Issues and challenges in integrating ict
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Issues and challenges in integrating ict Issues and challenges in integrating ict Document Transcript

  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION In 1966, Malaysia has implemented the first computer system. So, the governmentintroduced to Malaysian the several of initiatives to facilitate the greater adoption and diffusionof Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve the capacities in several fieldsuch as business, industry, education and for general life. Besides, government also include theenhancement of education and training programmes, provision of an environment conducive tothe development of ICT, provision of incentives for computerisation and automation and creationof venture capital funds. Recently, Malaysia is in full gear to drive the economy towards aknowledge-based one. While, in 1996 Malaysia identified ICT as one of the key foundations for its projectedtransition from a production-based economy to a knowledge-based economy by 2020. Indeclaring these visions, the government also acknowledged that such a transition will require aworkforce capable of exploiting ICT to create new economic opportunities. In July 1997, theMultimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Smart School Flagship Application Conceptual Blueprint waslaunched by Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia. Besides, theMSC Smart School Flagship Application is a collaborative effort between the Ministry ofEducation (MoE) and the Multimedia Development Corporation (MDeC). The ICT expertise forthe initiative was provided by the Telekom Smart School (TSS) industry consortium. TheMDeC, which has been entrusted with the development of the MSC, plays a key role in theimplementation and ensuring that targets are achieved as planned. The Malaysian Smart School is a learning institution that has been systematicallyreinvented in terms of teaching-learning practices and school management in order to preparechildren for the Information Age. There are some qualities of Malaysian Smart School thatinclude a philosophy that say all students can learn if taught, a broad curriculum that considersthe different capabilities and needs of all students, a school climate that is conducive to learningand a high level of parent and community involvement and support. In addition, the aim of theSmart School is to change the culture and practices of Malaysia’s primary and secondaryschools, moving away from rote-memory learning toward fostering creative thinking skills. Moreover, it is also incorporate students to be more innovative and creative teachingwhile emphasizing self-paced learning. By the same method, the processes relating to 1
  • curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teaching-learning materials are reinvented to helpstudents learn more effectively and efficiently, increase their comfort level with technologywhile enabling them to practice self-accessed and self-directed learning at their own pace.1.2 SMART SCHOOL INITIATIVES Based on the Smart School Initiative, there have five main goals which focus on the needto develop a skilled work force for the Information Age and to promote the goals of the NationalPhilosophy of education. The goals included increase participation of stakeholders, democratiseeducation, produce thinking and technology-literate workforce, provide all-round developmentof the individual and provide opportunities to enhance individual strengths and abilities. Toachieve those goals, an integrated set of strategies will be employed. For example, the strategiesof democratise education are to provide equal access to learning opportunities and also providefor differing abilities, styles, and paces of learning. Furthermore, the stakeholders of the Smart School, namely parents, the community, andprivate sector, play important roles in improving the performance of the school. This can beachieved through their constant involvement in the professional and knowledge developmentrelating to school management, teaching-learning, and other aspects of the Smart School.Besides, by create the awareness of what happens in schools also can attract the stakeholders bemore concern to the students. On the other hand, provide all-round development of the individualincluding intellectual, physical, emotional and spiritual can be done by emphasise thinking skills,teach values and language across the curriculum and provide the broad curriculum for all. Moreover, provision to develop individual strengths and abilities can be applied byprovide electives in the curriculum and allow for vertical integration such as virtual expressclass. While, to produce students with a thinking and technology-literate workforce, teachersmust teach them to think across the curriculum and be more creative. Besides, applyingtechnology in teaching and learning can help students in produce thinking and technology-literate workforce. Among the other ICT initiatives are TV Pendidikan, Pelaksanaan PengajaranSains dan Matematik dalam Bahasa Inggeris (PPSMI); teaching of science and mathematics inEnglish, SchoolNet and Computer Lab. TV Pendidikan is a special television channel madeavailable to schools as an alternative method of learning. The objectives of the channel are tounderline the importance of technology in the development of education among teachers and 2
