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  1. 1. 5º período Profa:Rosana Espírito Santo
  2. 2. <ul><li>Prepositions describe the relationship between two or more things. </li></ul><ul><li>It can link: </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs or </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Before the preposition with a noun or pronoun after it: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Now, let’s move on to item six on the agenda. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions can be one word only </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. throughout </li></ul><ul><li>or more words </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. because of </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There is no difference in form between prepositions and many adverbs, but there is a difference in use: </li></ul><ul><li>A preposition has an object but an adverb does not. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Did you ever travel before the war,Dad? (preposition) </li></ul><ul><li> I have a strange feeling that I’ve been here before . (adverb) </li></ul><ul><li>OBS. We can modify prepositions with adverbs: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The pub is almost at the end of the street, just before the traffic lights. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Vertical relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Above, after, below, beneath, down, on, on top of, over, under, underneath, up </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The temperature was below freezing last night. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal relationship </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Against, along, alongside, around, at, beside, between, by, in, near, next to, on, on the right/left of </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li> We use at with a point in space: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. at the bus stop, at 8 Baker Street </li></ul><ul><li> We use on with a surface or a line: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. on the table, on Oxford street </li></ul><ul><li> We use in with something that surrounds: </li></ul><ul><li>eg. In the wood </li></ul><ul><li>We normally use in with countries, cities or towns: London </li></ul><ul><li>We use on with streets, roads, avenues etc: e.g. On Broadway Road </li></ul><ul><li>We use at with specific places: e.g. at the supermarket </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Facing relationships </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Across, after, before, behind, facing, in front of, opposite, over </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>e.g . A is in front of B. B is behind A. </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher is really behind his brother in terms of academic development. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Down(to), off, on, onto, over, up (to) </li></ul><ul><li>Across, along, down, over, past, through, up </li></ul><ul><li>Around, at, away from, down to, from, into, onto, out of, to, towards, up, up to </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Keep to the right as you go down the stairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Go up the road to the corner, and the cinema is on the left. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you throw that book to me? ( I am willing) </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t throw stones at the cat! ( The cat is unwilling) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Point in time </li></ul><ul><li>At, in, on  </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. at five to seven, at Christmas, at night </li></ul><ul><li>(special periods, celebrations) </li></ul><ul><li>in the evening, in December, in 1999, in the winter </li></ul><ul><li>(parts of the day, months, seasons, year, countries etc) </li></ul><ul><li>On Thursday, on Christmas day </li></ul><ul><li>(days and dates including special days) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>As from/of, between, during, for, from… till/until/up to/to, in, inside, since, through(out) until/till, up to, within </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.This volcano hasn’t erupted since 1935. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>  Material </li></ul><ul><li>From, out of, of, with </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit </li></ul><ul><li>For the sake of, on behalf of, for </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>According to </li></ul><ul><li>Because of, due to, for, from, out of, owing to, through </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. The PPG service to Bath has been cancelled due to/owing to staff shortage. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Means </li></ul><ul><li>By, by means of, in via, with </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>For, towards </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Inclusion and exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Amog, as well as, besides, beyond, inside, instead of, within, without </li></ul><ul><li>Exception </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from, but for, except (for) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Despite, for all, in spite of </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li>From, out of, of, with </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Benefit </li></ul><ul><li>For the sake of, on behalf of, for </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>According to </li></ul>