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Nouns_Determiners_Pronouns

Nouns_Determiners_Pronouns

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Débora Débora Presentation Transcript

  • Puc- Unidade C. Eucarístico Curso de Letras- ênfase em inglês Disciplina: Morfossintaxe e processamento do texto/ 5ºperíodo Professora: Rosana Espírito Santo Aluna: Débora C. da C. Almeida Revisão de conteúdo gramatical da língua inglesa Tópicos: A) Nouns B) Pronouns C) Determiners
  • NOUNS
    • WHAT IS A NOUN?
    • A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea.
    • A noun can function in a sentence as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a subject complement, an object complement, an appositive, an adjective or an adverb.
  • DETECTIVE ; LETTER
  • BOY ; FLOWER (SUNFLOWER)
  • CHILD ; CHEER
  • BAKER; CAKE
  • CHILDREN ; RIO DE JANEIRO
  • SMILE; UMBRELLA; WATER; TOOTH
  • PLURAL NOUNS
    • A regra geral para a formação do plural é acrescentar um  -S  ao singular:
    • book/ books girl / girls day / days  table / tables
  • Os substantivos terminados em  -o ,  -ch ,  -sh ,  -ss ,  -x  e  -z  formam o plural acrescentando-se o sufixo  -es :
    • hero / heroes tomato / tomatoes church / churches watch / watches brush / brushes (pincel) wish / wishes glass / glasses box / boxes buzz / buzzes (zumbido) topaz / topazes ( topázio)
  • Palavras estrangeiras ou formas abreviadas em  -o  fazem o plural em  -s
    • piano/pianos photo/photos portfolio/portfolios radio/radios solo/solos  soprano/sopranos tango/tangos  virtuoso/virtuosos
  • Os substantivos terminados em  -y , precedidos de consoante, perdem o  -y  e recebem  -ies
    • country/ countries family/ families fly/ flies lady/ ladies  story/ stories
  • Os substantivos abaixo terminados em  -f  ou  -fe  perdem essas letras e recebem  -ves 
    • half/halves (metade) knife/knives (faca)   leaf/leaves (folhas) life/lives (vida) loaf/loaves ( pão ) self/selves (a própria pessoa)
    • (feixe) sheaf/sheaves (estante) shelf/shelves (ladrão) thief/thieves (esposa) wife/wives  (lobo) wolf/wolves
  • Todos os demais substantivos terminados em  -f  ou  -fe  fazem o plural em  -s : 
    • chief/chiefs (chefe) cliff/clipffs (penhasco) roof/roofs (telhado) fife/fifes (pífaro) strife/strifes (briga)
  • Alguns substantivos passam por mudanças de vários tipos: IRREGULAR PLURAL
    • PERSON – PEOPLE
    • CHILD – CHILDREN
    • TOOTH – TEETH
    • MOUSE – MICE (CAMUNDONGO)
    • OX – OXEN (BOI)
    • GOOSE – GEESE (GANSO)
    • ANALYSIS – ANALYSES
    • MAN - MEN
  • Com substantivos compostos, pluralizamos o seu componente principal: 
    • brother-in-law /brothers-in-law (CUNHADO)
    • errand-boy /errand-boys (MENSAGEIRO)
    • godfather /godfathers (PADRINHO)
    • maidservant /maidservants (CRIADA )
    • stepdaughter/ stepdaughters (ENTEADA)    
  • Substantivos de origem estrangeira (gregos ou latinos) mantêm seus plurais originais:
    • Alumnus/ alumni (ex- aluno)
    • Analysis/analyses (análise)
    • Axis/axes (eixo)
    • Bacillus/bacilli (bacilo)
    • Bacterium/bacteria (bactéria)
    • Basis/bases (base)
    • Crisis/crises (crise)
  • Alguns substantivos apresentam a mesma forma para o singular e o plural:
    • Sheep / carneiro(s)
    • species /  espécie(s)
    • fish* / peixe(s)
    • salmon / salmão(ões)
    • series / série(s)
  • Alguns substantivos, por conter a idéia de um grande número ou porque indicam que a entidade é composta de duas partes iguais, são somente usados no plural:
            • Binoculars- binóculo
            • Cattle- gado
            • Glasses- óculos
            • Jeans- jeans
            • Police- polícia
            • Scales- balança
            • Scissors- tesoura
  • Há, porém, uma tendência em pluralizar palavras de origem estrangeira com o plural inglês: 
    • Stadium/ stadiums (estádio)  
    • Terminus/ terminuses (término)
    • Memorandum/ memorandums (memorando)
    • Dogma/dogmas (dogmas)
  • The highlighted words in the following sentences are all nouns:
      • Late last  year  our  neighbours  bought a  goat .