  • students, and to enrich the teaching and learning process through creative and innovative use ofvarious media and technologies. There are also programs for teachers to help improve theteaching and learning process. PPSMI is an initiative to teach science and mathematics subjectsin English rather than Bahasa Malaysia.1.3 TEACHING LEARNING COMPONENTS Teaching and learning components are the main features that are important in SmartSchools. There are components used in Smart Schools which are teaching-learning process,management and administration, human resources, skills and responsibilities, processes,technology, and policies. The progress and development of Smart School in Malaysia are mainlydepends on the six components.1.3.1 Teaching-Learning Process The teaching-learning processes are the main components of the Smart School. Theprocesses are relating to curriculum, pedagogy, assessments, and teaching-learning materials.They are reinvented to make the students learning more effective and interesting. Curriculum is an important element of education. The Smart School Curriculum will bedesigned according to other successful Smart School by referring to its curriculum elements. Thecurriculum has to be well designed to enable the education system to achieve the goals ofNational Philosophy of Education. Curriculum has to be design based on the integration ofstudent knowledge and skills. It is important to help students achieve overall and balanceddevelopment in their learning. In addition, curriculum must have intended learning outcomes explicitly stated fordifferent levels of abilities. Every studenthas different levels of abilities and different thinkinglevel. So the intended learning outcomes can ensure all the students with different levels ofabilities to gain equal knowledge among them. The Malaysia Smart School has its own vision ofcurriculum. The curriculum should be meaningful, socially responsible, multicultural, reflective,holistic, global, open-ended, goal-based, and technological. 3
  • The Smart School pedagogy is used to make learning more interesting, motivating andinvolving the student’s minds in the learning process. The pedagogy used an appropriate mix oflearning strategies to ensure the meaningful learning process.The classroom atmosphere iscompatible with the different teaching-learning strategies to allow the students with different inlearning styles to boost their performance in class. In Smart School, there are many types of learning strategies such as teacher-centered,teacher as mentor and model, teacher as coach or facilitator and student-centered. In teacher-centered, the learning objectives, instructional tasks and resources for tasks are determined andselected by teachers while those tasks are determined and selected by students in student-centered strategies. In teacher as mentor and model, learning objectives are established byteachers but for instructional tasks and resources for tasks, teachers will suggest the suitabletasks from appropriate resources and students have right to give their own opinions. In pedagogy,there are also discussed about how teachers have to create suitable atmosphere for students bymanaging student’s behavior and organizing physical space. Teachers also have to make assessments on their student’s performance to get the clearvision on the student’s achievement, readiness, progress, learning styles and abilities. Besidesthat, teaching-learning materials also important in Smart School. The materials can be acquiredfrom many sources such as education network (Edunet), internet and classified printeddirectories.1.3.2 Management and Administration The management and administration of the Smart School helps the principals andheadmasters to manage resources and processes required for teaching-learningin school moreefficiently. There are nine primary functions of Smart School management that are schoolgovernance, student affairs, educational resources, external resources, finance, facilities, humanresources, security and technology. School governance and student affairs involvescommunications, school policy, making curriculum, management, student profiles, student’sperformance and evaluation that empower information to and from all the stakeholders. It alsomanages curriculum so that it is suitable and appropriate to be use in teaching and learningprocess in Malaysia Smart Schools. Resource database management and input to curriculumdevelopment are under educational resources which makes schools easier to have resources. It 4
