Nursery and floriculture and how Aquaza can help


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Hydrogen peroxide is definitely acknowledged to contain wide range of advantages - typically it has been frequently known as successful against a huge array of micro-organisms, is a superb virucide and breaks down into water and oxygen. However, it has a serious drawback and that is it's out of control response as soon as it comes into contact with micro-organisms as well as organics - it means that it is actually not effective and that there is a lot waste. Aquaza overcams this problem.

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Nursery and floriculture and how Aquaza can help

  1. 1. NURSERY & FLORICULTURE OXYGATION – Aquaza encapsulated oxygen delivery for increased health, rooting and growth of cuttings, seedlings, flowers & plantsINTRODUCTION:Oxygation is the science of adding Oxygen to irrigation water in order to change the growing environment fromanaerobic to aerobic and thus improve plant health and growth.Aquaza OXY 300 is dosed at between 20 - 50 ppm in the irrigation water, and due to its unique form of stability itbrings the following advantages to horticulture and floriculture; 1.) Pathogen & Chlorine elimination in irrigation water 2.) Biofilm eradication in irrigation systems 3.) Increased depth of pathogen free aerobic root environment 4.) Enhanced success and rooting of grafts and cuttings during propagation 5.) Reduction of plant stress due to under watering, re-planting, excess salinity & fertilizer/chemical overload 6.) Enhancement of plant immune system and response to pathogenic infection 7.) Increased vascular systems leading to increased water and nutrient uptake 8.) Quicker and increased vegetative (biomass) and regenerative growth (harvest yield) cAquaza OXY 300 uses molecular encapsulation technology to deliver and selectively release Oxygen from a FoodGrade Hydrogen peroxide carrier. OXY 300 Hydrogen peroxide molecules are encapsulated in a vegetable glycerinesheath that selectively controls the decomposition of the H2O2 into water and Oxygen.The controlled reactivity of Aquaza OXY 300 allows for accurate dosing and efcient efcacy at extremely low ppmdilutions. The usual chain reaction decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide is severely limited by the encapsulationtechnology, resulting in no phytotoxic burn effect and maximum use of each and every available Oxygen atom.Aquaza has a long lasting effect as only the necessary amount of Oxygen to neutralize the Biological Oxygen Demandis released, the balance of the Hydrogen peroxide remains “On Guard” until more organic pollution is encountered. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 1
  2. 2. NURSERY & FLORICULTUREOxygation is usually atempted by inefcient means such as Venturi Inlets, Ozone or standard Hydrogen peroxide,but now it can be done economically and efciently with Aquaza OXY 300.VENTURI INLETS:Venturi inlets only add small quantities of O2 to the water. O2 is not a reactive Oxygen species, so has a very limitedand short-lived efcacy. While it does increase the dissolved Oxygen levels slightly, it does not remove Biofilm orbenefit plant health greatly.OZONE:Ozone is O3, and when added to water it forms Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This is the most unstable form ofHydrogen peroxide and its efcacy is extremely short-lived as it decomposes back into water and Oxygen within 10 -20 minutes. The Oxygen atoms quickly lose their reactive capabilities by forming O2 and dissipating into the air.HYDROGEN PEROXIDE:Hydrogen peroxide is H2O2 - water with an extra Oxygen atom - and has long been known for its positive effect onplants. Science has proven that it is a known signaler for plant growth and stress mediation, as well as being the firstline of defence against infection. Please see Annex 1 for a list of scientific research completed in this area.The disadvantages of regular Hydrogen peroxide are;a.) H2O2 is highly unstable, making it uneconomical and inefcient – between 70 to 90% of the available Oxygen iswasted and dissipates as O2 into the atmosphere.b.) H2O2 readily decomposes in chain reactions which result in phytotoxic burn and shock to plants.c.) Due to the instability of H2O2 stabilisers are usually added, but these toxic chemicals and heavy metals remainbehind as unwanted residues, making stabilised Hydrogen peroxides unsuitable for horticulture and floriculture.AQUAZA OXY 300 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE:With Aquaza OXY 300, Oxygen is only released in direct response to the Biological