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Nouns_Determiners_Pronouns

Nouns_Determiners_Pronouns

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    Débora Débora Presentation Transcript

    • Puc- Unidade C. Eucarístico Curso de Letras- ênfase em inglês Disciplina: Morfossintaxe e processamento do texto/ 5ºperíodo Professora: Rosana Espírito Santo Aluna: Débora C. da C. Almeida Revisão de conteúdo gramatical da língua inglesa Tópicos: A) Nouns B) Pronouns C) Determiners
    • NOUNS
      • WHAT IS A NOUN?
      • A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea.
      • A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.
    • DETECTIVE ; LETTER
    • BOY ; FLOWER (SUNFLOWER)
    • CHILD ; CHEER
    • BAKER; CAKE
    • CHILDREN ; RIO DE JANEIRO
    • SMILE; UMBRELLA; WATER; TOOTH
    • PLURAL NOUNS
      • A regra geral para a formação do plural é acrescentar um  -S  ao singular:
      • book/ books girl / girls day / days  table / tables
    • Os substantivos terminados em  -o ,  -ch ,  -sh ,  -ss ,  -x  e  -z  formam o plural acrescentando-se o sufixo  -es :
      • hero / heroes tomato / tomatoes church / churches watch / watches brush / brushes (pincel) wish / wishes glass / glasses box / boxes buzz / buzzes (zumbido) topaz / topazes ( topázio)
    • Palavras estrangeiras ou formas abreviadas em  -o  fazem o plural em  -s
      • piano/pianos photo/photos portfolio/portfolios radio/radios solo/solos  soprano/sopranos tango/tangos  virtuoso/virtuosos
    • Os substantivos terminados em  -y , precedidos de consoante, perdem o  -y  e recebem  -ies
      • country/ countries family/ families fly/ flies lady/ ladies  story/ stories
    • Os substantivos abaixo terminados em  -f  ou  -fe  perdem essas letras e recebem  -ves 
      • half/halves (metade) knife/knives (faca)   leaf/leaves (folhas) life/lives (vida) loaf/loaves ( pão ) self/selves (a própria pessoa)
      • (feixe) sheaf/sheaves (estante) shelf/shelves (ladrão) thief/thieves (esposa) wife/wives  (lobo) wolf/wolves
    • Todos os demais substantivos terminados em  -f  ou  -fe  fazem o plural em  -s : 
      • chief/chiefs (chefe) cliff/clipffs (penhasco) roof/roofs (telhado) fife/fifes (pífaro) strife/strifes (briga)
    • Alguns substantivos passam por mudanças de vários tipos: IRREGULAR PLURAL
      • PERSON – PEOPLE
      • CHILD – CHILDREN
      • TOOTH – TEETH
      • MOUSE – MICE (CAMUNDONGO)
      • OX – OXEN (BOI)
      • GOOSE – GEESE (GANSO)
      • ANALYSIS – ANALYSES
      • MAN - MEN
    • Com substantivos compostos, pluralizamos o seu componente principal: 
      • brother-in-law /brothers-in-law (CUNHADO)
      • errand-boy /errand-boys (MENSAGEIRO)
      • godfather /godfathers (PADRINHO)
      • maidservant /maidservants (CRIADA )
      • stepdaughter/ stepdaughters (ENTEADA)    
    • Substantivos de origem estrangeira (gregos ou latinos) mantêm seus plurais originais:
      • Alumnus/ alumni (ex- aluno)
      • Analysis/analyses (análise)
      • Axis/axes (eixo)
      • Bacillus/bacilli (bacilo)
      • Bacterium/bacteria (bactéria)
      • Basis/bases (base)
      • Crisis/crises (crise)
    • Alguns substantivos apresentam a mesma forma para o singular e o plural:
      • Sheep / carneiro(s)
      • species /  espécie(s)
      • fish* / peixe(s)
      • salmon / salmão(ões)
      • series / série(s)
    • Alguns substantivos, por conter a idéia de um grande número ou porque indicam que a entidade é composta de duas partes iguais, são somente usados no plural:
              • Binoculars- binóculo
              • Cattle- gado
              • Glasses- óculos
              • Jeans- jeans
              • Police- polícia
              • Scales- balança
              • Scissors- tesoura
    • Há, porém, uma tendência em pluralizar palavras de origem estrangeira com o plural inglês: 
      • Stadium/ stadiums (estádio)  
      • Terminus/ terminuses (término)
      • Memorandum/ memorandums (memorando)
      • Dogma/dogmas (dogmas)
    • The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns:
        • Late last  year  our  neighbours  bought a  goat .
