Débora

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Nouns_Determiners_Pronouns

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Débora

  1. 1. Puc- Unidade C. Eucarístico Curso de Letras- ênfase em inglês Disciplina: Morfossintaxe e processamento do texto/ 5ºperíodo Professora: Rosana Espírito Santo Aluna: Débora C. da C. Almeida Revisão de conteúdo gramatical da língua inglesa Tópicos: A) Nouns B) Pronouns C) Determiners
  2. 2. NOUNS <ul><li>WHAT IS A NOUN? </li></ul><ul><li>A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. </li></ul><ul><li>A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb. </li></ul>
  3. 3. DETECTIVE ; LETTER
  4. 4. BOY ; FLOWER (SUNFLOWER)
  5. 5. CHILD ; CHEER
  6. 6. BAKER; CAKE
  7. 7. CHILDREN ; RIO DE JANEIRO
  8. 8. SMILE; UMBRELLA; WATER; TOOTH
  9. 9. PLURAL NOUNS <ul><li>A regra geral para a formação do plural é acrescentar um  -S  ao singular: </li></ul><ul><li>book/ books girl / girls day / days  table / tables </li></ul>
  10. 10. Os substantivos terminados em  -o ,  -ch ,  -sh ,  -ss ,  -x  e  -z  formam o plural acrescentando-se o sufixo  -es : <ul><li>hero / heroes tomato / tomatoes church / churches watch / watches brush / brushes (pincel) wish / wishes glass / glasses box / boxes buzz / buzzes (zumbido) topaz / topazes ( topázio) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Palavras estrangeiras ou formas abreviadas em  -o  fazem o plural em  -s <ul><li>piano/pianos photo/photos portfolio/portfolios radio/radios solo/solos  soprano/sopranos tango/tangos  virtuoso/virtuosos </li></ul>
  12. 12. Os substantivos terminados em  -y , precedidos de consoante, perdem o  -y  e recebem  -ies <ul><li>country/ countries family/ families fly/ flies lady/ ladies  story/ stories </li></ul>
  13. 13. Os substantivos abaixo terminados em  -f  ou  -fe  perdem essas letras e recebem  -ves  <ul><li>half/halves (metade) knife/knives (faca)   leaf/leaves (folhas) life/lives (vida) loaf/loaves ( pão ) self/selves (a própria pessoa) </li></ul><ul><li>(feixe) sheaf/sheaves (estante) shelf/shelves (ladrão) thief/thieves (esposa) wife/wives  (lobo) wolf/wolves </li></ul>
  14. 14. Todos os demais substantivos terminados em  -f  ou  -fe  fazem o plural em  -s :  <ul><li>chief/chiefs (chefe) cliff/clipffs (penhasco) roof/roofs (telhado) fife/fifes (pífaro) strife/strifes (briga) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Alguns substantivos passam por mudanças de vários tipos: IRREGULAR PLURAL <ul><li>PERSON – PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>CHILD – CHILDREN </li></ul><ul><li>TOOTH – TEETH </li></ul><ul><li>MOUSE – MICE (CAMUNDONGO) </li></ul><ul><li>OX – OXEN (BOI) </li></ul><ul><li>GOOSE – GEESE (GANSO) </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS – ANALYSES </li></ul><ul><li>MAN - MEN </li></ul>
  16. 16. Com substantivos compostos, pluralizamos o seu componente principal:  <ul><li>brother-in-law /brothers-in-law (CUNHADO) </li></ul><ul><li>errand-boy /errand-boys (MENSAGEIRO) </li></ul><ul><li>godfather /godfathers (PADRINHO) </li></ul><ul><li>maidservant /maidservants (CRIADA ) </li></ul><ul><li>stepdaughter/ stepdaughters (ENTEADA)     </li></ul>
  17. 17. Substantivos de origem estrangeira (gregos ou latinos) mantêm seus plurais originais: <ul><li>Alumnus/ alumni (ex- aluno) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis/analyses (análise) </li></ul><ul><li>Axis/axes (eixo) </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus/bacilli (bacilo) </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterium/bacteria (bactéria) </li></ul><ul><li>Basis/bases (base) </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis/crises (crise) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Alguns substantivos apresentam a mesma forma para o singular e o plural: <ul><li>Sheep / carneiro(s) </li></ul><ul><li>species /  espécie(s) </li></ul><ul><li>fish* / peixe(s) </li></ul><ul><li>salmon / salmão(ões) </li></ul><ul><li>series / série(s) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Alguns substantivos, por conter a idéia de um grande número ou porque indicam que a entidade é composta de duas partes iguais, são somente usados no plural:
  20. 20. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binoculars- binóculo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle- gado </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glasses- óculos </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jeans- jeans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police- polícia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scales- balança </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scissors- tesoura </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Há, porém, uma tendência em pluralizar palavras de origem estrangeira com o plural inglês:  <ul><li>Stadium/ stadiums (estádio)   </li></ul><ul><li>Terminus/ terminuses (término) </li></ul><ul><li>Memorandum/ memorandums (memorando) </li></ul><ul><li>Dogma/dogmas (dogmas) </li></ul>