Oxygen Demand present, thebalance of the Hydrogen peroxide carrier remains stable in the water until such time as more organic pollution isintroduced.Aquaza OXY 300 is formulated using organic ingredients, so does not leave any toxic chemical or heavy metalresidues once it has performed its task and decomposed into water and Oxygen.1.) PATHOGEN & CHLORINE ELIMINATION: In intensive horticulture/floriculture production, sound hygiene canminimise disease problems and maximise production, as well as extend the shelf life and quality of the end product.A good standard of hygiene depends largely upon the quality of water used in cleaning and irrigation from themoment the cutting or seed is planted right through to post-harvest treatment.80% of the diseases which affect the health of plants originate from the water distribution system. Contaminatedwater and a fouled irrigation system put increasing pressure on a plants immune system with each irrigation. Theplants have to spend considerable energy in defending themselves against continual infection – energy which couldbeter be used in growth and yield production.Addition of Aquaza OXY 300 to the irrigation water eliminates all known anaerobic pathogens, plus Aquaza alsoreduces chlorine levels and removes organo-chlorides such as Trihalomethanes. When added to water reservoirs,Aquaza precipitates suspended and dissolved solids and kills Cyanobacteria – Blue-Green algae. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 2
  3. 3. NURSERY & FLORICULTUREMicro-Organism Spectrum:Hydrogen peroxide has proven effective against all pathogens tested in laboratory trials;(Partial list) • E. coli • Candida albicans • Powdery mildew • Legionella pneumophilia • Downy mildew • Agrobacterium • Botrytis cinerea • Fusarium incarnatum • Phytophthora cinnamomi • Clavibacter michiganensis • P. capsici • Pithium • P. nicotianae • Rhizoctonia • Pseudomonas aeruginosa • Aspergillus niger • Enterococcus faecalis • Bacillus subtilis • E. hirae • Staphylococcus aureus AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 3
  4. 4. NURSERY & FLORICULTURE2.) BIOFILM ERADICATION: The main source of micro-organism pollution is the biofilm present in the waterdistribution system. The only way to address and eliminate microbial contamination through the irrigation system isto strip the biofilm and prevent its re-growth by killing the micro-organisms responsible.Micro-organisms in biofilm are very aggressive and resistant and form a continuous source of contamination forplants (y. Pachepsky; J. Morrow; A. Guber; D. Shelton; R. Rowland; G. Davies; 2012). Sessile bacteria in biofilms are10 to 1000 times more resistant to disinfectants than free swimming planktonic bacteria of the same species.Bacteria in biofilm form the most persistent hygiene problem in horticulture and the greatest source of disease.(Prosser, B. L. et al. (1987); Nickel, J.C. et al.(1985); Gristina, A.G. et al. (1987); Evans, R.C. and Holmes, C.J. (1987)).Biofilm is defined by Wikipedia as: A biofilm is an aggregate of micro-organisms in which cells adhere to each other on a surface. These adherent cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm EPS, which is also referred to as slime (although not everything described as slime is a biofilm), is a polymeric conglomeration generally composed of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Bacteria in biofilms are much more resistant to toxic substances such as antibiotics and detergents. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium.When a pathogenic cell switches to the sessile biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behaviourin which large suites of genes are differentially regulated, resulting in a far more infectious and virulent microbe thanit was in the planktonic waterborne state.Dispersal of cells from the biofilm colony is an essential stage of the biofilm life cycle. Dispersal enables biofilms tospread and colonise new surfaces and infect the soil and plants.Five stages of biofilm development: (1) Initial atachment, (2) Irreversible atachment, (3) Maturation I, (4) Maturation II, and (5) Dispersion. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 4