        • Portia White  was an  opera singer .
        • The  bus inspector  looked at all the  passengers' passes .
        • According to  Plutarch , the  library  at  Alexandria  was destroyed in 48 B.C.
        • Philosophy  is of little  comfort  to the  starving .
    • Countable Nouns and uncountable
      • A noun can be countable or uncountable;
      • COUNTABLE:
      • I eat a banana every day.
      • I like bananas.
      • Banana is a countable noun.
      • A countable noun can be singular (banana) or plural (bananas).
      • We can use numbers with countable nouns. So we can say ‘ one banana’, ‘two bananas” etc.
    • Examples of nouns usually countable:
      • Kate was singing a song .
      • There’s a nice beach near here.
      • Do you have a ten-pound note ?
      • It wasn’t your fault. It was an accident .
      • There are no batteries in the radio.
      • We haven’t got enough cups.
    • Non-Countable Nouns:
      • I eat rice every day.
      • I like rice .
      • Rice is an uncountable noun.
      • An uncountable noun has only one form ( rice ).
      • We cannot use numbers with uncountable nouns. We cannot say “one rice”, “two rices” etc.
    • Examples of nouns usually uncountable:
      • Kate was listening to (some) music .
      • There’s sand in my shoes. (areia)
      • Do you have any money ?
      • It wasn’t your fault. It was bad luck .
      • There is no electricity in this house.
      • We haven’t got enough water .
    • MORE EXAMPLES OF COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE:
      • COUNTABLE: car, book, train, elephant, two books, ten dogs, etc.
      • UNCOUNTABLE: air, coffee, water, money, rice, strength, light, etc.
    • PRONOUNS
      • SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS
      • OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS
      • POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
      • POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
      • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
    • 1. Subject Pronouns/ 2. Object Pronouns/ 3. Possessive Adjectives
      • I me my
      • you you your
      • He him his
      • She her her
      • It it its
      • We us our
      • You you your
      • They them their
    • 1. Subjective Pronouns:
      • Sempre terão a função de sujeito.
      • e.g. Tom phoned Jane yesterday.
      • He
      • The boys travelled last week.
      • They
    • 2. Objective Pronouns
      • Me- She wants to take me to Miami.
      • You- I need to visit you tomorrow.
      • Him- She likes to cook for him.
      • Her- I have to say this her.
      • It- I need to wash it.
      • Us- They like to help us.
      • You- I want to write to you.
      • Them- I need to know them better
    • Objective Pronouns
      • Sempre terão a função de objeto.
      • e.g. Jane wrote Tom a letter when he was
      • She him it
      • abroad.
      • The girls talk to their neighbors every
      • They them
      • day.
    • 3. Possessive Adjectives
      • Sempre irão acompanhar um substantivo.
      • MY- MEU.
      • YOUR- SEU
      • HIS- SEU (DELE)
      • HER- SEU (DELA)
      • ITS- SEU (NEUTRO)
      • OUR- NOSSO
      • YOUR- SEUS (DE VOCÊS)
      • THEIR- SEUS (DELES)
    • Possessive Adjectives
      • MY- MEU I like my car.
      • YOUR- SEU You start your class.
      • HIS- SEU (DELE) He reads his book.
      • HER- SEU (DELA) She lives with her mother.
      • ITS- SEU (NEUTRO) It has its problems.
      • OUR- NOSSO We stay with our children.
      • YOUR- SEUS (DE VOCÊS) You prefer your city.
      • THEIR- SEUS (DELES) They open their store.
