Software cob3


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Software cob3

  1. 1. Objectives <ul><li>Understand the functions of the OS and give examples of OS </li></ul><ul><li>State the features of OS </li></ul><ul><li>State what utility software is and give examples </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of application software and classify them </li></ul><ul><li>State the different user interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Understand what drives and impedes software development </li></ul>
  2. 2. 3.1 Introduction <ul><li>A computer consists of hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>The software “tells” the hardware what to do and the hardware does the actual work </li></ul>
  3. 3. 3.2 What is Software? <ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A program or a set of instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That tells a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to do it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 3.2 What is Software?
  5. 5. 3.3 System Software <ul><li>System software controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The computer during start-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All activities within the computer system </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 3.3 System Software <ul><li>The Operating System (OS) is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An example of system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most important program running in the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operates the computer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 3.3 System Software
  8. 8. 3.3 System Software
  9. 9. 3.3 System Software
  10. 10. 3.3 System Software <ul><li>Features of an OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When computers run out of memory, the OS substitutes hard disk space for memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual memory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Able to do more than one task at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for many peripheral devices (e.g. printers, scanners, sound cards) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So that users can use these peripheral devices </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 3.3 System Software <ul><li>Differences between the types of OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 98 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not prevent others from accessing your files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents others from accessing your files </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OS for large systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great responsibilities and powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like traffic controller </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures users and programs do not interfere with each other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents unauthorised access </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 3.3 System Software <ul><li>Another classification of OS </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3.4 Utility Software <ul><li>Utility software refers to computer programs that help to manage, recover and back up files </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3.5 Application Software <ul><li>A program designed to perform specific “user-related” tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Not part of the OS </li></ul>
  15. 15. 3.5 Application Software <ul><li>The OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates or controls the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages and coordinates the various parts of the computer to bring about order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiates between the application programs and hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Application programs must make a request to the OS to save a file to the hard disk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 3.5 Application Software <ul><li>Classification of application software </li></ul><ul><li>Word processing software or word processors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to create and edit documents such as letters and reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Microsoft Word, WordPerfect </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 3.5 Application Software <ul><li>Desktop Publishing Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to produce publications such as newsletters, magazines and books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Microsoft Publisher, Adobe PageMaker </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 3.5 Application Software <ul><li>Graphics Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to create drawings such as clip art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: CorelDraw, Adobe Illustrator </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 3.5 Application Software <ul><li>Multimedia Presentation Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to create presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Microsoft PowerPoint, Macromedia Director </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 3.5 Application Software <ul><li>Spreadsheet Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform calculations on data, create and edit charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 3.5 Application Software <ul><li>Database Management Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create and maintain databases such as library databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Microsoft Access, Borland dBase </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. 3.6 User Interface <ul><li>Refers to how the user communicates with (interfaces) the software </li></ul><ul><li>Three kinds of user interfaces or “integrated environment” </li></ul>
  23. 23. 3.6 User Interface <ul><li>The Shell or “Command Line Interface” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users interface by typing text command-line text </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. 3.6 User Interface
  25. 25. 3.6 User Interface <ul><li>The Graphical User Interface (GUI) </li></ul><ul><li>Use graphical objects to ask the OS to perform tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By pointing and clicking at icons, toolbars, menus, controls that appear on the screen </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 3.6 User Interface
  27. 27. 3.6 User Interface
  28. 28. 3.6 User Interface <ul><li>The Auditory Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interact with the computer through sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses speech recognition technology improving </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 3.7 Factors that Affect the Development of Application Software <ul><li>Two key positive factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In order for software to sell, must meet the needs of end users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software companies need to research what users want </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software development is like any other business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must make money to cover programmers’ salaries, other expenses, returns on capital </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. 3.7 Factors that Affect the Development of Application Software <ul><li>Negative factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software piracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorised copying and selling of software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hurts both software companies and end users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robs programmers and software retailers of their rightful income </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to less software and software stores </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. 3.7 Factors that Affect the Development of Application Software
  32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Instructions are required to operate a computer. These instructions are contained in computer programs or software. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of software are system software, and application software. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system (OS) is the system software used to control the input-process-output operations taking place in a computer system. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Application software refers to programs designed for specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Word processors (e.g. WordPerfect) are for document processing. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Summary <ul><li>Graphics software (e.g. Adobe Illustrator) is for drawing and painting. </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia presentation software (e.g. Macromedia Director) is for creating presentations. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Summary <ul><li>Spreadsheet software (e.g. Lotus 1-2-3) is for calculating data and creating charts. </li></ul><ul><li>Database management software (e.g. Borland dBase) is for creating and managing databases. </li></ul><ul><li>Interfaces can be command-driven, or graphical. </li></ul>