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  • 1. Dialogue Circle Millenium Development Goal MDG Rosane Fontoura Rosane Fontoura- Brazil and Kenya
  • 2. Lesson Outline • SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT • MDG IN AFRICA AND KENYA • MDG IN NAIROBI ( Asee Anee) • • • • • • • • MDG 1 MDG 2 MDG 3 MDG 4 MDG 5 MDG 6 MDG 7 MDG 8 • MOVEMENT WE CAN in Brazil • DIALOGUE CIRCLE 2
  • 3. MDG – around the world
  • 4. MDG – around the world
  • 5. World `s challenges • In the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000, 191 countries adopted MDGs – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by half relative to 1990 – Achieve universal primary education – Promote gender equality and empower women – Ensure environmental sustainability – Reduce child mortality by two thirds relative to 1990 – Improve maternal health, including reducing maternal mortality by three quarters relative to 1990 – Prevent the spread of HIV/ AIDS, malaria and other diseases – Develop a global partnership for development
  • 6. Development SustaInable "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". It contains two key concepts Gro Brundtland (Noruega)
  • 7. Population
  • 8. 1. Micronésia: 3143 2. Tonga: 3092 3. Emirados Árabes: 3017 4. Catar: 3007 7. Bahrein: 2889 8. Estados Unidos: 2874 9. Arábia Saudita: 2857 32. UK: 2719 33. Argentina: 2718 79. Brazil: 2647 Kenya
  • 9. ENVIRONMEN T SUSTAINABLE
  • 10. Players
  • 11. Facts • Poverty rates have been halved, and about 700 million fewer people lived in conditions of extreme poverty in 2010 than in 1990. • The economic and financial crisis has widened the global jobs gap by 67 million people. • One in eight people still go to bed hungry, despite major progress. • Globally, nearly one in six children under age five are underweight; one in four are stunted. • An estimated 7 per cent of children under age five worldwide • are now overweight, another aspect of malnutrition; one quarter of • these children live in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • 12. Status of MDGs in Kenya Goal 1 • Population living below the poverty reduced from 52.3% in 2000 to 45.9% in 2006 (KIHBS 2005/06) – Recent WB estimates between 34-40%. • 2/6/2014 http://www.planning.go.ke/ 20
  • 13. Brazil ´s Case
  • 14. Meta 1 (Indicador 1): Pobreza extrema é hoje menos de um quinto daquela em 1990...se o ritmo da redução se mantiver, a pobreza extrema será erradicada em 2013-2014. 25,6 20,8 19,6 16,4 16,8 17,0 15,4 14,9 14,0 11,3 Meta ONU = 12,8% 12,0 Meta Brasil = 6,4% 9,7 8,1 6,7 6,1 4,8 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 % população com menos de US$ 1,25 ppc/dia (linha de pobreza) Fontes: Renda: IBGE, Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios, PNAD. Fatores PPC: Nações Unidas, Divisão de Estatísticas (Banco Mundial, ICP 2005). Inflação média anual do Brasil e dos EUA: Fundo Monetário Internacional, World Economic Outlook, 2009.
  • 15. • In 2011, 57 million children of primary school age were out of school, down from 102 million in 2000. • XX More than half of these out-ofschool children live in sub-Saharan Africa. • XX Globally, 123 million youth (aged 15 to 24) lack basic reading and writing skills; 61 per cent of them are young women.
  • 16. Status of MDGs in Kenya Goal 2 • Net Enrolment Rate in primary school has been rising steadily from 67.8% in 2000 to 95.3% in 2012. • Primary to secondary school transition rate increased from 66.9% in 2009 to 73.3% in 2011 • 2/6/2014 http://www.planning.go.ke/ 27
  • 17. Enrollment primary education Number of students enrolled - primary education 8600 8400 8200 8000 '000 7800 7600 base 7400 7200 7000 6800 6600 6400 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  • 18. Primary completion rate Primary completion rate 120.0 100.0 % 80.0 base 60.0 target 40.0 20.0 0.0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  • 19. Enrollment secondary education Number of students enrolled - secondary education 3000 2500 '000 2000 1500 base 1000 500 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  • 20. Enrollment tertiary education Number of students enrolled - tertiary education 600 500 '000 400 300 base 200 100 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  • 21. • Gender parity is closest to being achieved at the primary level; however, only 2 out of 130 countries have achieved that target at all levels of education. • Globally, 40 out of 100 wageearning jobs in the non-agricultural sector are held by women. • As of 31 January 2013, the average share of women members in parliaments worldwide was just over 20 per cent.