      • Portia White  was an  opera singer .
      • The  bus inspector  looked at all the  passengers' passes .
      • According to  Plutarch , the  library  at  Alexandria  was destroyed in 48 B.C.
      • Philosophy  is of little  comfort  to the  starving .
  • Countable Nouns and uncountable
    • A noun can be countable or uncountable;
    • COUNTABLE:
    • I eat a banana every day.
    • I like bananas.
    • Banana is a countable noun.
    • A countable noun can be singular (banana) or plural (bananas).
    • We can use numbers with countable nouns. So we can say ‘ one banana’, ‘two bananas” etc.
  • Examples of nouns usually countable:
    • Kate was singing a song .
    • There’s a nice beach near here.
    • Do you have a ten-pound note ?
    • It wasn’t your fault. It was an accident .
    • There are no batteries in the radio.
    • We haven’t got enough cups.
  • Non-Countable Nouns:
    • I eat rice every day.
    • I like rice .
    • Rice is an uncountable noun.
    • An uncountable noun has only one form ( rice ).
    • We cannot use numbers with uncountable nouns. We cannot say “one rice”, “two rices” etc.
  • Examples of nouns usually uncountable:
    • Kate was listening to (some) music .
    • There’s sand in my shoes. (areia)
    • Do you have any money ?
    • It wasn’t your fault. It was bad luck .
    • There is no electricity in this house.
    • We haven’t got enough water .
  • MORE EXAMPLES OF COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE:
    • COUNTABLE: car, book, train, elephant, two books, ten dogs, etc.
    • UNCOUNTABLE: air, coffee, water, money, rice, strength, light, etc.
  • PRONOUNS
    • SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS
    • OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS
    • POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
    • POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
    • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
  • 1. Subject Pronouns/ 2. Object Pronouns/ 3. Possessive Adjectives
    • I me my
    • you you your
    • He him his
    • She her her
    • It it its
    • We us our
    • You you your
    • They them their
  • 1. Subjective Pronouns:
    • Sempre terão a função de sujeito.
    • e.g. Tom phoned Jane yesterday.
    • He
    • The boys travelled last week.
    • They
  • 2. Objective Pronouns
    • Me- She wants to take me to Miami.
    • You- I need to visit you tomorrow.
    • Him- She likes to cook for him.
    • Her- I have to say this her.
    • It- I need to wash it.
    • Us- They like to help us.
    • You- I want to write to you.
    • Them- I need to know them better
  • Objective Pronouns
    • Sempre terão a função de objeto.
    • e.g. Jane wrote Tom a letter when he was
    • She him it
    • abroad.
    • The girls talk to their neighbors every
    • They them
    • day.
  • 3. Possessive Adjectives
    • Sempre irão acompanhar um substantivo.
    • MY- MEU.
    • YOUR- SEU
    • HIS- SEU (DELE)
    • HER- SEU (DELA)
    • ITS- SEU (NEUTRO)
    • OUR- NOSSO
    • YOUR- SEUS (DE VOCÊS)
    • THEIR- SEUS (DELES)
  • Possessive Adjectives
    • MY- MEU I like my car.
    • YOUR- SEU You start your class.
    • HIS- SEU (DELE) He reads his book.
    • HER- SEU (DELA) She lives with her mother.
    • ITS- SEU (NEUTRO) It has its problems.
    • OUR- NOSSO We stay with our children.
    • YOUR- SEUS (DE VOCÊS) You prefer your city.
    • THEIR- SEUS (DELES) They open their store.