  5. 5. NURSERY & FLORICULTUREWhen micro-organisms (M.O.) are released during the sloughing or dispersion of biofilm at stage 5, they typicallynumber in the tens of thousands and are released simultaneously. Suddenly we have a huge infestation of virulentM.O. dispersed into the irrigation water and coming into contact with the soil and plants.Although plants can easily deal with a limited number of pathogenic M.O. in their water source, they have litlechance against the huge numbers of virulent M.O. released by biofilm dispersion and disease then rapidly follows.There are a number of ways to try and remove Biofilm available, but not all are suited for optimum hygiene: a.) Chlorine: Chlorine can be a good disinfectant when used under the right circumstances, but should not be continuously applied. This is because micro-organisms rapidly develop resistance to chlorine (H.F. Ridgway; B.H. Olson; 1982 & Rodney m. Donlan and J. William Costerton, 2002). The water’s pH is also highly important. Chlorine works optimally at a pH between 6 and 7.5. Outside of this range its effect rapidly decreases. The environmental impact of chlorine is relatively high, when it reacts with organic mater, it results in the formation of toxic by-products such as Trihalomethanes (THM) and other organo-chlorides. Furthermore chlorine is extremely corrosive and scientific research shows that chlorine is barely effective in breaking down Biofilm. (Dirk de Beer; Rohini Srinivasa; Philips Stewarts; 1994). In addition, chlorine has no positive effect on plant growth – small overdoses can do hefty damage. The use of chlorine has some important disadvantages for horticulture/floriculture production. It is not the optimum disinfectant for the control of biofilm, the greatest hygiene problem in the greenhouse, and most often negatively effects plant growth. b.) Acid: Acid is an excellent product for removing inorganic pollution such as mineral salts and calcium. It also has an effect on micro-organisms. The effect on the organic Biofilm (the bulk of the biofilm) is non-existent. Acid is best used in combination with Hydrogen peroxide. First apply the acid and follow this up with a minimum of 5% Hydrogen peroxide. c.) Hydrogen peroxide (in combination with acid or not): Hydrogen peroxide is a very good disinfectant for horticulture and floriculture. It kills almost all micro- organisms, is fairly insensitive to pH, allow no build-up of resistance and has a very good effect on Biofilm. The disadvantage of Hydrogen peroxide is the uncontrolled chain reaction. Once it comes into contact with organic mater the reaction of the Hydrogen peroxide cannot be stopped. This makes the use of Hydrogen peroxide extremely inefcient and short-lived. After 10 - 20 minutes the product is all used up in uncontrolled chain reactions that merely waste Oxygen. Adding acid (e.g.: peracetic acid) to Hydrogen peroxide has no influence on the duration of the reaction. It does make the reaction stronger, but it remains extremely inefcient. During use, one can see the concentration decreasing rapidly decrease as one measures down the irrigation system from the point of application. d.) AQUAZA OXY 300 – Encapsulated & Activated Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions: The Aquaza OXY 300 process is a new generation in irrigation system cleaning. The controlled oxidization process will eliminate practically all built up encrustations, bacteria, slime, algae and mineral deposits in a way which is time efcient, ecologically harmless, safe on materials and which does not harm operating personnel. The Aquaza process is unlike other chemical treatments, since it is entirely environmentally friendly, yet uses powerful products giving thorough results. Furthermore, accidental spillage will not damage the soil or plants. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 5
  6. 6. NURSERY & FLORICULTUREAquaza Biofilm Treatment Methods:Cleaning of irrigation lines results in higher water quality and increased flow rate of water and plant nutrition. Totreat biofilm in water systems Aquaza can be used in 2 ways: a.) Shock Treatment: Shock treatment is usually used to clean the system of biofilm and micro-organisms in one rapid treatment (occasionally it may be necessary to repeat the treatment, but in practice this only happens 1-2 times out of 100, the reason being the type of biofilm in the system). Generally shock treatment with Aquaza occurs at the end of a crop cycle. The treatment involves dosing 2% Aquaza into the water system and leaving this in the system for 1 or more hours, after which the system is flushed with water containing 1% Aquaza until the whole volume of the system has been flushed 1-2 times. After this normal procedure can be resumed, though in most cases growers continue with continual dosage. ← Test in greenhouse irrigation system of W. Koorneef in Maasdijk in The Netherands 2010. 1. First water out of the system after 2% treatment for 30 minutes with Aquaza OXY 300. The colour of the water shows the high level of biofilm that was in the system. 