  25. 25. The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns: <ul><ul><li>Late last  year  our  neighbours  bought a  goat . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portia White  was an  opera singer . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The  bus inspector  looked at all the  passengers' passes . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to  Plutarch , the  library  at  Alexandria  was destroyed in 48 B.C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy  is of little  comfort  to the  starving . </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Countable Nouns and uncountable <ul><li>A noun can be countable or uncountable; </li></ul><ul><li>COUNTABLE: </li></ul><ul><li>I eat a banana every day. </li></ul><ul><li>I like bananas. </li></ul><ul><li>Banana is a countable noun. </li></ul><ul><li>A countable noun can be singular (banana) or plural (bananas). </li></ul><ul><li>We can use numbers with countable nouns. So we can say ‘ one banana’, ‘two bananas” etc. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Examples of nouns usually countable: <ul><li>Kate was singing a song . </li></ul><ul><li>There’s a nice beach near here. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a ten-pound note ? </li></ul><ul><li>It wasn’t your fault. It was an accident . </li></ul><ul><li>There are no batteries in the radio. </li></ul><ul><li>We haven’t got enough cups. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Non-Countable Nouns: <ul><li>I eat rice every day. </li></ul><ul><li>I like rice . </li></ul><ul><li>Rice is an uncountable noun. </li></ul><ul><li>An uncountable noun has only one form ( rice ). </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot use numbers with uncountable nouns. We cannot say “one rice”, “two rices” etc. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Examples of nouns usually uncountable: <ul><li>Kate was listening to (some) music . </li></ul><ul><li>There’s sand in my shoes. (areia) </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have any money ? </li></ul><ul><li>It wasn’t your fault. It was bad luck . </li></ul><ul><li>There is no electricity in this house. </li></ul><ul><li>We haven’t got enough water . </li></ul>
  30. 30. MORE EXAMPLES OF COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE: <ul><li>COUNTABLE: car, book, train, elephant, two books, ten dogs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>UNCOUNTABLE: air, coffee, water, money, rice, strength, light, etc. </li></ul>
  31. 31. PRONOUNS <ul><li>SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS </li></ul><ul><li>REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS </li></ul>
  32. 32. 1. Subject Pronouns/ 2. Object Pronouns/ 3. Possessive Adjectives <ul><li>I me my </li></ul><ul><li>you you your </li></ul><ul><li>He him his </li></ul><ul><li>She her her </li></ul><ul><li>It it its </li></ul><ul><li>We us our </li></ul><ul><li>You you your </li></ul><ul><li>They them their </li></ul>
  33. 33. 1. Subjective Pronouns: <ul><li>Sempre terão a função de sujeito. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Tom phoned Jane yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>He </li></ul><ul><li>The boys travelled last week. </li></ul><ul><li>They </li></ul>
  34. 34. 2. Objective Pronouns <ul><li>Me- She wants to take me to Miami. </li></ul><ul><li>You- I need to visit you tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Him- She likes to cook for him. </li></ul><ul><li>Her- I have to say this her. </li></ul><ul><li>It- I need to wash it. </li></ul><ul><li>Us- They like to help us. </li></ul><ul><li>You- I want to write to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Them- I need to know them better </li></ul>
  35. 35. Objective Pronouns <ul><li>Sempre terão a função de objeto. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Jane wrote Tom a letter when he was </li></ul><ul><li>She him it </li></ul><ul><li>abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>The girls talk to their neighbors every </li></ul><ul><li>They them </li></ul><ul><li>day. </li></ul>
  36. 36. 3. Possessive Adjectives <ul><li>Sempre irão acompanhar um substantivo. </li></ul><ul><li>MY- MEU. </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR- SEU </li></ul><ul><li>HIS- SEU (DELE) </li></ul><ul><li>HER- SEU (DELA) </li></ul><ul><li>ITS- SEU (NEUTRO) </li></ul><ul><li>OUR- NOSSO </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR- SEUS (DE VOCÊS) </li></ul><ul><li>THEIR- SEUS (DELES) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Possessive Adjectives <ul><li>MY- MEU I like my car. </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR- SEU You start your class. </li></ul><ul><li>HIS- SEU (DELE) He reads his book. </li></ul><ul><li>HER- SEU (DELA) She lives with her mother. </li></ul><ul><li>ITS- SEU (NEUTRO) It has its problems. </li></ul><ul><li>OUR- NOSSO We stay with our children. </li></ul><ul><li>YOUR- SEUS (DE VOCÊS) You prefer your city. </li></ul><ul><li>THEIR- SEUS (DELES) They open their store. </li></ul>
  38. 38. 4. Possessive Pronouns and 5. Reflexive Pronouns: <ul><li>Mine Myself </li></ul><ul><li>Yours Yoursef </li></ul><ul><li>His Himself </li></ul><ul><li>Hers Herself </li></ul><ul><li>Its Itself </li></ul><ul><li>Ours Ourself </li></ul><ul><li>Yours Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Theirs Themself </li></ul>
