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Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
Icce2011 final
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Icce2011 final

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  • THANK YOU FOR INVITING ME Say something about my background
  • I was interested to hear that Thailand is investing in tablet PCs for learners. One of the empirical studies that influenced the design of the Ecology of Resources came from a study that used tablet PCs. The following brief extract from a story about one of the learners constructed from the multiple data sources offers a rare insight into home learning… … Once again the Homework Tablets come home for the weekend on 29 April. Alison has friends visiting and on Saturday afternoon she shows them her Homework Tablet. She shows them some of the videos, games and exercises. They open up the camera, play InkBall, and write in Windows Journal. Later that same day at about 6.50pm Alison and Dad use the camera in the garden. Alison also spends 3 to 4 minutes completing some Number Crew Calculations, watching a Number Crew video and opening her completed Skill 5 homework activity. … Later this evening at around 8.15 pm Alison does one of the homework activities in her bedroom on the bed with Dad. Alison does the ‘Ten thing Bowling’ Activity Alison then does level 2 of the Skill 5 homework activity for about 5 minutes and finishes this session by watching some Number Crew videos with Dad. On Thursday Alison uses her Tablet with her Mum and Elizabeth at about 5.15pm while they watch Catherine take part in a Karate lesson, so they use the headphones. Alison spends a few minutes writing in the Journal and they then watch 2 videos and complete activities 8 and 6 before watching another video … Narratives such as this provide interesting information about the ways in which the design of the system might be further improved. Alison makes use of the flexibility offered by the technology and uses her Homework Tablet in a variety of locations, including the lounge, her bedroom, the garden and at her sister’s Karate club. She works on the floor, sofa, at a table or on her bed and at many different times throughout the day from just after 8 in the morning until after 9 pm at night. The choices about when and where to work on her numeracy can be made by her within the constraints negotiated with her family. Sometimes she works on an activity for a minute or two and on other occasions for 25 minutes. The Homework tablet is often used on more than one occasion in a day and for sessions of up to 40 minutes. Alison works on the homework activities set by Miss Green, but does much more besides these and clearly enjoys herself, provided that the technology is working properly. She is able to choose what she wants to work on, she can show it to her friends and other family members and in so doing behave independently. The numeracy activities sometimes offer Alison the opportunity to record information about her life outside school and she can also use the camera to capture information for numeracy activities about her home. The whole family get involved with the numeracy activities available through the Homework Tablet. Mum, Dad and sisters all work with Alison during the study. They can do this in a way that fits with family life. Mum reports that she has an increased awareness of the numeracy that Alison is working on at school. Mum also reports that Alison’s interest in numeracy has increased and that she has enjoyed the activities.
  • The Ecology of Resources model maps out the different types of element that might offer interactive possibilities for a particular learner and it considers the interactions that can exist between these element types . The model has the learner at its centre. One of the categories of element that the learner needs to interact with is the concepts that make up the knowledge and skills that are the subject of the learning. This is represented by the ‘Knowledge’ label, but it is important to stress that this label encompasses skills, as well as knowledge of scientific concepts,. A second category is that represented by the ‘Resources’ label. These are all the various resources that might help the learner to learn and include books, pens and paper, technology and other people, some of whom know more about the Knowledge or skill to be learnt than the learner. The last category of context element is that represented by the ‘Environment’ label. This is the location and surrounding environment with which the learner interacts. This might be a school classroom, a park or a place of work. In many instances a relationship already exists between these three types of contextual element: Knowledge (and skills), Resources (human and artefact) and Environment. Hence the categories of element surrounding the learner and with which they interact are joined together. In order to support learning the relationships between the different type of element with which the learner interacts need to be understood and can be used to build coherence into the interactions experienced by the learner. However, a learner’s interactions with the elements of that make up her context are often filtered by the actions of others rather than experienced directly by the learner. For example, the Knowledge or skills that are to be learnt are usually filtered through some kind of organisation or Curriculum, for example, that has been the subject of a process of validation by other members of the learner’s society. This filter is stronger for subjects such as maths and other formal educational disciplines than for more grounded skills such as motor mechanics. However, even with skills based subjects there is still, to some extent at least, formalisation of what is recognised as the accepted view about the nature and components of the skill that need to be mastered. The Resources that may be available to the learner are also administered in some way. This resource administration forms a filter in terms of a learners’ access to at least some of the resources that might be available to help her learn. Finally, a learner’s access to the Environment is mediated by that Environment’s organisation. As in the case of Knowledge, this organisation filter is more obvious in formal settings such as schools where timetables