Water is an important macronutrient. It is the preciousfluid that keeps the body functioning at an efficientand healthy level.
• Maintain the health and integrity of every cell in the body.• Keep the bloodstream liquid enough to flow through blood vessels.• Help eliminate the by-products of the body’s metabolism, excess electrolytes, for example sodium and potassium, and urea which is a waste product formed through the processing of dietary protein.
• Regulate body temperature through sweating.• Keep mucous membranes moist, such as those of the lungs and mouth.• Lubricate and cushion joints.• Carry nutrients and oxygen to cells.• Reduce the risk of cystitis by keeping the bladder clear of bacteria.• Aid digestion and prevent constipation.
• Work as a moisturizer to improve the skin’s texture and appearance.• Serve as a shock absorber inside the eyes, spinal cord and in the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus in pregnancy.
Newborn Average adult Average adult male female75%-85% 60% 50%
• 2/3 is within the cells and 1/3 is outside the cells.• 25% of fluids outside the cells is within the blood vessels• 75% is in between the cells• Lymph is included in the interstitial fluid space; that is, water in cerebrospinal fluids, intraocular fluids, glands, excretory portion of the kidney, GI secretions, and bone.• “Potential spaces” includes pericardial cavity, peritoneal cavity, joint space, brusa, and thoracic cavity.
Fluid intake: Fluid intake is supplied to the body via three routes: • By ingestion of fluids (oral fluids) • From performed fluid of foods especially fruits and vegetables (solid food) • From the production of water during metabolism of energy nutrients (metabolic water)
Metabolic Water For every 100 grams of fat, carbohydrate, andprotein, the estimated water produced is about 107ml, 55 ml, and 41 ml, respectively.Fluid excretion Fluids in the body may find its way put throughformation of urine, part of the feces, throughbreathing and sweating.
Your body absorbs water as soon as youswallow the liquid and it starts its journey through yourdigestive system. Water consumed on its own movesthrough your system more quickly than solid food.Water you drink during or after a meal mixes with thefood and helps your body digest it more efficiently bybreaking it down. The liquid also eases the swallowingprocess.
• Water is necessary for human health, and makes up 60 percent of your body weight. You consume some water through your food, and also when you drink water by itself or as the base for other beverages. Water goes through your digestive system, just as solid food does, although it is absorbed rather than digested, because liquid does not need to be broken down.
Water is mainly absorbed in the smallintestine, along with any minerals it contains. The smallintestine is well suited for this task because it hasmucosa composed of folds covered with villi, whichare small, finger-like protrusions. Water and mineralsget absorbed through these structures, as well asnutrients from food, which gets transported to thebloodstream.
Drinking water before meals helped adultdieters lose weight in a 2010 study by associateprofessor Brenda Davy of Virginia Tech. Studyparticipants who drank 16 ounces of water prior tomeals lost over three pounds more than participantswho did not drink the water over the course of thethree-month study. The water drinkers were also moresuccessful at maintaining their weight loss. This methodhelps you feel more full, but you must drink the watershortly before meals because liquid moves so quicklythrough your digestive system that the fullness doesnot last long.
Recommendations vary on the amount ofwater you should consume every day to stay healthy,but the Mayo Clinic advises that most people need atleast 8 to 9 cups. Drink more if you are exercisingheavily and lose a lot of body liquid through sweat.
Every day you lose water through your breath,perspiration, urine and bowel movements. For yourbody to function properly, you must replenish its watersupply by consuming beverages and foods thatcontain water. So how much fluid does the average, healthyadult living in a temperate climate need? The Instituteof Medicine determined that an adequate intake (AI)for men is roughly 3 liters (about 13 cups) of totalbeverages a day. The AI for women is 2.2 liters (about9 cups) of total beverages a day.
Everyone has heard the advice, "Drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day." Thats about 1.9 liters,which isnt that different from the Institute of Medicinerecommendations. Although the "8 by 8" rule isntsupported by hard evidence, it remains popularbecause its easy to remember. Just keep in mind thatthe rule should be reframed as: "Drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of fluid a day," because all fluids counttoward the daily total.
Infants: 1.5 ml per kilocalorie expendedChildren: (1-18 years): If weight is 10 -20 kilos= 1000 ml+ 50 ml per kg in excess of 10• If weight is >20 kg= 1500 ml + 20 ml per kg in excess of 20Adults: 1.0-1.5 ml per kcal expended (10-12 glasses aday)Older persons: (65 and above): 1500 mlPregnant women: extra 300 ml• Lactating (1-6 months): additional 750- 1000 ml
DEHYDRATION - may develop if water consumptionfails to satisfy thirst; if the thirst mechanism is notfunctioning properly, as during intense physicalexercise; or if there is excessive fluid loss, as withdiarrhea or vomiting.
During the first months of pregnancy, there are twomajor concerns with dehydration:• Being dehydrated (usually caused from morning sickness) can cause nausea (and thus creating a vicious cycle, where you can’t drink anything, and therefore get more nauseous, which means you get more dehydrated and can’t drink anything, causing more severe nausea – etc.). If mom doesn’t drink enough to avoid dehydration she may need to be hospitalized for IV fluids.
• The biggest fear with dehydration in the first trimester, and part of the second, is that there’s not enough amniotic fluid for baby – a significant lack of amniotic fluid can cause baby to lay against the uterus (instead of floating in the amniotic fluid) which could lead to deformities of the arms, legs, and feet.Babies and Children - Babies and children are moreprone to dehydration than adults, and babies canquickly become dangerously dehydrated – so itssomething to watch out for.
• More than six to eight hours without a wet diaper• Urine that looks darker in his diaper and smells stronger than usual• Lethargy (low energy)• A dry, parched mouth and lips• No tears while crying• Signs that your baby may be seriously dehydrated:• Sunken eyes• Hands and feet that feel cold and look splotchy• Excessive sleepiness or fussiness• Sunken fontanels (the soft spots on your babys head)
WATER INTOXICATION - Water intoxication, also knownas water poisoning, is a potentially fatal disturbancein brain functions that results when the normalbalance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outsideof safe limits (e.g., hyponatremia) by over hydration,i.e., over-consumption of water.
• Low body mass (Infants)• Endurance sports• Overexertion and heat stress• Psychological conditions
Edema, is swelling caused by fluid retention-excess fluid is trapped in the bodys tissues. Swellingcaused by edema commonly occurs in the hands,arms, ankles, legs and feet. It is usually linked to thevenous or lymphatic systems. Edema was formerlyknown as dropsy or hydropsy. Edema may be generalized or local. It canappear suddenly, but usually develops subtly - thepatient may first gain weight, or wake up with puffyeyes.