Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak (Arabic: , Egyptian Arabicpronunciation: [mæˈħæmːæd ˈħosni ˈsæjːed moˈbɑːɾˤɑk], Muḥammad Ḥusnī Sayyid Mubārak; born May 4, 1928)is a former EgyptianHe served as the from .
Personal details Upon completion of high school, he joined the , where he received a in Military Sciences in 1949. On 2 February 1949, Mubarak left the Military Academy and joined the Air Force Academy, gaining his commission as a on 13 March 1950 and eventually receiving a BachelorsDegree in Aviation Sciences. Hosni Mubarak is married to , and has two sons: , and .
President of Egypt Following the assassinationof in October, 1981 by a Jihad cell in the military led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli, HosniMubarak became the fourth of , and the Chairman oftheHe was the longest serving President of Egypt, his term lasting 29 years.
According to the BBC, Mubarak has survived sixassassination attempts. In June 1995 there wasan alleged assassination attempt involvingnoxious gases and whilehe was in for a conference ofthe .Upon returnMubarak is said to have authorized bombingson , which by 1999 saw20,000 persons placed in detention related to therevolutionary Islamic organizations. He was alsoreportedly injured by a knife-wielding assailantin in September 1999.
Changing economic sceneIn July 2004, Mubarak accepted the resignation of PrimeMinister and most of the cabinet He then appointed as the new Prime Minister. The new cabinet wasgenerally viewed with optimism. Economic conditions were startingto improve considerably after a period of stagnation. The newcabinet headed by Ahmed Nazif had some success in overcomingthe grim economic situation. The Egyptian stock market had thegreatest percentage increase of all emerging markets for the fiscalyear 2004/2005. However, unemployment persisted and Mubarakcame under criticism for favoring big business and privatization asopposed to workers rights. All this was a consequence of the wideuse of privatization policy, by selling shares in most public sectorcompanies, but it was widely believed that this reserve of previouslynationalized capitals would end soon, leaving Nazifs governmentbroke
The September 2005 ballot was, therefore, a multiplecandidate election rather than a referendum, but theelectoral institutions, and security apparatus remain under the control of the President. The official state media, including the three government newspapers and state television also express views identical to the official line taken by Mubarak. In the last few years however, the cabinet headed by PrimeMinister Ahmed Nazif has been somewhat successful in turning things around. According to the List ofcountries by Human Development Index Egypt ranks 111th out of 177 countries, and rates 0.702 on the index.
On 28 July 2005, Mubarak announced his candidacy, as he hadbeen widely expected to do. The election which was scheduled for 7 September 2005 involved mass rigging activities, according to civil organizations that observed the elections. Reports have shown that Mubaraks party used government vehicles to take public employees to vote for him. Votes were bought for Mubarak in poor suburbs and rural areas. It was also reported that thousands of illegal votes were allowed for Mubarak from citizens who were not registered to vote. On 8 September 2005, , a dissident and candidate for the ("Tomorrow party"), contested the election results, and demanded a repeat of the election.
In a move widely seen as political persecution, Nour wasconvicted of forgery and sentenced to five years at hard laboron 24 December 2005. On the day of Nours guilty verdict andsentencing, the released thefollowing statement denouncing the governments action:"The United States is deeply troubled by the conviction today ofEgyptian politician Ayman Nour by an Egyptian court. Theconviction of Dr. Nour, the runner-up in Egypts 2005presidential elections, calls into question Egypts commitmentto democracy, freedom and the rule of law. We are alsodisturbed by reports that Mr. Nours health has seriouslydeclined due to the on which he has embarked inprotest of the conditions of his trial and detention. The UnitedStates calls upon the Egyptian government to act under the lawsof Egypt in the spirit of its professed desire for increasedpolitical openness and dialogue within Egyptian society, and outof humanitarian concern, to release Mr. Nour from detention."