and regulations have a strong influence on the ways in which learners interact with their environment. In the same way that there may already exist relationships between the different context elements, there may also exist a relationship between these filter elements. For example, the organization of the numeracy curriculum in the Homework project example influenced the teacher’s choice of resource for her lesson plan and the nature of the technology that was to be used by learners: the interactive whiteboard or the tablet PC. The layout of the classroom was also influenced by the nature of the resources being used, a floor space near the interactive whiteboard large enough to seat the whole class. These relationships are illustrated through the connections between the Filters. Once again, the coherence of the learner’s experience can be enhanced through careful consideration of the existing relationships between the Filters and between the individual Context Elements and their associated Filters. Relationships in the Ecology of Resources The Ecology of Resources model represents the learner holistically with respect to the interactions that make up their context. The model draws attention to different categories of element and identifies the existence of filter elements to highlight where there may be perturbations, which can be both negative or positive, in the learner’s interactions. However, it is the relationships and interactions between elements and between learner and elements that are of real interest. It is therefore to these that we pay particular attention here. These relationships are complex. Each category of element and therefore each element in that category is related to each of the other elements as well as to the learner. As indicated in the early discussions of the Ecolab software context illustrated earlier the nature of the relationship represented by the arrows in the Ecology of Resources model is one of influence. One element influences a second and that second element is influenced by the first. There are also relationships and interactions between the elements that are part of the same category of element. These relationships are of four types: influences relationships as already discussed component relationships in which one element is part of another typology relationships in which one element is a type of another social relationships such as that between family members, friends or communities.
  • NB WIKI
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  • A loose visualisation of the EoR in a real-world context Knowledge construction Available resources Significant features Time/Space Filters/Mediation Photographs represent a combination of Category/Filter elements in which, for example, cards (categories) present knowledge and activity pad/coding/action cards operate as triggers/filters for that knowledge Student D here playing game – iteration 4 – prior to trip – already well developed Photo 1 – game play (components – cards, question wheel, activity pad, etc.) Photo 2 – Student D using mobile phone on trip to London Planetarium Learner context – developing understanding over time. Explain components briefly and how these came about, what they do, how they contribute to EoR model. Explain will cover participatory, iterative features later when discuss learner’s learning trajectories. Next, show how these two learner situations might be mapped onto EoR model.
  • CSCL
  • Transcript

    • 1. “ The Ecology of Resources, a Pedagogy of Plenty for Contextualized Learning” Rosemary Luckin [email_address]
    • 2. Agenda <ul><li>Part 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background: the foundation for the research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ecology of Resources: the model and framework that drives the research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking on the Teenagers using the EoR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-using technology designed using the EoR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What else can the EoR be used for? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul></ul>
    • 3. Part 1
    • 4.  
    • 5. Theoretical Background <ul><li>Context matters to learning; it is complex and local to a learner. </li></ul><ul><li>A learner is not exposed to multiple contexts, but rather has a single context that is their lived experience of the world that reflects their interactions with multiple resources : people, artefacts and environments. </li></ul><ul><li>The partial descriptions of the world that are offered to a learner through these resources act as the hooks for interactions in which action and meaning are built through internalization . </li></ul>
    • 6. This is very complex, but can we come up with a way of thinking about context that is simple, without being too simple? « Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. » Albert Einstein
    • 7. The Zone of Proximal Adjustment and Scaffolding A = Zone of Available Assistance learner B = Zone of Proximal Adjustment ZPD more able partner
    • 8. A = Zone of Available Assistance learner learner
    • 9. Key = context category element = filter element Resources learner
    • 10. Tools and People Knowledge and Skills Environment Key = context category element = filter element learner Filter Filter Filter
    • 11. The EoR Design framework Participatory 3 Phases
    • 12. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Specifying the Focus of Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Categorizing Resource Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Identify potential Resource Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 5 – Identify the Learner’s Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 6 – Identify potential More Able Partners . </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Tools and People Knowledge and Skills Environment Key = context category element = filter element learner Filter Filter Filter
    • 14. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Specifying the Focus of Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Categorizing Resource Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Identify potential Resource Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 5 – Identify the Learner’s Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 6 – Identify potential More Able Partners . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Identify the relationships within and between the resources produced in Phase 1 . Identify the extent to which these relationships meet a learner’s needs and how they might be optimized with respect to that learner. </li></ul>