  • also enable the school to access the national and international research database. The externalresources deal with management of resources outside the school that helps teachers andprincipals to utilize external resources effectively. The financial and maintaining and managingthe utilization of school facilities are under financial and facilities management while the humanresources department responsible in handles teachers, schools staff and school administrators.Smart School security also responsible in management because it monitor the physical andstudent safety in school while technology is important to implements and managing thetechnology components in schools to prevent problems in teaching-learning process.1.3.3 Human Resources, Skills and Responsibilities The Smart School has a commitment to provide equal opportunities for all students withdifferent needs and capabilities which it involves the development of the main stakeholders. Themain stakeholders will include teachers, principals, staff, parents and the community. Allstakeholders must have specific skills and right attitude to develop the school. Teacher is themost important person to be developed with many specific skills because they are the one thatwill teach and giving learning in school. The teachers have to undergo intensive training onInformation Technology (IT) skills because technology is the main component used in SmartSchools. The intensive training will enhance their thinking and creativity. Principal also have toattend intensive management training course to help them manage new facilities andtechnologies develop in Smart Schools.1.3.4 Processes The Smart School processes are viewed as a system. These processes will continuouslybe monitor to ensure that the system provides accurate and functional input to produce thedesired output. For the Smart School system, the major inputs are the resources which arestudents, teachers, technology and tools, and the Ministry of Education in the form of curriculumspecification, financing, management and control functions. As the system proceeds, it has toundergo through a series of sub processes. The sub processes are play roles for identifying andlocalizing teaching plans, selecting and organizing teaching-learning materials, determining astudent’s entry level, holding classroom sessions and providing feedback for the studentassessment. The sub processes normally is done by teachers who are in charge for the teachingdeliveries to the students. 5
  • 1.3.5 Technology Technology is an element that cannot be separated in Smart School because the conceptof Smart Schools is depending on the development of technology as their teaching and learningare delivered to students via technology. Technology is used as an enabler for SmartSchoolpractices in teaching-learning, management, and communicationswith externalconstituencies.1.3.6 Policies Smart Schools are same with the other institutions and schools which they have policiesthat have to be followed by all the stakeholders. The policies are important to ensure thesuccessful implementation of the SmartSchool, changes in existing policies and regulations, aswell asthe formulation of new policies and regulations, have to beconducted. Technology that arebe used in Smart Schools are have their own policies.1.4 TECHNOLOGY AS AN ENABLER Technology is required as an enabler for running the Smart Schools. Technology is usedin three ways at Smart Schools which are Smart School practices, technical requirements andSmart School technology solutions. Smart Schools practices are including teaching and learning, management system andexternal constituencies. As we know, there are many teaching and learning practices that arebeing used by teachers to help their students in Smart Schools. Some of the practices are self-exploratory learning which means every computer shall have access to the latesteducationalmaterials available locally, as well asto external resources. In this learning, students are let go byteachers to discover the technology by their own. The other example of practices is collaborative learning thatfacilitates group work withinthe classand across classes. This type of practices is suitable to be used by teachers when they areplanning to make assessment of each student by grouping. This learning can help students toshare their opinions and thought with their peer. Distance learning and experiential learning isthe creative way of learning that maybe interest students to learn more. Distance learning 6
  • focusing on the communication with outside constituencies using technology such videoconferencing, email and broadcast while experiential learning are using simulation software tostimulate learning. By using experiential learning, students will be more creative and understandto use the technology very well. Besides that, technology also used in Smart School management system. Schoolgovernance use technology as computer for communication such as video conferencing toconnect the school to the Ministry of Education for administration and policy implementationpurposes. Technology also used in student’s affair department to maintain student’s profiles andbackgrounds. For educational resources and external resources, the computer communication isused to link the schools databases to central resource databases to regulate and organizeeducational resources and also to link the schools to external constituencies. External resourcessuch as internet help students to access information for their studies. Smart School technology solutions are implemented to support, fulfill and integratetheSmart School. In school level, the requirements are varied and easy access to teaching-learning resources. The physical facilities such as classroom must be completed with equipmentincluding hardware and software. If students need to find resources from network-basedmaterials, the library should have provided them for the materials. The database center ofmultimedia courseware must be functional to help them finish their research and findings. 7