  • 22. Status of MDGs in Kenya Goal 3 • Proportion of female MPs increased from 4.1% in 2000 to 9.9% in 2009. – The proportion of competitively elected women decreased to about 5% in the 2013 General elections. – However, there are now 47 women MPs, due to provisions in the new Constitution. • The gender parity index in primary schools enrolment has been achieved (Economic Survey 2013). • The total share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector rose to 31.9% in 2011 from 29.5% in 2000. 2/6/2014 37
  • 23. Tawakkul Karman Leymah Gbowee, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf,
  • 24. Wangari Muta Maathai was born in Nyeri, Kenya (Africa) in 1940.
  • 25. • since 1990, the child mortality rate has dropped by 41 per cent; 14,000 fewer children are dying each day. • Still, 6.9 million children under age five died in 2011—mostly from preventable diseases. • In sub-Saharan Africa, one in nine children die before age five, more than 16 times the average for developed regions.
  • 26. Status of MDGs in Kenya Goal 4 • Infant mortality rates reduced to 52/ 1000 in 2008/9 from 77/ 1,000 live births in 2003 • under-five mortality rate decreased from 115 to 74 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2009. • The proportion of 1-2 year olds fully immunized was 81% in 2012 up from 76.1% in 2000 2/6/2014
  • 27. While government action has played a major role, the Pastoral da Crianca is widely credited with spearheading the drive to reduce infant mortality rates in Brazil. The group, which aims to train mothers in basic healthcare and healthy eating, was founded in 1983 by Zilda Arns, a legendary Brazilian medic and aid worker, and now boasts a network of 260,000 volunteers across the country from the Rio favelas to the remote riverside communities of the Amazon jungle and the arid backlands of north-east Brazil, where " Costa was born.
  • 28. Welcome to the frontline of a three-decade battle against infant mortality in Brazil, a country that has managed to drastically reduce death rates over the last 30 years, saving tens of thousands of young lives "Bolsa Familia mothers are breast-feeding more. Pregnant women are doing more pre-natal,"
  • 29. 3. Causes of Child MortalityKenya 188,928 3% 19% Neonatal causes = 31% of under 5 mortality 16% 3% 8% 20% 10% 9% 10% 1% 11% Pneumonia Diarrhoeal Causes HIV/AIDS Malaria Measles Prematurity Birth Asphyxia Neonatal Sepsis Congential Anomalies Other diseases Injuries 48 Source: World Health Statistics 2011, WHO
  • 30. • in Eastern Asia, Northern Africa and Southern Asia, maternal mortality has declined by around two thirds. • Only half of pregnant women in developing regions receive the recommended minimum of four antenatal care visits. • Some 140 million women worldwide who are married or in union say they would like to delay or avoid pregnancy, but are not using contraception.
  • 31. Status of MDGs in Kenya Goal 5 • Only 43.8% of births are attended to by trained health personnel- marked regional disparities exist • Maternal mortality rate increased from 414 per 100,000 live births in 2003 to 488 per 100,000 in 2008/09. – Abolishment of maternity fees in Public health facilities in 2013. • The proportion of women using a method of contraception rose from 39.3% in 2003 to 46 % in 2011 • Unmet need for family planning was at 24% in 2011. 2/6/2014 52
  • 32. According to studies, nearly 3 in every 10 teenage girls are having babies. The age bracket is normally between 15 to 19 and in most cases these are normally school going children either in primary or secondary school, who as a result of the unwanted pregnancies are forced to drop out of Society cultural prejudices - a key barrier to continued education among pregnant teen girls’
  • 33. Several factors which include peer pressure rape cultural practices lack of sexual awareness abuse of alcohol and drugs association is with poverty lack access to contraception economic crisis What else ??????