    • 15. Tools and People Knowledge and Skills Environment Key = context category element = filter element learner Filter Filter Filter
    • 16. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Specifying the Focus of Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Categorizing Resource Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Identify potential Resource Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 5 – Identify the Learner’s Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 6 – Identify potential More Able Partners . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Identify the relationships within and between the resources produced in Phase 1 . Identify the extent to which these relationships meet a learner’s needs and how they might be optimized with respect to that learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Develop the Scaffolds and Adjustments to support the learning relationships identified in Phase 2 and enable the negotiation of a ZPA for a learner. </li></ul>
    • 17. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Specifying the Focus of Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Categorizing Resource Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Identify potential Resource Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 5 – Identify the Learner’s Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 6 – Identify potential More Able Partners . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Identify the relationships within and between the resources produced in Phase 1 . Identify the extent to which these relationships meet a learner’s needs and how they might be optimized with respect to that learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Develop the Scaffolds and Adjustments to support the learning relationships identified in Phase 2 and enable the negotiation of a ZPA for a learner. </li></ul>
    • 18. Tools and People Knowledge and Skills Environment Key = context category element = filter element learner Filter Filter Filter
    • 19. The Zone of Proximal Adjustment and Scaffolding A = Zone of Available Assistance learner B = Zone of Proximal Adjustment ZPD more able partner
    • 20. End of Part 1 http://eorframework.pbworks.com/
    • 21. Part 2 Using the EoR 15
    • 22. TAKING ON THE TEENAGERS (“TAKTEEN”) AN EXAMPLE OF PHASE 1 OF THE EOR <ul><li>Katerina Avramides and Brock Craft </li></ul>ACS-Cobham International School
    • 23. Project aim & driving questions <ul><li>Design technology enhanced experiences to support learning about energy sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Initial research questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we use digital technology to change the domestic energy-use behaviour of teenagers? </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. What do we already know? <ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change and resource scarcity have brought energy sustainability to the forefront of environmental concerns. BUT energy consumption is rising and few people take measures to save energy (Whitmarsh, 2009), </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly little evidence of behaviour change over the long-term even (Abrahamse, Steg, Vlek & Rothengatter, 2005), or that has a high impact on energy demand (Gatersleben, Steg & Vlek, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>People are more willing to adopt changes in their behaviour that do not require much effort , such as recycling, but which have small impacts , and much less willing to adopt behaviours that have high impacts but are inconvenient, such as choosing alternatives to car travel (Lorenzoni et al., 2007; Crompton & Thøgersen, 2009; Lindenberg & Steg, 2007). </li></ul>
    • 25. What do we already know? <ul><li>Little is known about teenagers’ conceptions of the issues around energy use. BUT there is evidence implicating teenagers in increased energy household bills (Thøgersen & Grønhøj, 2010; BBC, 2006) with few consciously acting to save energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex : behaviour influenced by many factors , including knowledge and attitudes as well as contextual factors, such as habit and availability of alternatives (Stern, 2000; Whitmarsh, 2009; Gatersleben et al., 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Teenagers are not the principal decision-makers within the household but they are well placed to have an impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Change that is based on knowledge and concern is likely to be more robust than changes in circumstances alone (Lindernber & Steg, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>In order for teenagers to become effective agents for change , they must be informed and for the learning experience to be effective, information must be made relevant to individuals’ behaviour and choices. </li></ul>
    • 26. Refined Research Questions <ul><ul><li>How do teenagers conceptualise their energy use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How aware are teenagers of the energy they use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are teenagers’ attitudes towards energy saving? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the sources of teenagers’ information about energy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the influences on teenagers’ understanding of energy and on their energy related behaviour ? </li></ul></ul>
    • 27. Study 1 <ul><li>Exploratory study in March/April 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 students (14-17 year olds) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo-diary study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narratives from diary study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion around energy use based on narratives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal presentation about energy use and saving & small group discussion </li></ul></ul>
    • 28.  
    • 29.  