  39. 39. 4. Possessive Pronouns: <ul><li>Sempre irão substituir um substantivo. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. My school is traditional, hers is traditional, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Her bike is brand-new, mine is brand-new, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Is that pen yours ? Yes, it’s mine . </li></ul><ul><li>Those sweets aren’t ours . They must be theirs . </li></ul>
  40. 40. 5. Reflexive and Emphasizing Pronouns: <ul><li>REFLEXIVE : aparecem sempre após o verbo concordando com o sujeito da oração. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Daisy cut herself with a blade. (blade: lâmina) </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>The boys blame themselves for that mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>(blame: repreender, responsabilizar) </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Emphasizers : aparecem antes do verbo ou no final da oração. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. I myself wash all dishes or I wash all the dishes myself . </li></ul><ul><li>Tom himself prepared the meal or Tom prepared the meal himself . </li></ul>
  43. 43. NOTA: <ul><li>Sempre que forem precedidos da preposição by , esses pronomes indicam que a pessoa praticou a ação sozinha por conta própria , podendo ser sustituídos pela palavra alone . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Jane works by herself at the shop. </li></ul><ul><li>The dog found the way home by itself . </li></ul>
  44. 44. GENITIVE CASE <ul><li>Used to indicate possession </li></ul><ul><li>Mary’s car. </li></ul><ul><li>The girls’ school. </li></ul><ul><li>My cousin’s house. </li></ul><ul><li>Cervantes’ novels. </li></ul><ul><li>Alice’s sister. </li></ul><ul><li>My cousins’ restaurant. </li></ul><ul><li>Rui Barbosa’s square. </li></ul><ul><li>The moon’s light </li></ul>
  45. 45. DETERMINERS <ul><li>Nouns are often preceded by the words  the ,  a , or  an . </li></ul><ul><li>These words are called DETERMINERS. </li></ul><ul><li>They indicate the kind of reference which the noun has. The determiner  the  is known as the DEFINITE ARTICLE. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used before both singular and plural nouns:  Singular/Plural </li></ul><ul><li>the  taxi the  taxis </li></ul><ul><li>the  paper the  papers </li></ul><ul><li>the  apple the  apples </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>The determiner  a  (or  an , when the following noun begins with a vowel) is the INDEFINITE ARTICLE. It is used when the noun is singular:     </li></ul><ul><li>a  taxi   a  paper   an  apple </li></ul>
  47. 47. The articles  the  and  a/an  are the most common determiners, but there are many others:   <ul><li>any  taxi   that  question   those  apples   this  paper   some  apple   whatever  taxi   whichever  taxi </li></ul>
  48. 48. Many determiners express quantity:   <ul><li>all  examples   both  parents   many  people   each  person   every  night   several  computers   few  excuses   enough  water   no  escape </li></ul>
  49. 49. Numerals and Determiners <ul><li>Numerals are determiners when they appear before a noun. In this position, cardinal numerals express quantity:     </li></ul><ul><li>one  book   two  books   twenty  books </li></ul><ul><li>In the same position, ordinal numerals express sequence:     </li></ul><ul><li>first  impressions   second  chance   third  prize </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The subclass of ordinals includes a set of words which are not directly related to numbers (as  first  is related to  one ,  second  is related to  two , etc). </li></ul><ul><li>These are called general ordinals, and they include  last ,  latter , next ,  previous , and  subsequent . These words also function as determiners:     </li></ul><ul><li>next  week   last  orders   previous  engagement   subsequent  developments </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>  When they do not come before a noun, as we've already seen, numerals are a subclass of nouns. And like nouns, they can take determiners:     </li></ul><ul><li>the two  of us   the first  of many </li></ul><ul><li>They can even have numerals as determiners before them:     </li></ul><ul><li>five twos  are ten </li></ul><ul><li>In this example,  twos  is a plural noun and it has the determiner  five before it.   </li></ul>
  52. 52. The general determiners are: <ul><li>the indefinite articles :  a, an </li></ul><ul><li>a few a little  all  another  any </li></ul><ul><li>both  each  either  enough  every </li></ul><ul><li>few  fewer  less  little  many more  most  much </li></ul><ul><li>neither  no  other  several  some  </li></ul>
  53. 53. For example: <ul><li>&quot; A  man sat under  an  umbrella.“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ Have you got  any  English books that I could have?“ </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is  enough  food to feed everyone.“ </li></ul><ul><li>You use general determiners to talk about people or things without saying exactly who or what they are. </li></ul>
  54. 54. BIBLIOGRAFIA: <ul><li>http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/nouns.html </li></ul><ul><li>Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar um Use, third edition, Cambridge. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagens retiradas do Google. </li></ul><ul><li>Coleção Pitpagoras 2000; livro 1 de Inglês- Ensino Médio. </li></ul>

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