2. After several minutes flushing the water starts to clear. 3. Water is completely clear and clean after the whole system is flushed out. All drippers are running properly and giving equal water. b.) Continual dosage: Continual dosage with Aquaza is usually carried out when there is no crop downtime - generally in greenhouses with flower/plant cultivations or after shock treatment to maintain a clean system and water hygiene. The treatment involves dosing 20 to 50 ml/m3 water. Continual dosage slowly breaks down the biofilm in a controlled way until eventually (after weeks/months) the entire biofilm is removed and slowly flushed from the system, leaving a clean system free of biofilm and no longer a source of plant disease. The downside is that occasionally large bits of biofilm may be released causing blockage – particularly in very old systems (1-2-times per 100 systems). Generally though this is not a problem and the biofilm is oxidised to very fine particles and flushed from the systems through the drippers. Micro-organisms that are released from the biofilm are also oxidised and eliminated. Another advantage of continual dosage is that the breakdown of Aquaza provides extra oxygen to the roots. It is advisable to double/triple (no more than 100 ppm) the dosage of Aquaza treatment once every 2 month for 1 day as an extra hygiene measure.Conclusion of Biofilm Test – Kerma Power Generation and Sustainables - The Netherlands:Test results show that continuous Aquaza dosing at a concentration of 0.5 mg/l active hydrogen peroxide in the water flowprevents biofilm formation in fresh water once through utilities.From the determination of the effectiveness of Aquaza in the mitigation of biofilms in fresh water utilities, it can be concludedthat AQUAZA OXY 300 is effective in the mitigation of sessile microbes (biofilms) and planktonic waterborne microbes. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 6
  7. 7. NURSERY & FLORICULTURE3.) INCREASED AEROBIC SOIL DEPTH:Once the irrigation system is free of Biofilm, the continuous dose of Aquaza applied to the irrigation water is free toenter the soil and root environment. This results in increased Oxygen in the root environment, progressivelydeepening the aerobic layer. This deeper aerobic layer allows for increased breakdown of nutrients by the “good”bacteria and micro-risals, and therefore increased assimilation of nutrients by the roots. Soil organisms need Oxygenand moisture. (A Farmers Guide to Life in the Soil – New South Wales Department of Primary Industries & AustralianDepartment of International Agriculture – June 2009)Hydrogen peroxide has been shown to increase the Oxygen content of heavily compacted soils and negate thenegative effects of waterlogged soil where the Oxygen is pushed out by the water level. (Effect of injecting HydrogenPeroxide into heavy clay loam soil on plant water status, net C O2 assimilation, biomass and vascular anatomy ofavocado trees. Pilar M. Gil M.1, 2*, Raúl Ferreyra E.1, 2, Cristián Barrera M.1, Carlos Zúñiga E.1, and Luis Gurovich R.)In cases of flooded fields, dosing of a relatively high concentration of Aquaza OXY 300 brings two benefits; a.) itprevents root rot by sterilising the root environment and b.) it adds Oxygen to the root environment, thus preventingOxygen starvation of the plant. When plants in flooded fields begin to starve of Oxygen, they increase their wateruptake in an effort to assimilate more Oxygen and this often leads to burst fruit and a ruined harvest.Aquaza has no effect on Nematodes or (pot)worms. However it does have an effect on the eggs of nematodes and(pot)worms. Rapports from users as well as from research indicates that Aquaza oxidises the eggs of nematodes and(pot)worms, whereby a natural decline in the nematode and (pot)worm infestation occurs. Research also clearlyshows that the presence of low levels of H2O2 in the root area also triggers the plant-host defence mechanism makingit beter able to prevent nematode infestation.Runia & Amsing (1996) tested activated hydrogen peroxide for the control of R. similis (Nematode). They found thathydrogen peroxide was effective at a concentration of 400 ppm or higher for at least 24 hours. With a differentformulation, only 200 ppm for 24 hours was required to completely eliminate R. similis (Runia & Amsing, 1996).Aquaza, being uniquely stable, achieves the same effect at dosages as low as 50 ppm.4.) ENHANCED ROOTING:Ludwigs Roses – South Africa. Trials of Aquaza dosed at 50 ml/m 3 in irrigation water increased successful rosepropagation from rootstock from an average of 70% to 100%. The trial was was repeated 3 times