    • 30. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul>
    • 31. Applying the EoR – phase 1, step 1 <ul><li>Identify resources in learners’ contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>2 researchers analyse the data separately to identify resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, laptop, phone, texting, eating breakfast, heating dinner, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the audio recordings of the discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, parents tell them to switch lights off, understanding of environmental impact of energy use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the formal presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, conceptions of where energy is needed, laptop, heater, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 32. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Specifying the Focus of Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Categorizing Resource Elements </li></ul></ul>
    • 33. Applying the EoR – phase 1, step 3 <ul><li>Applying the EoR categories to the grouped data </li></ul><ul><li>2 researchers combine their findings and group the data and divide it into the EoR resources categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge/Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of alternative products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People/Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, parents, teachers, internet, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, school, home, bedroom, car </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 34. Tools and People parents, teachers, internet, mobile phone, TV, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) Knowledge and Skills knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of products & alternative Environment , school (classroom, computer lab, social space), home (bedroom, family room, kitchen), car Key = context category element = filter element learner
    • 35. Resources Knowledge/Skills HOTS Knowledge of magnitude of energy problem Nutrition: energy / health Knowledge of energy used in food production Knowledge of other environmental issues in food production Skills to evaluate and apply above knowledge Knowledge of (and skills in finding) alternative food products People/Tools Parents, Friends, teachers, food, drink, shampoo, toothpaste Technology (phone, TV, laptop, facebook, iPod), Internet Environment School Home (bedroom, garden, study area) Shops Travelling (car) Tools and People parents, teachers, internet, laptop, toothpaste, shampoo, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) Key = context category element = filter element Knowledge and Skills knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of alternative products Environment , school (classroom, computer lab, social space), home (bedroom, family room, kitchen), car
    • 36. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Specifying the Focus of Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Categorizing Resource Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Identify potential Resource Filters </li></ul></ul>
    • 37. Applying the EoR – phase 1, steps 4 & 5 <ul><li>The filters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, social norms, past diet, who does the shopping, marketing/commercials </li></ul></ul>
    • 38. Knowledge and Skills knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of products & alternative Environment , school (classroom, computer lab, social space), home (bedroom, family room, kitchen), car Tools and People parents, teachers, internet, mobile phone, TV, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) Marketing/commercials Environmental and health campaigns Parent’s knowledge of energy consumption Timetable, Time/weekdays/weekend Key = context category element = filter element learner
    • 39. Resources Filters Knowledge/Skills HOTS Knowledge of magnitude of energy problem Nutrition: energy / health Knowledge of energy used in food production Knowledge of other environmental issues in food production Skills to evaluate and apply above knowledge Knowledge of (and skills in finding) alternative food products People/Tools Parents, Friends, teachers, food, drink, shampoo, toothpaste Technology (phone, TV, laptop, facebook, iPod), Internet Environment School Home (bedroom, garden, study area) Shops Travelling (car) Parent’s knowledge of energy consumption Marketing/commercials Environmental and health campaigns Family diet (food availability at home) Food availability at school Food availability in shops (shops available) Who does the shopping Past diet Social norms Fashion Leisure Social occasions Time/weekdays/weekend Comfort Holiday Timetable Convenience of food (portability)
    • 40. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Specifying the Focus of Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Categorizing Resource Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Identify potential Resource Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 5 – Identify the Learner’s Resources </li></ul></ul>
    • 41. Applying the EoR – phase 1, steps 4 & 5 <ul><li>The learner’s resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, belief in responsibility on energy issues, diet preferences, taste, comfort, conceptions around saving energy tied with ideas of not wasting </li></ul></ul>
    • 42. Self-awareness of diet choices   Comfort preferences/values   Taste Tools and People parents, teachers, internet, mobile phone, TV, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) Key = context category element = filter element learner Knowledge and Skills knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of products & alternative Environment , school (classroom, computer lab, social space), home (bedroom, family room, kitchen), car