  • 4. Possessive Pronouns and 5. Reflexive Pronouns:
    • Mine Myself
    • Yours Yoursef
    • His Himself
    • Hers Herself
    • Its Itself
    • Ours Ourself
    • Yours Yourself
    • Theirs Themself
  • 4. Possessive Pronouns:
    • Sempre irão substituir um substantivo.
    • e.g. My school is traditional, hers is traditional, too.
    • Her bike is brand-new, mine is brand-new, too.
    • Is that pen yours ? Yes, it’s mine .
    • Those sweets aren’t ours . They must be theirs .
  • 5. Reflexive and Emphasizing Pronouns:
    • REFLEXIVE : aparecem sempre após o verbo concordando com o sujeito da oração.
    • e.g. Daisy cut herself with a blade. (blade: lâmina)
    • The boys blame themselves for that mistake.
    • (blame: repreender, responsabilizar)
    • Emphasizers : aparecem antes do verbo ou no final da oração.
    • e.g. I myself wash all dishes or I wash all the dishes myself .
    • Tom himself prepared the meal or Tom prepared the meal himself .
  • NOTA:
    • Sempre que forem precedidos da preposição by , esses pronomes indicam que a pessoa praticou a ação sozinha por conta própria , podendo ser sustituídos pela palavra alone .
    • e.g. Jane works by herself at the shop.
    • The dog found the way home by itself .
  • GENITIVE CASE
    • Used to indicate possession
    • Mary’s car.
    • The girls’ school.
    • My cousin’s house.
    • Cervantes’ novels.
    • Alice’s sister.
    • My cousins’ restaurant.
    • Rui Barbosa’s square.
    • The moon’s light
  • DETERMINERS
    • Nouns are often preceded by the words  the ,  a , or  an .
    • These words are called DETERMINERS.
    • They indicate the kind of reference which the noun has. The determiner  the  is known as the DEFINITE ARTICLE.
    • It is used before both singular and plural nouns:  Singular/Plural
    • the  taxi the  taxis
    • the  paper the  papers
    • the  apple the  apples
    • The determiner  a  (or  an , when the following noun begins with a vowel) is the INDEFINITE ARTICLE. It is used when the noun is singular:    
    • a  taxi   a  paper   an  apple
  • The articles  the  and  a/an  are the most common determiners, but there are many others:  
    • any  taxi   that  question   those  apples   this  paper   some  apple   whatever  taxi   whichever  taxi
  • Many determiners express quantity:  
    • all  examples   both  parents   many  people   each  person   every  night   several  computers   few  excuses   enough  water   no  escape
  • Numerals and Determiners
    • Numerals are determiners when they appear before a noun. In this position, cardinal numerals express quantity:    
    • one  book   two  books   twenty  books
    • In the same position, ordinal numerals express sequence:    
    • first  impressions   second  chance   third  prize
    • The subclass of ordinals includes a set of words which are not directly related to numbers (as  first  is related to  one ,  second  is related to  two , etc).
    • These are called general ordinals, and they include  last ,  latter , next ,  previous , and  subsequent . These words also function as determiners:    
    • next  week   last  orders   previous  engagement   subsequent  developments
    •   When they do not come before a noun, as we've already seen, numerals are a subclass of nouns. And like nouns, they can take determiners:    
    • the two  of us   the first  of many
    • They can even have numerals as determiners before them:    
    • five twos  are ten
    • In this example,  twos  is a plural noun and it has the determiner  five before it.  
  • The general determiners are:
    • the indefinite articles :  a, an
    • a few a little  all  another  any
    • both  each  either  enough  every
    • few  fewer  less  little  many more  most  much
    • neither  no  other  several  some 
  • For example:
    • " A  man sat under  an  umbrella.“
    • “ Have you got  any  English books that I could have?“
    • “ There is  enough  food to feed everyone.“
    • You use general determiners to talk about people or things without saying exactly who or what they are.
  • BIBLIOGRAFIA:
    • http://www.writingcentre.uottawa.ca/hypergrammar/nouns.html
    • Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar um Use, third edition, Cambridge.
    • Imagens retiradas do Google.
    • Coleção Pitpagoras 2000; livro 1 de Inglês- Ensino Médio.