State corruption during Mubaraks presidency State corruption during Mubaraks presidency While in office, political corruption in the Mubarak administrations Ministry of Interior rose dramatically, due to the increased power over the institutional system that is necessary to secure the prolonged presidency. Such corruption has led to the imprisonment of political figures and young activists without trials, illegal undocumented hidden detention facilities, and rejecting universities, mosques, newspapers staff members based on political inclination
On a personnel level each individual officer is allowed to violatecitizens privacy in his area using unconditioned arrests due tothe emergency law. In 2005 Freedom House, a non-governmentalorganization that conduct research into democracy, reported thatthe Egyptian governments, under Mubarak expandedbureaucratic regulations, registration requirements, and othercontrols that feed corruption.Whenever Egyptians face such controls, money is what ultimatelytriggers the requisite signature or relevant approval. Compoundingthe normal bureaucratic culture is the state ownership of many ormost of the primary economic levers – banking and financialinstitutions, tourism, oil, the Suez Canal, manufacturing, the media,and so on. Furthermore, government employees receive insufficientpay, while a decreasing minority of Egyptians achieve increasinglyvast wealth, thus creating a growing income gap between the classesand causing the supposed middle class to be squeezed to thesmallest minority between the rich and the poor.
Emergency law rule Egypt is a republic The law sharplyunder (Law circumscribes any non- No. 162 of 1958) and has governmental politicalbeen since 1967, except for activity: streetan 18-month break in 1980s demonstrations, non- (which ended with the approved political assassination of Anwar organizations, and Sadat). Under the law, unregistered financial police powers are donations are formally extended, constitutional banned. rights suspended and censorship is legalized
Presidential succession Pro-democracy advocates in Egyptargue that this goes against the principles of democracy, which include a Gamal Mubarak, son of Hosni Mubarak citizens right to a fair trial and In 2009, US Ambassadortheir right to vote for Margaret Scobey reportedwhichever candidate uncertainty regarding presidential succession, stating and/or party they "Despite incessant whispered deem fit to run their discussions, country.
“no one in Egypt has any Mubaraks ideal of a strong but certainty about who will fair leader would seem to eventually succeed discount Gamal Mubarak to Mubarak nor under what some degree, given Gamalscircumstances.“ She listed lack of military experience, and likely candidates, saying, may explain Mubaraks hands "The most likely off approach to the succession contender is presidential question." President Mubarak son Gamal Mubarak (whose profile and his son denied this, "sayingwas ever-increasing at the [that] a multi-candidate ruling party, until that electoral system introduced inparty collapsed during The 2005 has made the political Egyptian Revolution of process more transparent. 2011
journalist Abiodun Awolajadescribed a would-be succession by Gamal Mubarak as a "hereditary pseudo-monarchy". Ambassador Scobey summarised Mubaraks vision of thepresidential succession, stating, "Indeed, he seems to be trusting to God and the ubiquitous military and civilian security services to ensure an orderly transition.“ The National Democratic Party of Egyptcontinued to state that Hosni Mubarak was to be the partys only candidate to the 2011 PresedentialElections. Mubarak declared on 1 February 2011 thathe had no intention to run in the presidential race at the end of 2011.
Israeli–Palestinian. When this declaration failed toease the protests, Mubaraks vice conflictpresident stated that Gamal Hosni Mubarak is generallyMubarak, the son, will not run supportive of Israel. As hefor president. With the has been involvedescalation of the demonstration intensely in the Araband the fall of Mubarak, a former League, he has supportedinfluential figure in the National Arab efforts to achieve aDemocratic Party Hamdy El- lasting peace in the region.Sayed, claimed that Gamal The current position of theMubarak intended to forcibly League is that which wastake over his fathers position, endorsed at the Beirutassisted in that by the then Summit, on 28 MarchInterior Minister, Habib El-Adly 2002. At the summit the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,
a Saudi-inspired peace planfor the . The Peace Initiative was The initiative offered full again endorsed at 2007 in normalization of the the . In July relations with Israel. In 2007, the Arab League exchange, Israel wasdemanded to withdraw from sent a mission, consisting all , of the andincluding the , Egyptian foreign to recognize an ministers, to Israel to independent promote the initiative. in the and the with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the .