  • 1.5 OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SMART SCHOOL The smart school exists in Malaysia at 1999 as the initiative to implant the ICT skillamong the Malaysian student. There are four wave of smart school from 1999 until now. The first wave is Pilot wave. At this wave, there are only 87 schools taken to be smartschool as the trial of the project. This program gets many feedbacks from the Ministry ofEducation and local academics. The feedbacks from Ministry of Education are under-utilizationof software application and courseware, not effective technology/infrastructure/helps desk,complicated smart school management system, and some recommendation from them such asthey provide the technical support. In March to April 2003, the local academics give theiroverviews about the smart school. The overviews are limited teaching-learning materials,insufficient well-trained teacher, inadequate of the technology infrastructure, know how to utilizesome of the smart school management system component and complain from the parent that theynot aware that the pilot wave have been implanted in their school. The second wave of the smart school is the Post-Pilot wave from 2002 until 2005. Thiswave is the subsequent of the first wave, Pilot wave. In this phase, the ICT must become a keyenabler for learning. The monitoring and corrective measures are so critical that negligence inaddressing constraints highlighted in the various studies will jeopardize the successfulimplementation of the Smart School. There is an urgent need for supervision and support. Hence, 8
  • the Roadmap will need to incorporate this as an integral part of the expansion plan for SmartSchools. Wave three of the smart school is to make all schools become smart school (2005-2010)and the final wave is consolidated and stabilizes (2010-2020).The Roadmap begins with thesetting of targets to realize an advanced Smart School scenario by 2020. These targets willclarify the deliverables expected of the main players and stakeholders consisting ofrepresentatives from the Ministry of Education and its industry partners, parents, teachers andstudents. The deliverables are in the form of services to be delivered such as materials, training,etc. It also means delivering on quality, such as quality of materials and quality of training. TheSmart School expansion process adopts a performance-based approach where progress isevaluated and reported and feedback gathered for immediate corrective action. The Roadmapwill eventually lead to the realization of an advanced Smart School scenario by 2020.1.6 CHALLENGES There are many challenges in applying the smart school in Malaysia. First challenge isinformation skill. Information skills are those needed to define the information task, locate 9
  • sources and select data, process and present information and evaluate the task. Most of thestudents and teachers can be seen never have enough skill to get information. The informationskills are print, interpretive, visual and aural, expressive and technological skills. Print skill is theability to locate and read, critically and analytically, any form of print in any format, from bookto computer screen. The interpretive skills are the ability to analyze, collate, assess and interpretinformation in print, person, AV or electronic purpose in relation to information purpose. Visual and aural skills are the ability to analyze information in visual and aural forms.The expressive skills are the ability to communicate through oral or writing research results,finding, opinions, and to use technology as a communication device with confidence. Thetechnological skills are the ability to use hardware and software, when appropriate, to retrieve,process and present information. The information skills training must be delivered in a varietyways or employing flexible delivery to meet the varied needs of the client that are the student.However, it is clearly the outmost importance that the training be seen to be and be relevant andtimely. This can be done by integrating information skills training into curriculum. Through thatstrategic approach, students will value the training and benefit from its immediate application. The second challenge is pedagogical change. Pedagogy is the method and practice ofteaching, especially as an academic subject or theoretical concept. Pedagogical developmentsdemands continuing dialogue between teachers and librarians with emphases on client autonomy,information skills and the attributes of students through continual innovation. Through suchconversations, librarians are engaging with the core of education and the necessary emphasis onquality. The other challenge that can be in integrating smart school in Malaysia is the way to haveaffective e-learning in classroom. Some teacher may use the same method of e-learning to teachthe student. For example, the teacher always show video about the topic that he what to teach tothe student. At the first learning, the class was fun but the student will get bored to the methodand the learning will be ineffective. To overcome this problem, the teacher must vary thetechniques in applying the materials and technology that can be used in the classroom. Forexample, the teacher can use smart board, Educational TV (ETV), and use hardware orcourseware to increase the understanding level of the student. Most of the new coursewaredeveloped will be web-enable, so it will always be updated to the current level of study. 10