on 30 000 standardrose cuttings with the same results. Further trials have shown that even on the more sensitive rose species, wherepropagation normally in only results 30 - 40% rooting, Aquaza again delivered 100% rooting.Control of “crazy roots” (Agrobacterium). Netherlands – Greenhouse 2Ha – tomatoes. Grower had problems withcontrol of crazy-roots in his tomato crop. He had used chlorine in the past and was using a mixture of H2O2 andperacetic acid to control the spread of the infection. He changed to Aquaza during the clean-out, disinfected hisgreenhouse and surfaces with Aquaza and cleaned and disinfected his irrigation system using shock treatment. Hefollowed this up with continual dosage of 30 ml/m 3 water. Result was that he went from a 20% infection back to a1% infection and that the infection stayed at 1% during the whole growing season. This had never happened beforewith any other product. Even if there was a decrease in infection after the clean-up, it always increased during thegrowing season.Control “crazy-roots” (Agrobacterium). Netherlands – Greenhouse 2 x 6Ha – tomatoes. Grower used 2 differentdisinfectants to control crazy-root infection in his greenhouse. In one half he used chlorine, in the other half he usedAquaza dosed at 50 ml/m3 water. In the chlorine treated half, crazy-root was present in ±50% of plants. In theAquaza treated half there was no crazy-root infection. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 7
  8. 8. NURSERY & FLORICULTURE5.) REDUCTION IN PLANT STRESS & 6.) ENHANCEMENT OF PLANT IMMUNE SYSTEM:Dosing irrigation water with Aquaza has also been shown to effectively alleviate plant stress caused by re-planting,under watering, excess salinity and over fertilization. The role of reactive oxygen species, especially H2O2, in plantresponse to stresses has been the focus of much atention. Hydrogen peroxide has been postulated to play multiplefunctions in plant defence against pathogens. (1) H2O2 may possess direct microbicidal activity at the sites ofpathogen invasion. (2) It is used for cell-wall reinforcing processes: lignification and oxidative cross-linking ofhydroxyproline-rich proteins and other cell-wall polymers. (3) It was found to be necessary for phytoalexin synthesis.(4) H2O2 may trigger programmed plant cell death during the hypersensitive response that restricts the spread ofinfection. (5) H2O2 has been suggested to act as a signal in the induction of systemic acquired resistance and (6) itinduces defence genes. Recently H2O2 has been proposed to be involved in the signal transduction pathways leadingto acclimation and protection from abiotic stresses. (The involvement of hydrogen peroxide in plant responses tostresses. Elżbieta Kuźniak, Henryk Urbanek 2000)7.) WOODIER STEMS & INCREASED VASCULAR SYSTEMS:Hydrogen peroxide dosed in the irrigation water of cut rose plants resulted in hardier, woodier and longer stems. Theincreased stem length was achieved in a shorter growth time and is the effect of increased vascular channelsallowing for increased water and nutrient uptake. (Effect of injecting Hydrogen Peroxide into heavy clay loam soil onplant water status, net C O2 assimilation, biomass and vascular anatomy of avocado trees. Pilar M. Gil M.1, 2*, RaúlFerreyra E.1, 2, Cristián Barrera M.1, Carlos Zuñiga E.1, and Luis Gurovich R.)8.) INCREASED VEGETATIVE (BIOMASS) AND REGENERATIVE (FLOWERING AND FRUITING) GROWTHZetler Strawberry Farm - South Africa - The 2 x control blocks, each 1.8 hectares, received continuous irrigation withregular 50% H2O2 at 50 ppm or 50 ml per m 3. The 2 x Aquaza test blocks, each 1.8 hectares, received continuousirrigation with Aquaza 30% H2O2 at 50 ppm. Flowering and fruiting figures are from a control and test section eachcontaining 750 strawberry plants. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 8
  9. 9. NURSERY & FLORICULTUREFURTHER AQUAZA APPLICATIONS:1.) Foggers, humidifiers, misting systems:The first treatment is generally 1% to insure a proper disinfection of the entire system, after which the dosage isdropped to 20 - 50 ml/m3 water. This keeps the system clean and will prevent biofilm development as well as preventthese systems from spraying micro-organisms all over your crops therefore increasing hygiene and lowering plantinfection rates. It is advisable to double/triple (no more than 100 ppm) the dosage of Aquaza treatment once every 2months for 1 day as an extra hygiene measure.2.) Surfaces, equipment, machinery & tools:To maintain thorough hygiene as well as to prevent crop contamination it is important to regularly clean anddisinfect work surfaces, equipment, machinery