  • 34. • In 2011, 230,000 fewer children under age 15 were infected with HIV than in 2001. • Eight million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV at the end of 2011. • In the decade since 2000, 1.1 million deaths from malaria were averted. • Treatment for tuberculosis has saved some 20 million lives between 1995 and 2011.
  • 35. Malaria affects an estimated 300-500 million people worldwide each year, resulting in 1.5-2.7 million deaths yearly, the majority of whom are children. In addition to the disease's direct impact on individuals and their families, malaria has been shown to have a significant impact on the economic growth of affected populations, costing Africa an estimated $12 billion in lost GDP growth every year.
  • 36. The targets cover a large share of the burden of disease & deaths among poor people Child mortality: 10.4 million/y Maternal deaths: 0.5 million/y AIDS: 2.9 million/y TB: 1.6 million/y Malaria 1.1 million/y
  • 37. Status of MDGs in Kenya Goal 6 • The national HIV prevalence (age group 15-24 years) reduced from 3.6% in 2003 to 3.0% (2008-9 KDHS). • The national HIV prevalence (age group 15-49 years) reduced from 6.7% in 2003 (KAIS, 2007) to 6.3% in (2008-9 KDHS). – Regional disparities in data – Gender disparities in prevalence rates 2/6/2014 More at http://www.planning.go.ke/ 62
  • 38. from 1990 to 2011— • More than 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved drinking water sources since 1990, exceeding the MDG target • Over 240,000 people a day gained access to improved sanitation facilities impressive but not enough • Between 2000 and 2010, over 200 million slum dwellers gained access to improved water sources,sanitation facilities, durable housing or sufficient living space, thereby exceeding the 100 million MDG target. • In fact, between 2010 and 2012 alone, conditions improved to the point where an additional 44 million people were no longer considered to be living in slums.
  • 39. Status of MDGs in Kenya Goal 7 • The proportion of households drawing their drinking water from clean sources stood at 52.6% in 2011. Since 2009, an additional 5.9 million people have been given access to clean drinking water through rehabilitation and expansion of urban and rural water supplies. • The proportion of households with access to adequate sanitation stood at 61.2% 2011 (2009 Census). • National forest cover at 4%(2011 MDGs Status Report) . Current estimates of forest cover are at 6% (KFS 2012). More at http://www.planning.go.ke/ 2/6/2014 66
  • 40. Goals South South – BRAZIL AND AFRICA TOGETHER IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THE MDG
  • 41. Status of MDGs in Kenya Goal 8 • Great improvement in ICTs ; Internet use and Mobile Telephony • Trade related targets lagging behind More at http://www.planning.go.ke/ 2/6/2014 70
  • 42. KEY HIGHLIGHTS OF THE POST-2015 KEYNIA Climate change Conflict Governance Security Disability Old age.
  • 43. One of Brazil’s Contributions Creation of the 8 icons for the Millennium Development Goals, now used in over 70 countries McCann Erickson Agency National Citizenship Movement Solidarity Development Sustainability Partnership Responsibility
  • 44. National Movement for Citizenship and Solidarity Network of individuals and voluntary organizations in Brazil, nonpartisan, ecumenical and pluralistic nation that seeks to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. Mobilize and coordinate all sectors of society to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
  • 45. OBJECTIVES OF “YES WE CAN PARANÁ” ESTABLISH BASELINES AND DISSEMINATE the situation of the Millennium Development Goals in Paraná. Encourage the voluntary commitment of people and institutions to reach the MDGs by 2015. Create spaces for dialogue and for prototyping new projects and initiatives, consolidating a PARANÁ NETWORK for the MDGs. Encourage the IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECTS, PROGRAMS AND INITIATIVES to achieve the MDGs in the State. Monitor the Millennium Indicators to CHECK PROGRESS. Encourage the organization of COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE aimed at sharing information and multiplying successful efforts.