    • 43. Resources Filters Learner Knowledge/Skills HOTS Knowledge of magnitude of energy problem Nutrition: energy / health Knowledge of energy used in food production Knowledge of other environmental issues in food production Skills to evaluate and apply above knowledge Knowledge of (and skills in finding) alternative food products People/Tools Parents, Friends, teachers, food, drink, shampoo, toothpaste Technology (phone, TV, laptop, facebook, iPod), Internet Environment School Home (bedroom, garden, study area) Shops Travelling (car) Parent’s knowledge of energy consumption Marketing/commercials Environmental and health campaigns Family diet (food availability at home) Food availability at school Food availability in shops (shops available) Who does the shopping Past diet Social norms Fashion Leisure Social occasions Time/weekdays/weekend Comfort Holiday Timetable Convenience of food (portability) Knowledge of energy used in food production & transportation Belief in who has responsibility (personal/consumer, adult, government) Environmental concern/attitudes/motivation Consistency in factors influencing choice Knowledge of alternatives Perception of availability of alternatives Food preferences Diet choice Self-awareness of diet choices Comfort preferences/values Taste Knowledge of dietary requirements Brand preference/loyalty
    • 44. Design Framework <ul><li>A Design framework and a set of associated tools and methods </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Create an Ecology of Resources Model to identify and organize the potential forms of assistance that can act as resources for learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1 – Brainstorming Potential Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to identify learners’ ZAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Specifying the Focus of Attention </li></ul></ul>
    • 45. Confirmation of analysis and EoR phase 1, step 2 <ul><li>The first study had indicated that there were three groups of energy artefacts that are most relevant to our participants: </li></ul><ul><li>electronic devices, food, personal care products . </li></ul><ul><li>Follow on study in October 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group with 5 of March study participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus group with 30 new participants (also 14-17 year olds) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two aims to focus groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation of analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dig deeper into conceptions and motivations through questionnaires and group discussion </li></ul></ul>25
    • 46. Tools and People Knowledge and Skills Environment Key = context category element = filter element learner Filter Filter Filter
    • 47. Emerging Findings - Learner Resources: conceptions <ul><li>Key is learning about energy intensity of lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data show low understanding of energy problems & low awareness of the relative energy intensity of different behaviours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support learning about indirect energy use (focus of teens is on electricity) </li></ul><ul><li>Support awareness of personal contribution to energy use in family and community (teen focus on individual use) </li></ul><ul><li>Misconceptions about their understanding – they believe they have a good understanding even though their awareness is low </li></ul><ul><li>Data suggest low awareness of where to find information about energy saving </li></ul>
    • 48. Emerging Findings - Learner resources: concern and motivation <ul><li>Energy consumption believed to be a problem that will affect them, but level of concern is not proportionate </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to save energy is primarily price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some motivation to not waste energy, but not to change lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indication that having an understanding about energy problems is important to teens </li></ul>
    • 49. Emerging Findings - Supporting learning – the basis for moving on to phase 2 and design? <ul><li>Energy use teens learn about must be personally relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Energy use to include both direct and indirect energy </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcome must include skills in identifying behaviour as energy intensive and finding out about impact and alternatives . Also skills in identifying personal barriers and findings solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For long-term impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase ability and confidence in being able to find alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Include a collaborative element </li></ul>
    • 50.  
    • 51. Re-using technology 35
    • 52. JOSHUA UNDERWOOD - MILEXICON ACS-Cobham International School
    • 53. Collecting vocabulary
    • 54.  
    • 55. Re-use the MiLexicon Mobile app <ul><li>Step 1: Capture behaviour (photo, video, text) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Self-assess understanding of energy intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Explore energy intensity of behaviour through (pre-stored) resources </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Share findings – discuss with others </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Find less energy intensive alternatives (collaboratively) </li></ul>
    • 56. Diet Coke Produced in US, ingredients = sugar, caffeine, water Collecting vocabulary
    • 57.  