The agreement required Hamas to end rocket attacks on Israel and to enforce1 September 2010. During the lull throughout Gaza. In exchange, Middle East negotiations, Mubarak and Prime Hamas expected the blockade to end, Minister Benjamin commerce in Gaza to resume, and truckNetanyahu of Israel look attheir watches to see if it is shipments to be restored to 2005 levels, officially sunset; during Ramadan, Muslims fast which was between 500 and 600 trucks until sunset. per day. Israel tied easing of the blockade to a reduction in rocket fire and gradually re-opened supply lines and permitted around 90 daily truck shipments to enter Gaza, up from around 70 per day. Hamas criticized Israel for its continued blockade while Israel accused Hamas of continued weapons smuggling via tunnels to Egypt and pointed to continued rocket attacks.
However, when conflict again ensued during the ,Egypts foreign minister stated thatHamas had brought it upon itself. In 2009, Mubaraks government banned the , which has criticised his lack of action against Israel.
Revolution and Resignation Massive protests centered on CairosTahrir Square led to Mubaraks resignation in February 2011.
Mass protests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in Cairo and other Egyptian cities on 25 January 2011. On 1 February, Mubarak announced he would not contestthe due in September. He also promised constitutional reform. This did not satisfy the majority of protesters as they expected Mubarak to depart immediately. The demonstrations continued and on 2 February, violent clashes occurred between pro-Mubarak and anti-Mubarak protestors. On 10 February, contrary to rumors, Mubarak asserted that he would not resign until the September election, though he would be delegating responsibilities to Vice President Omar . The next day, Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned.The announcement sparked cheers, flag- waving, and celebrations from protesters in Egypt afterMubaraks announcement of resignation. Discussions began about the nations future direction.
PROTEST On 25 January 2011, protests against Mubarak and hisgovernment erupted in Cairo and around Egypt calling for Mubaraks resignation. The group protesting in s was so large they could be seenfrom space as they rallied Mubaraks resignation, chantinganti-Mubarak slogans. Mubarak stated in a speech that he will not leave and will die on Egyptian soil. Opposition leader paid no attention to Mubaraks remarks and labeled it as a trick for Mubarak to stay in power. In a state televised broadcast on 1 February 2011, Mubarak announced that he would not seek re-election in September but would like to finish his current term and promised constitutional reform.
This compromise was not REMARKS MADE acceptable for the President Mahmoud Ahmadenijad of Iran supported protestors and violent Egypt during the Islamicdemonstrations occurred in revolution anniversary. He said front of the Presidential that "there is a new Middle EastPalace where pro- and anti- being born". He also warned Egyptians to beware Mubarak protestors of America. President Barack clashed. On 11 February, Obama made a few remarks on Vice President Omar the Egyptian revolt. "It was the Suleiman announced the moral force of non-violence thatresignation of Mubarak and bent the arc of history toward justice once more," said President that power would be Obama. "Today belongs to theturned over to the Egyptian people of Egypt." He also said that military the United States "will continue to be a friend and partner (of Egypt).
POST-RESIGNATION Following his resignation, Mubarak did not make any On 28 February 2011, themedia appearances. With the General Prosecutor of Egypt exception of family and a issued an order prohibiting close circle of aides, he Mubarak and his family fromreportedly refused to talk to leaving Egypt. It was reportedanyone, even his supporters. that the former president wasHis health was speculated tobe rapidly deteriorating with in contact with his lawyer in some reports even alleging case of possible criminal him to be in a coma. Most charges against him. As a sources claim that he is no result, Mubarak and his family longer interested in had been under house arrest at performing any duties and a presidential palace in the Red wants to "die in Sharm El- Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheikh. Sheikh."
On 13 April, a prosecutor originally appointed byMubarak ordered the former president and both hissons to be detained for 15 days of questioning aboutallegations of corruption and abuse of power amidst growing suspicion that the Egyptian military was more aligned with the Mubaraks than with the revolution. Gamal and Alaa were jailed in ToraPrison, while state television reported that Mubarakwas in police custody in a hospital near his residence following a heart attack.