  • 46. KEY SUCESS ELEMENTS, we learned many lessons during our program; First, it was important to aligning the MDGs with public policy in the state For that, it was useful that we connected the local circles to a National platform and the unified social agenda We also engaged civil society and private sector, showing them that achievement of development goals is also their responsibility We made na effort to work both with the “top” (leaders from all social sectors) and the “bottom” (communities and beneficiaries) We combined action – monitoring and dissemination, wich reinforced each other. Second, sensitization of State / Municipal authorities (Executive and Parliament) We develop a permanent mobilization process to Include the MDGs in the public agenda for that, and here we get the third key element... Third, community pressure for action was key, that is why awareness raising and monitoring were so important
  • 47. Other KEY SUCESS ELEMENT, we learned many lessons during our program; Fourth - localization, alignment, zeal, care • • • • • Our methodology was able to create a common dialogue platform, with clear process and goals, that involved all volunteers in the actions needed It was important to constantly show commitment to results and give the appropriete incentives, through awards and public recognition We relied on voluntary mobilization, believing that people do more when they have the right motivation, when they care about results Our process incentived joint, participatory work, to coordinate and articulate the actions towards the same goals. It was key to be able to provide technical support and capacity development for partners that wanted to contribute: we needed to overcome the barrier of wanting to do something but not knowing what or how. Finally, the key lesson is that we need to motivate participation and add quality to the decision and implementation processes
  • 48. PARANÁ STATE • Between 1991 and 2004 the percentage of the “paranaenses” below the poverty line dropped from 40% to 19,9% of population. • In 13 years, between 1990 and 2003, Paraná reduced almost to half the rate of mortality in children under 5 years of age passing from 39 to 20 the number of deaths for each thousand children born alive (achievement of 74% if the established goal) • During the same period there was a 61% drop in the rate of maternal mortality. • People without access to canalized water in at least one room dropped from 34% to 16% between 1990 and 2004
  • 49. METHODOLOGY DIALOGUE CIRCLES Dialogues to define in a participative way what wil be the main priority projects for each community, and to draw the action plans to implement them. WORK CIRCLES Establishment of partnerships between the various social actors, to ensure and facilitate implementation, and to monitor results KNOWLEDGE CIRCLES Group gathering people various skills and competences, to identify and analyze opportunities, and develop local capacity to implement projects.
  • 50. DIALOGUE CIRCLES APPRECIATIVE INVESTIGATION Constructivist methodology, which brings to light the collective imagination of the dreamed future, planning and putting shared actions into action.
  • 51. DIALOGUE CIRCLE WE CAN NAIROBI
  • 52. MEETING GOALS – WE CAN NAIROBI – PLAN ACTIONS OF THE GROUP
  • 53. WORKS GROUPS • Formation of Working Groups MDG (03 min) 3a 5 persons
  • 54. Presentation minutes) (10 • Who am I • Tell us a little about yourself and some project or action that you participate, participate or would like to participate, to contribute in some way to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
  • 55. Roles ( 05 min) • Leader of Dialogue: Ensures that all voices are heard within the time available. Keeps the group focused on the subject • Editor: Join the group results, using the words of the person speaking. Asks people to record their ideas • Spokesperson: Displays the plenary group work at the time specified
  • 56. Dream (10 min) • Imagine that your city all the MDGs Millennium Development Goals were achieved. Use your imagination and describe in detail this city in all its aspects
  • 57. • More than 2.1 billion people and almost 1.9 billon people, • respectively, have gained access to improved water sources and • sanitation facilities since 1990. • An estimated 863 million people reside in slums in the developing world. • Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased by more than 46 per cent since 1990. • Nearly one third of marine fish stocks have been overexploited. • Many species are at risk of extinction, despite an increase in • protected areas.
  • 58. On presentation of the MDG indicators for Kenya and Nairobi, which actions together that the group can perform to achieve the MDGs - Millennium Development Goal chosen by the group.
  • 59. Action ´s Plan Among the actions proposed by the group develop a plan of action that the group consider essential . Plan action of priority action (20 minutes)
  • 60. 5 W 2 H - Design What ? Who? Where? Why? When? How Much (Resources) How (Know)
  • 61. www.nospodemos.org.br www.portalodm.org.br www.odmbrasil.gov.br Esta apresentação é um esboço a mesma será diagramada e revisada