marine Algae Species EC 50 values Isochryis galbana Nannochloropsis oculata Rhodomonas salina Chaetocerus gracilis Tetraselmis chuii 24hr 10.8 6.3 109 46.2 10.0 48hr 68.5 72 98 68 77.7 72hr 182 165 168 183 83.8 96hr 164 360 128 162 >500 Organisms L(E) 50 values Fish Seamonkeys Bacteria Danio rerio Oryzais latipes Artemia Staphylococci Pimephales promelas Lepomis macrochirus E. coli K. pueumoniae Pseudomonas aeruginosa < 300 µg/L 2000 µg/L 100-300 µg/L 260 µg/L 370 µg/L 5,000 µg/L 300,000-1,000,000 µg/L
  • Discussion: Comparison of Organisms, cont.
    • Triclosan addition will have an effect on algae species
    • This addition could indirectly effect algae-dependent species
    • The difference of the effects of triclosan may be caused by
      • the size of each organism
      • their physiological composition
    • The EC 50 range of triclosan in algae species is the range of these species: water flea Daphnia magna , and the fish Danio rerio, Oryzais latipes, Lepomis macrochirus, and Pimephales promelas
    • The EC 50 for these species were much different than algae species: brine shrimp, Artemia , and the bacteria E. coli , K. pueumoniae , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Discussion: The Implication of Triclosan Toxicity
    • The addition of triclosan has been proven to be toxic to marine and freshwater algae food webs
    • The addition of triclosan will greatly reduce the amount of algae in the aquatic systems.
    • This will lower the amount of oxygen supplied as well as the species that rely on algae for dietary purposes will have a reduction in their food source
    • This will have a ripple effect through out the food webs and result in a reduced number of species
  • Discussion: Comparison of the EC 50 Values among the Algae Species Time Period Marine Algae Species EC 50 values Isochryis galbana Nannochloropsis oculata Rhodomonas salina Chaetocerus gracilis Tetraselmis chuii 24hr 10.8 6.3 109 46.2 10.0 48hr 68.5 72 98 68 77.7 72hr 182 165 168 183 83.8 96hr 164 360 128 162 >500
  • Discusssion: Visual comparison of the EC 50 (µg/L) values
  • Conclusion
    • In conclusion, this study, The Effects of Triclosan on Marine Algae , determined the effects of triclosan on the marine algae, Tetraselmis , Nannochloropsis , Chaetocerus , Isochyrsis , and Rhodomonas over a 96 hour (4 day) trials
    • Triclosan was shown to inhibit the growth of marine algae species thereby affecting the total marine environment
    • After calculating and comparing the EC 50 of triclosan on the algae species triclosan was determined to least affect Tetraselmis and most affect Rhodomonas
    • As this study progressed, the effect of the triclosan diminished to a degree suggesting that triclosan has the most drastic effect after it is first introduced into the marine environment.
  • Special Thanks
    • Dr. Paulinus Chigbu, for taking me under his wing
    • Marcus Sims
    • Dr. Izevbigie
    • Dr. Hwang
    • Dr. Begonia
    • Dr. Hardy
    • Ms. Simpson
    • Ms. Sandra Hall
    • Alex Suchar
    • Eric Evans
    • Quanisha
    • Bryon Gipson
  • Acknowledgements This research was supported, in part, by a grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration grant # NA17AE1626, Subcontract # 27-0629-017, through the Environmental Cooperative Science Center at Florida A&M University to Jackson State University. M. McHenry was supported through the National Institutes of Health funded Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) grant awarded to Jackson State University.