On 28 May 2011, a Cairo administrative court found him guilty of damaging the national economy during the protests by shutting down the Internet and telephone services. He was fined LE200 million (about US$33.6 million), which the court ordered he must pay from his personal assets. This was the first court ruling against Mubarak, who will next have to answer to the murder charges. Hosni Mubarak and his two sons Alaa and Gamal, willstand trial on August 3, 2011 at the North Cairo criminal court.The charges are corruption and killing protestors during the mass movement to oust him according to Egypts Middle East News Agency. Mubarak could be charged with pre-mediated killing and could face the death penalty if found guilty
H e a l t h On 12 April 2011, it wasMubarak was reportedly reported that Mubarak haddepressed, refused to take been hospitalized aftermedications, and was suffering a heart attack duringslipping in and out of questioning over possibleconsciousness. corruption charges Mubarak wants to be left In June 2011, Mubaraks lawyer alone and die in his Farid el-Deeb disclosed that his homeland client "has stomach cancer, andMubarak was writing his the cancer is growing."memoirs, stating that he wasin a state of almost complete Mubarak had undergoneunconsciousness surgery for the condition in Germany the year prior and also suffers from circulatoryMubarak was near death and in problems with an irregulara coma heart beat
Wealth and allegations of personal corruptionexperts believed the personalwealth of Mubarak and his family tobe between US$40 billion and$70 billion founded on militarycontracts made during his time asan air force officer Britains Guardian newspaper also reported that Mubarak and his family might be worth up to $70 billion due to corruption, kickbacks and legitimate business activities. The money was said to be spread out in various bank accounts at home and abroad, including Switzerland and Britain, and also invested in foreign property.
The Prosecutor General also ordered the EgyptianForeign Minster to communicate this to othercountries where Mubarak and his family could haveassets. This order came two days after Egyptiannewspapers reported that Mubarak filed his financialstatement. The Egyptian regulations mandategovernment officials to submit a financial statementlisting his / her total assets and sources of incomeduring governmental work. On 21 February 2011, theEgyptian Military Council, which was temporarilygiven the presidential authorities following the 25January 2011 Revolution, declared no objection to atrial of Mubarak on charges of corruption
On 23 February 2011, the Egyptian newspaperEldostor reported that a "knowledgeable source"described the order of the Prosecutor General forfreezing Mubaraks assets and the threats of alegal action as nothing but a signal for Mubarakto leave Egypt after a number of attempts weremade to encourage him to leave willingly. InFebruary 2011, Voice of America reported thatEgypts top prosecutor has ordered a travel banand an asset freeze for former President HosniMubarak and his family, as he considers furtheraction
•Chairman of the Non-aligned Movement •Re-elected for a fifth term of office (2005) •Chairman of the G-15 (1998 & 2002)•Re-elected for a fourth term of office (1999) •Chairman of the Arab Summit since June (1996) •Chairman of the OAU (1993–94) •Re-elected for a third term of office (1993) •Chairman of the OAU (1989–90)•Re-elected for a second term of office (1987) President of the National Democratic Party (1982)
•President of the Republic (1981) •Vice-President of the National Democratic Party (NDP) (1979) •Vice-President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (1975) Awards •Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General / Air Marshal •Mubarak was awarded (1974) the Jawaharlal Nehru Award in •Commander of the Air Force and 1995. Deputy Minister of Defense (1972) •Honor Star Medal " twice. •Chief of Staff of the Air Force •Military Training " medal. (1969) •Military Honor Medal " Knight •Director of the Air Force Rank from the President of Syria. Academy (1968) •Honor Star Medal " from the PLO.•Commander of Cairo West Air Base •Decoration of King Abdul Aziz- (1964) Excellent Degree" from King Faisal •Joined Frunze Military Bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saoud. Academy, USSR (1964) Hamayon Merit from Emperor Lecturer in Air Force Academy Mohamed Reda Bahlawy (1952–59) [Muhammad Reza Phalavi, Iran
A monument to Hosni Mubarak waserected in 2007in Xırdalan (Azerbaijan). TheAzerbaijani Musavat party hasadvocated the demolition of the statuein order to avoid idolatry. Themonument was destroyed, and astatue symbolizing Egypt and AncientEgyptian culture was erected instead.
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