  • Other than that, the awareness of the society about smart school also can be a challengeto the smart school. The society can be parents, employer, NGO’s or religious group that alwaysobserves the development of the smart school. For them, the smart school is same as the othernormal school. In other hand, some will think that the smart school is for smart student only. So,their interest about smart school will decrease and have no interest to support the development ofthe smart school. The program of smart school is not under the ministry of education, but underthe principle of the school. This situation will give less info about smart school to the society. Toovercome this problem, a program to introduce and give info about the smart school should beheld. By held this program, the society can see the right perspective of the existence of smartschool. So, their awareness will increase and support the smart school program. In Malaysia, the schools are everywhere nowadays. To integrate the smart school, theconnection to internet coverage is very important. The issue here is the internet coverage islimited and some of the rural school does not get the connection to the internet. In other hand, theproblem faced in integrating the smart school is heavy investment of facilities. In the Pilot wave,the Smart School Integrated Solution (SSIS) was rolled out to 87 schools in the country at thecost of about USD78 million (RM300 million). The next issue is the lack of the well-trained teacher in ICT at the smart school. They lackICT knowledge and not comfortable with the use of hardware and courseware. Most of themprefer traditional way of teaching which is teaching by using text book or whiteboard. Some ofthem think that using courseware is a waste of time so they rather pay more attention on partsthat are related to exams. A teacher that knows the skill of ICT is the main element to produce e-learning classroom. At the academy, most of the teacher not taught to handle the ICT application.So, the issue nowadays is the effort to prepare teachers as catalyst for student to master the ICTskills. The intern must go through rigorous training course and undergoing retraining in five skillthat are learning skill, creative and critical thinking, facilitating, assessment and evaluation andtechnologically competent. Some teachers are not keen on using the courseware. The next problem is the lack of back up technician. Some school does not have enoughtechnicians because to hire the technician, a lot of cost must be spending. In applying the ICT inthe classroom of the smart school, some technical problem may occur. If the technical problems 11
  • occur during class, teacher and the student have to wait until for the technician to continuing thelesson. So, this situation will affect the teaching and learning process.1.7 CONCLUSION The Smart School initiative, as envisaged in the Conceptual Blueprint, can revolutionizelearning in ways that are beyond our grasp today. The Pilot and the Post-Pilot phases havehelped in identifying weaknesses and corrective steps have been identified to rectify these andenhance the strengths. Ensuring the successful implementation of the nationwide expansion ofthe Smart School will require certain moves as summarized below. From the essay, we know thesmart school has many pro and contra. Other than that, we know about the overview of the waveof smart school that are consist of four wave, Pilot, Post-Pilot, Make All School Smart by 2010and Consolidate and Stabilize.1.8 REFERENCEShttp://www.moe.edu.my/btp/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/CRF_00041.pdfhttp://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan011288.pdfhttp://www.msc.com.my/topic/About+Smart+Schoolhttp://www.ue.edu.pk/jrre/articles/52002.pdfhttp://www.mscmalaysia.my/sites/default/files/pdf/publications_references/SMART_SCHOOL_ROADMAP_020506.pdfhttp://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet26/thang.htmlhttp://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan011288.pdfhttp://www.mscmalaysia.my/sites/default/files/pdf/publications_references/SMART_SCHOOL_ROADMAP_020506.pdf 12
  • http://www.mscmalaysia.my/sites/default/files/pdf/publications_references/ImpactStudy.pdfhttp://k6.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/linkages/IntegratedUnits/TeacherLibrarians/librarians_skills.htmlhttp://www.slideshare.net/xiaojing8328002/problems-faced-by-smart-school-5330795www.mscmalaysia.my 13