and tools. This can easily be done using Aquaza using a dosagebetween 0.5 – 2%. Obviously the advantages of a disinfectant with a long lasting effect are that it will protect anysurfaces it comes into contact with again re-infection from micro-organisms for much longer than traditionaldisinfectants, also the fact that Aquaza has no smell will ensure a pleasant working environment. Another hugebenefit is that Aquaza will not affect stainless steel.3.) Crop spraying:Please note that Government regulations differ per country and that the use of any chemical as a crop treatmentchemical generally requires a pesticides approval. Currently Aquaza is not registered in the EU or South Africa for thisapplication and therefore may not be used for this application. Please check local legislation before using Aquaza forthis use.We mention this application because of the experience some users have had with the use of Aquaza against plantdiseases such as Fusarium, Phythophtora, Rhizotomia, Mildew and such. Users report to us that they haveexperimented with spraying Aquaza over their crops when such infections where present and have obtainedexcellent results – in their own words, results not generally obtained when using standard chemicals for theseproblems. Another important benefit was that Aquaza fully breaks down into water and oxygen, leaving no residueon the plants or fruits/vegetables/flowers.Dosages range from 0.3% to 2-3% depending on the type of crop, spraying frequency, the type of problemencountered as well as the resistance of the plant against oxidation by H2O2. It is generally advisable to treat a smallnumber of plants to check on plant/leaf damage from H2O2 oxidation before treating all plants.Spraying a 0.5 – 1% Aquaza solution before applying a foliage nutrient is also a strong recommendation. Aquaza willoxidise organic pollution and open up bark and leaf pores significantly increasing the uptake of foliar nutrition. Thesame applies to pesticides.4.) Treating algae in water catchment basins:Although Aquaza will effectively treat algae in water catchment basins, this is not the most economical use forAquaza. Actually the most economical method is not to treat the algae in the basin, but when it leaves the basin.Standard practise often has growers lower the pH of water of pH 4, then pass it through a UV-C then raise the pH to5 - 5.5. Aquaza treatment involves dosing Aquaza at 20 - 50 ml/m 3 water, passing through the UV-C and then intofurther processing.Passing Aquaza through the UV-C increases the effect of Aquaza by a factor 2-3, but also keeps the UV-C clean. It ishowever not necessary to use a UV-C to achieve a satisfactory result, Aquaza can do the job without UV-C, butdepending on water organic pollution the dosage may need to be adjusted. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 9
  10. 10. NURSERY & FLORICULTURE5.) Greenhouse disinfection:The end-of-season clean-up and disinfection isessential to ensure the success of the following crop. Agood disinfection is essential and an important part indisease management as it will go a long way inpreventing the carry-over of disease problems into thenext season. It is not only important to disinfect thegreenhouse itself, but also the reception and storageareas.Fogging and aerial disinfection are the most commonmethod of greenhouse disinfection. It is a fast methodand ensures the disinfectant gets everywhere. Aquaza has obtained excellent results when used for this application.Furthermore, it allows growers to start-up as soon as the fog has setled. Meanwhile Aquaza will continue to workfor several days providing a thorough disinfection. Also, growers can easily measure the presence and residual effectof Aquaza by using “peroxide test strips” on any surface they want to test. Even if the surface looks dry, if they simplyapply some water to the surface to be tested, the moisture will allow the test strip to activate. Generally growers areable to measure Aquaza presence for at least 2 days.6.) Crate washing:To maintain hygiene, it is important that crates be washed and disinfected. Using Aquaza in the final rinse – dosed at0,5 – 1% will provide an effective and long lasting disinfection.7.) Frost protection:Adding Aquaza 0.5% Aquaza to spray water will protect against freezing to -5 oC at least. Spray over crops, trees toprotect flowers against frost damage. Furthermore Aquaza is an oxidant and besides not freezing before at least-5oC, Aquaza also produces heat through oxidation which adds an extra protection.8.) Post-Harvest:Aquaza can be used as a post-harvest treatment to wash fruit & vegetables, as well as an