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The 4 points of the compass North is usually up on most maps. South is normally down on the bottom of most maps. East is normally to the right on most maps. West is normally to the left on most maps.
The equator is a line,not real, drawn around the Earth. The equator is halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole . There, the surface of the planet is parallel to the axis of rotation. The equator divides the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere . The Equator and the Hemispheres
An orbit is a circular motion about an external point:for example the Earth around the Sun .
The Northern Hemisphere is the part of the Earth that is north of the equator .
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of the Earth south of the equator .
Time zones There are 24 time zones dividing the Earth into different times, because when it is day-time on one side of the Earth, it is night-time on the other side.
A season is a part of the year. There are four seasons in a year: spring , summer , autumn or fall , and winter .
We have seasons because the part of the Earth tilted towards the Sun changes, when the Earth goes round the Sun.
The Earth goes round the Sun in its orbit but it also goes round itself. The northern and southern hemispheres have opposite seasons.
A solstice is when the Earth is the most tilted.
The June Solstice is when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun and the Southern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun. The June Solstice is usually on 21st June.
The December Solstice is when the Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun and the Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun. The December Solstice is usually on 21st December.
Solstice and Equinox
Equinox is when the sun passes directly over the equator. There are two equinoxes each year. On these days, the day and the night are equal in length. They occur on or around 23rd March and 21st September .The equinoxes are the beginning of spring, and autumn.
A day (24 hours) is the time it takes the Earth to spin around once.
It is day time on the side of the earth that is looking at the Sun.
When it is night time, that side of the earth is hiding from the Sun.
Day and night
An ordinary year has 365 days. A leap year has 366 days. The extra day is added to the month of February. In an ordinary year, February has 28 days. In a leap year, it has 29 days.
We have leap years because instead of 365 days, the Earth really takes a few minutes less than 365 1/4 days to go completely around the Sun.