•Fats belong to a group of substances calledlipids, which do not dissolve in water.•Fats are organic compounds that are made upof carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They aresources of energy in foods.
ANIMAL ORIGIN -meat and meat products, eggs and dairyproducts like butter, cheese, milk and cream.
PLANT ORIGIN -fats can be found in plant seeds, fruitsand nuts.
Visible fats -Are obvious fats that are plain to see.
Invisible fats Counts for about 70% intake of fat.
Saturated fat •This type of fat is typically found in large amounts in foods from animals. Many baked goods such as cakes, biscuits and pastries are also high in saturated fat. Excessive intake of saturated fat can increase blood cholesterol levels.
Monounsaturated Fat This is found in significant amounts in mosttypes of fats of plant origin, such as nuts, avocadopears, rapeseed oil and olive oil. Monounsaturated fats do not raise bloodcholesterol and evidence shows that they reduceblood cholesterol levels if they replace saturatedfat in the diet.
Polyunsaturated Fat Polyunsaturated fat can actively reduceblood cholesterol levels. Found in oily fishspecifically appear to have no effect on bloodcholesterol levels, but they do alter theconsistency of blood.
Trans-Fatty Acids They are classed as bad fats because theyraise cholesterol, although technically speakingthey are unsaturated fats. They are the oneexception to the rule that unsaturated fats aregood for health.
FOOD SOURCES IN THE VARIOUS TYPES OF FATTY ACIDS Type of fat Sources Saturated Butter, cheese, meat, meat products (sausages, hamburgers), full-fat milk and yoghurt, pies, pastries, lard, dripping, hard margarines and baking fats, coconut and palm oil.Monounsaturated , rapeseed, nuts (pistachio, almonds, hazelnuts, macadamia, cashew, pecan), peanuts, avocados, and their oils.
Polyunsaturated Omega-3 polyunsaturated: Salmon, mackerel, herring, trout (particularly rich in the long chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA or eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA or docosahexaenoic acid). Walnuts, rapeseed, soybean, flax seed, and their oils (particularly rich in alpha-linolenic acid). Omega-6 polyunsaturated: Sunflower seeds, wheat germ, sesame, walnuts, soybean, corn and their oils. Certain margarines (read the label).
Trans-fatty acids Some frying and baking fats (e.g. hydrogenated vegetable oils) used in biscuits, cakes and pastries, dairy products, fatty meat from beef and sheep.
Fat as a source of energy. Fat is the primary source of energy duringrest, sitting, standing in place and during activitiesof lower intensity but of longer duration
Fat supplies 9 kcal per gram which is 5more kcal than what carbohydrate or proteinsupplies.
Fat as a cell structure. Myelin sheat is a special fat coating thatprotects nerve fibers and helps relay the nerveimpulses.
Fat as a source of essential fatty acids. Linoleic (Omega-6) and Alpha-linoleic(Omega-3) fatty acids are not made by the body onit’s own so it needs to be obtained from foods.These fatty acids come from polyunsaturated fats.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) anddocosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are Omega-3 fattyacids that are needed for the brain development ofbabies and young children.
Fat as a regulator of body functions. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are usedto make hormone-like compounds calledeicosanoids, these help regulate bodily functionssuch as blood clotting, immune function and bloodpressure control.
EPA and DHA are precursors of natural anti-inflammatory substances called prostaglandinsand leukotrienes. Cholesterol helps in making vitamin D(calcium regulator), bile acids (emulsifiers), andhormones such as cortisol, estrogen, andtestosterone.
Fat as a contributor to feeling of fullness, taste and smell. Fats bring important ‘mouth feel’ and flavor tomany foods. Fats have also satiety value which isdue partly by the slower rate of digestion of fats incomparison to carbohydrate and protein.
Fat as an energy reserve and emergency fuel. Fat is the primary form in which energy isstored in cells, collectively called adipose tissue. One pound of stored fat is equivalent to 3500kcal. *18%-24% for women * 15%-18% for men
Fat as a protein sparer. Fat spares protein from being burned forenergy. In this way, protein can do its manyimportant tasks in the body.
Fat as an insulator and protector. Subcutaneous fat (fat layer under the skin)insulates the body against extreme temperaturesand provides a protective pad for critical organsagainst shock.Fats also helps absorb and transport vitamins A,D, E, and K.
•Fat requires the presence of enzymes (lipase)and mixing compounds (bile) from the gallbladderfor digestion.MOUTH -actions by a lingual lipase released byEbner’s glands at the back of the tongue.
INTESTINE Bile –secreted by the gal bladder to through the hormone cholecystokinin. -emulsifies fat for preparation for fat digestion by specific enzymes: pancreatic lipase (steapsin), this breaks off one fatty acid at a time from the glycerol base fats.
INTESTINE Cholesterol enterase –acts on free cholesterol to form a combination of cholesterol and fatty acids in preparation for absorption.
•Fat requirements may be computed based on totalenergy allowance per day.•Filipinos (4 to adults) require about 20 to 30%offat per day. Women= 20% Men= 30%Infants needs about 30 to 40% per day.
The following recommendation of the kind of fat arebased from the National Cholesterol EducationProgram: SFA: less than 7% of calories PUFA: up to 10% of energy intake MUFA: up to 20% of energy Cholesterol: no more than 300 mg per day is ideal.
WHAT IS YOUR UPPER LIMIT ON FAT FOR THE CALORIESYOU CONSUME?Total Calories per Saturated Fat in Total Fat in GramsDay Grams1,600 18 or less 532,000* 20 or less 652,200 24 or less 732,500* 25 or less 802,800 31 or less 93
CANCER Cancer is a condition where the cells of thebody start to grow in a rapid, uncontrollableway. Monounsatured fats and omega 3 essentialfatty acids (EFAs) have been linked with theprevention of breast cancer, coloncancer and prostate cancer. Being deficient inthese types of fat removes this protection andincreases your cancer risk.
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMIN DEFICIENCY Reducing your dietary fat intake significantlycan cause you to become deficient in theseessential vitamins which can lead to a number ofunpleasant symptoms including anemia (a low redblood cell count), vision problems, weak bones andskin problems.
UNDERNUTRITION Insufficient fat in the diet results in weightloss and thinness. Nutrition survey conducted bythe Food and Nutrition Institute suggests that manyFilipinos do not meet their energy needs from fat.
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE High blood pressure is a condition which candamage your blood vessels and vital organs. It alsoincreases your risk of a heart attack or astroke. Regular consumption of omega 3 EFAs canlower blood pressure whilst not getting enough canhave the opposite effect and lead to high bloodpressure.
HEART DISEASE Elevated blood cholesterol is a major riskfactor for heart and artery diseases.Replace saturated fats with unsaturated fat tomaintain heart health. e.g. Omega-3 fatty acids keeps cholesterol andtriglycerides levels low, stabilizing heart beat, andreducing blood pressure.
OBESITY People who eat high-fat diets regularly mayexceed their energy needs and gain weight.Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal orexcessive fat accumulation that presents a risk tohealth.A crude population measure of obesity is the bodymass index (BMI), a person’s
weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of hisor her height (in metres). A person with a BMI of30 or more is generally considered obese. Aperson with a BMI equal to or more than 25 isconsidered overweight.