excellent additive for thewater that cut flowers are immersed in after harvest, where it acts as both sterilant and oxygen supply to extendshelf-life.MEASURING AQUAZA:Although there are several ways of measuring the amount of H2O2 (active substance) in Aquaza, the easiest and mostpractical is by using simple peroxide test strips. These are relatively accurate and can be obtained in several ranges: 0- 100 ppm and 0 - 400 ppm. Generally the 0 - 100 ppm range are used.CONCLUSIONS:Continuous dosing of 20 -50 ppm Aquaza in irrigation water brings multiple benefits to horticulture and floriculture,some of which are only now beginning to be understood by science.The fact remains though, now that farmers have the ability to effectively and economically use Hydrogen peroxidethanks to the advances of Aquaza OXY 300, increased plant health and harvest yield without the use of unnaturalchemical fertilizers is easily achieved.Once the greenhouse and irrigation system have been cleaned and disinfected, continual dosing of the irrigationwater will prevent re-growth of biofilm and lift the level of hygiene in the entire propagation cycle, which will resultin healthier plants and increased yield. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 10
  11. 11. NURSERY & FLORICULTUREADVANTAGES OF AQUAZA OXY 300: • Fast and long lasting effect on surfaces and in water distribution systems (hours/days depending on dosage and fouling of system). • Elimination of planktonic waterborne & sessile biofilm pathogens in water systems. • Highly effective even in low concentrations. • Effective & fast sanitation program with spraying & fogging. • Does contain nor leave any toxic chemical or heavy metal residues. • Does not react with ammonia to form chloramines. • Bacterial, algal and fungal control on rooted and un-rooted cuttings and cut flowers, seedbed soil and planting cubes, irrigation systems, filter systems, walls, ceilings and floors. • Non-corrosive on equipment. • Does not have pH limitations and is effective at any temperature up to boiling point. • Biodegradable, easy to apply, easy to monitor and very safe – breaks down completely into water and Oxygen. • Tasteless and odourless. • Non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic (pathogens cannot build up resistance to it over time). • Eliminates chlorine which affects root development (plants really do not like chlorine).RECOMMENDED DILUTIONS: Application Dilution - %/ppm/per m3 Contact Time 0.5 - 2% 2 hrs - 30 min Quick 5 000 - 20 000 ppm depending on Shock Treatment 5 - 20 L per m3 level of fouling 0.2 - 0.5% 12 hrs Overnight 2 000 - 5 000 ppm repeat if Shock Treatment 2 - 5 L per m3 necessary 20 - 50 ppm Continual Dosage 20 - 50 ml per m3 Continuous 1% Fog Disinfection 10 000 ppm Non-rinse 10 L per m3 AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 11
  12. 12. NURSERY & FLORICULTUREDilutions need to be calculated based on the fouling and the contact time. The more fouled the system, the higherthe ppm dilution needed. The longer the contact time, the lower the ppm dilution needed.Note: Aquaza can not be used simultaneously with products that contain traces of Trichoderma. Solution: Do not addAquaza to the water for 1-2 days before or after using Trichoderma.Aquaza: “what the users say’’ • Much beter root development • Increase in capacity of the pump • Significant decrease in dead plants • Less disease • Beter irrigation • Less to no blockages of drippers • No unpleasant odours • Product effective for several hours / days • Easy to use • First product in a long time that actually does what it promises • Saves money • Easy to check presence with peroxide test stripsAquaza OXY 300 is supplied as a Ready-To-Use 30% Food Grade Hydrogen peroxide solution or for large users wesupply the Aquaza GEL encapsulation and activation additive for addition to Hydrogen Peroxide on-site by the user. For pricing and ordering please contact: Craig G. Jones International Sales Manager Aquaza cc Encapsulated & Activated Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions Cell: +27 (0)741 326 336 Email: Web: www.aquaza.comThe information contained herein is, to the best of our knowledge and belief, accurate. However, since the conditions of handling and use are beyond our control,we do not guarantee any results, and we are not liable for any damage incurred by following these suggestions. Nothing contained herein is to be construed as arecommendation for use in violation of any patents or of applicable laws or regulations. AQUAZA cc reg. 1992/002813/23 – D302 Sandhurst Gardens, Sandton, 2010, Rep of South Africa Email: - Web: Page 12