    • 58. Item record
    • 59. Rate understanding How well do you understand the energy implications of Diet Coke (rate yourself from 1 to 5) How energy efficient is your use of Diet Coke (rate yourself from 1 to 5)
    • 60. How well do you understand the energy implications of Diet Coke (rate yourself from 1 to 5) How energy efficient is your use of Diet Coke (rate yourself from 1 to 5) Wikipaedia National Geographahic BBC Bitesize Channel4 Learning Grid Google Global Action Plan
    • 61. How well do you understand the energy implications of Diet Coke (rate yourself from 1 to 5) How energy efficient is your use of Diet Coke (rate yourself from 1 to 5)
    • 62. The data we collect will help us to complete phase 2 and possibly move on to phase 3 <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Identify the relationships within and between the resources produced in Phase 1 . Identify the extent to which these relationships meet a learner’s needs and how they might be optimized with respect to that learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Develop the Scaffolds and Adjustments to support the learning relationships identified in Phase 2 and enable the negotiation of a ZPA for a learner. </li></ul>
    • 63. Part 3
    • 64. Tools and People parents, teachers, internet, mobile phone, TV, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) Knowledge and Skills knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of products & alternative Environment , school (classroom, computer lab, social space), home (bedroom, family room, kitchen), car Key = context category element = filter element learner
    • 65. Tools and People parents, teachers, internet, mobile phone, TV, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) Knowledge and Skills knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of products & alternative Environment , school (classroom, computer lab, social space), home (bedroom, family room, kitchen), car Currently students only use a tiny part of their energy EoR Key = context category element = filter element learner
    • 66. parents, teachers, phone, TV, knowledge of products & alternative school (classroom, computer lab, The filters are limited, but quite strong Key = context category element = filter element learner Marketing/commercials Environmental and health campaigns Teachers/ Parent’s knowledge of energy consumption Timetable, Time/weekdays/weekend
    • 67. Knowledge and Skills knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of products & alternative Environment , school (classroom, computer lab, social space), home (bedroom, family room, kitchen), car Tools and People parents, teachers, internet, mobile phone, TV, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) We need to help learners and their teachers to use more of the available resources and to make better connections Key = context category element = filter element learner Marketing/commercials Environmental and health campaigns Parent’s knowledge of energy consumption Timetable, Time/weekdays/weekend Marketing/commercials Environmental and health campaigns Parent’s knowledge of energy consumption Timetable, Time/weekdays/weekend
    • 68. Self-awareness of Self-awareness of diet choices Comfort preferences/values Taste Tools and People parents, teachers, internet, mobile phone, TV, food (muffins, cereal etc.), drink (water, coke etc.) We also need to help the learner strengthen the resources they bring to their learning Marketing/commercials Environmental and health campaigns Parent’s knowledge of energy consumption Timetable, Time/weekdays/weekend Key = context category element = filter element learner Knowledge and Skills knowledge of energy used in food production, higher order thinking skills, knowledge of products & alternative Environment , school (classroom, computer lab, social space), home (bedroom, family room, kitchen), car
    • 69. Taking on the teenagers <ul><li>Working with teenagers and their teacher to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand their context for learning; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a way to use technology/ a technology; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make them more aware of the resources available to them; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support greater learner and teacher voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The teacher has taken on the work and is building it into her curriculum – she asks to come to data analysis sessions and to know about the EoR. </li></ul>
    • 70. Other uses of the EoR 45
    • 71. How can mobile phones & software help me better connect my experiences, my PLE & my mental lexicon across settings & episodes? Capture Sustained Inquiry over settings and episodes using resources for investigating, sharing & making meaning Stimuli interactions with language in the world + Thesaurus Examples Teachers Native Speakers Etc… Friends Google Blogs Dictionaries Pronunciation tools Signs Announcements Language classes Reading, etc… TV Conversations Books Songs Radio
    • 72. Learners and teachers planning a school trip
    • 73.  
    • 74. 50
    • 75. Concluding remarks <ul><li>Context is Complex and it is important to learning so we must try and understand it </li></ul><ul><li>We need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways to talk about context that can inform the design and use of technology for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ‘Pedagogy of Plenty’ to identify and make use of the wide range of resources that are potentially available to support learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A design framework that helps us to ‘tap into’ the learners’ circumstances and to help them and their teachers take advantage of the resources available ot them </li></ul></ul>
    • 76. What can the Ecology of Resources approach offer? <ul><li>The Ecology of Resources approach does take time </li></ul><ul><li>There are benefits - It offers a way to: </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about learners holistically – to sensitize us and them to the range of interactions that constitute their contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Frame the participatory design process </li></ul><ul><li>Explore data to understand more about learners’ contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Empower learners by making them more aware of the resources that are available to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the assistance that could be available and the way that learners’ interactions with it might be filtered and supported </li></ul><ul><li>Identify situations where scaffolding might be used </li></ul>
    • 77. The future and LGC <ul><ul><li>Methods and Tools to support the process (W.I.P.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building up a library of case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging more people is using the EoR </li></ul><ul><li>Learner Generated Contexts </li></ul>http://eorframework.pbworks.com/
    • 78.  

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