    • 4. Possessive Pronouns and 5. Reflexive Pronouns:
      • Mine Myself
      • Yours Yoursef
      • His Himself
      • Hers Herself
      • Its Itself
      • Ours Ourself
      • Yours Yourself
      • Theirs Themself
    • 4. Possessive Pronouns:
      • Sempre irão substituir um substantivo.
      • e.g. My school is traditional, hers is traditional, too.
      • Her bike is brand-new, mine is brand-new, too.
      • Is that pen yours ? Yes, it’s mine .
      • Those sweets aren’t ours . They must be theirs .
    • 5. Reflexive and Emphasizing Pronouns:
      • REFLEXIVE : aparecem sempre após o verbo concordando com o sujeito da oração.
      • e.g. Daisy cut herself with a blade. (blade: lâmina)
      • The boys blame themselves for that mistake.
      • (blame: repreender, responsabilizar)
      • Emphasizers : aparecem antes do verbo ou no final da oração.
      • e.g. I myself wash all dishes or I wash all the dishes myself .
      • Tom himself prepared the meal or Tom prepared the meal himself .
    • NOTA:
      • Sempre que forem precedidos da preposição by , esses pronomes indicam que a pessoa praticou a ação sozinha por conta própria , podendo ser sustituídos pela palavra alone .
      • e.g. Jane works by herself at the shop.
      • The dog found the way home by itself .
    • GENITIVE CASE
      • Used to indicate possession
      • Mary’s car.
      • The girls’ school.
      • My cousin’s house.
      • Cervantes’ novels.
      • Alice’s sister.
      • My cousins’ restaurant.
      • Rui Barbosa’s square.
      • The moon’s light
    • DETERMINERS
      • Nouns are often preceded by the words  the ,  a , or  an .
      • These words are called DETERMINERS.
      • They indicate the kind of reference which the noun has. The determiner  the  is known as the DEFINITE ARTICLE.
      • It is used before both singular and plural nouns:  Singular/Plural
      • the  taxi the  taxis
      • the  paper the  papers
      • the  apple the  apples
      • The determiner  a  (or  an , when the following noun begins with a vowel) is the INDEFINITE ARTICLE. It is used when the noun is singular:    
      • a  taxi   a  paper   an  apple
    • The articles  the  and  a/an  are the most common determiners, but there are many others:  
      • any  taxi   that  question   those  apples   this  paper   some  apple   whatever  taxi   whichever  taxi
    • Many determiners express quantity:  
      • all  examples   both  parents   many  people   each  person   every  night   several  computers   few  excuses   enough  water   no  escape
    • Numerals and Determiners
      • Numerals are determiners when they appear before a noun. In this position, cardinal numerals express quantity:    
      • one  book   two  books   twenty  books
      • In the same position, ordinal numerals express sequence:    
      • first  impressions   second  chance   third  prize
      • The subclass of ordinals includes a set of words which are not directly related to numbers (as  first  is related to  one ,  second  is related to  two , etc).
      • These are called general ordinals, and they include  last ,  latter , next ,  previous , and  subsequent . These words also function as determiners:    
      • next  week   last  orders   previous  engagement   subsequent  developments
      •   When they do not come before a noun, as we've already seen, numerals are a subclass of nouns. And like nouns, they can take determiners:    
      • the two  of us   the first  of many
      • They can even have numerals as determiners before them:    
      • five twos  are ten
      • In this example,  twos  is a plural noun and it has the determiner  five before it.  
    • The general determiners are:
      • the indefinite articles :  a, an
      • a few a little  all  another  any
      • both  each  either  enough  every
      • few  fewer  less  little  many more  most  much
      • neither  no  other  several  some 
    • For example:
      • " A  man sat under  an  umbrella.“
      • “ Have you got  any  English books that I could have?“
      • “ There is  enough  food to feed everyone.“
      • You use general determiners to talk about people or things without saying exactly who or what they are.
    • BIBLIOGRAFIA:
      • http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/nouns.html
      • Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar um Use, third edition, Cambridge.
      • Imagens retiradas do Google.
      • Coleção Pitpagoras 2000; livro 1 de Inglês- Ensino Médio.