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The origins of contemporary art, historical, social and cultural context in the 19th. century


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The origins of contemporary art. Historical, social and cultural contexts of the 19th, Century

The origins of contemporary art. Historical, social and cultural contexts of the 19th, Century

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  • 1. The origins of contemporary art Historical, social and cultural context of the 19th. Century MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 2. Background… The Scientific Revolution • Medieval view: the earth as the center of the universe, geocentric theory • The Scientific Revolution: early 16th. Century (1500s), heliocentric theory • Copernicus, Polish • Galileo Galilei, Italian scientific, in 1633 supports astronomer: the earth moves around the sun. The Catholic Church declares his theory dangerous for the faith Copernicus´ theory and he is judged by the Holy Office of the Inquisition of the Catholic Church (Beck, 546) MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 3. Background… The Scientific Revolution: a new universe of discoveries, many of them questioning the catholic faith and the church´s authority • • Scientific Method: Francis Bacon y René Descartes (1600s) • The Law of Gravity: Isaac Newton (1687) • Medicine and the human body: Andreas Vesalius (1500s), • The Evolution Theory: Charles Darwin (1859) dissections in the human corpses to know the organs, bones and muscles; William Harvey (1600s) discovered the functioning of the heart and veins (Beck, 549) MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 4. Background… The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution starts in England during the 18th. Century. •Mass production of goods with new machineries. • • Introduction to a new form of transportation: The locomotive Great advances in technology Ffestiniog Railway steam Locomotive No 8 James Spooner, 1872 Toronto Rolling Mills, William Armstrong, 1864 MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 5. Background… The Enlightenment or the Age of Reason • It reached its height half way into the 18th Century. Its ideas still impact modern democracies. It questioned the divene power upon the absolute monarchies. • • "[It is] the people, to whom all authority belongs." -Thomas Jefferson to Spencer Roane, 1821. ME 15:328 “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains” Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1712-1778 (Beck, 553) MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 6. Impact of the Enlightenment Ideas The Enlightenment ideas eventually inspired the American Revolution (1776) and the French Revolution (1789) • The Declaration of Independence of United States of America was written by Thomas Jefferson, Based in the ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment • (Beck, 564) MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 7. Social context that originates the French Revolution (Beck, 574) MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 8. The Enlightenment created three long term effects that gave birth to the Western Civilization • Belief in progress. Scientific Revolution: human reason can • A secular outlook. The teachings of the church were • Importance of the individual. The birth of individualism. solve social problems: inequality, slavery, and ignorance. questioned, as well as superstition and religious fear. Tolerance towards different religions is promoted. People turn away from the church and royalty´s guidance to find themselves. (Beck, 556) MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 9. The impact of the Enlightenment in the Arts After producing art at the service of the church and the royalty, the artist start to look for inspiration in nature and human nature. Emphasis in nature and landscape: José María Velasco, (1840-1912) Mexican painter, 19th. Century El Popocatepetl e Iztaccíhuatl Óleo sobre tela, 45 x 60 cm MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 10. José María Velasco «para lograr esos paisajes tan espléndidos en los que pareciera que vemos la realidad a través de una ventana, estudió con mucho cuidado y disciplina cada uno de los aspectos que los componen. Estudió botánica y zoología de manera profunda al grado de ser miembro de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural, dos años anatomía con el doctor Manuel Carpio quien fue miembro fundador de la Academia de Medicina, por supuesto perspectiva, teoría del color y pintura, entre otras cosas.» (El Paisaje como Patio del ex convento de San Agustín, 1860 Óleo sobre tela, 32 x 43 cm Expresión, Red Escolar México, 2006) Catedral de Oaxaca (186?) Óleo sobre papel, 44 x 62 cm Patio del ex convento de San Agustín (2), 1861 Óleo sobre tela, 72 x 98 cm MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 11. Emphasis in the individual. The French painter Elizabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun (1755-1842), was a celebrated portrait painter in the late 1700´s Marie Antoinette and her children, 1787 Was Marie Antoinette painted as a queen of France? What is her role in this paint? MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 12. The promise of Science The English artist Joseph Wright (1734- 1797) was fascinated by science and its impact in life and people. A Philosopher giving a lecture on the Orrery , 1766 Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump (1768), by Joseph Wright of Derby [National Gallery, London] Where is the light coming from in both artworks’ What does it mean? MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 13. Politics and Society The English artist William Hogarth (1697-1764), use satire in his paintings. In Canvassing for votes- The Election, 1755, he comments about corruption in politics. Marriage a la Mode: The Tete a Tete c1743 The National Gallery, London What is happening here? What is the artist criticizing? MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 14. The promotion of the ideas of The Enlightenment. • In 1700s, Paris was the cultural capital of Europe. The ideas of Enlightenment were promoted specially in the Salons, predecessor of the museum, where some rich Parisian women organized reunions among artists. • Lemonnier, A reading in the salon of Madame Geoffrin This is Madame Geoffrin, the owner of the house and host for the event MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 15. The Encyclopedia was very important for the spread of the new and revolutionary ideas. The philosopher Denis Diderot imagened a series of books where the wise Europeans could contribute with articles and essays. The first volume was published in 1751. Charles Philipon was a French cartoonist who made this cartoon about the king Louis Philippe, Les Poires, 1831…he didn´t have his head decapitated MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 16. Historical context of the 19th. Century It prevails a liberal ideology where the values being promoted are Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. • Napoleon Bonaparte Military genius declared Emperor of France in 1804. • Establishes order and promotes some of the changes proposed by the revolution • His ambition to control Europe takes him beyond the French territorial limits. He changes political leaders for his own imposed leaders. • Napoleon on his Imperial throne Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, 1806 MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 17. • The actions of Napoleon give birth to a new movement: Nationalism. José Pablo Moncayo, Mexican composer, 19121958 “Huapango de Moncayo e imágenes de José María Velasco” ature=search Nationalism is the belief that the loyalty of the individual is not to the Church nor to the Royal Family or the foreign imposed government, but to the group of people that share the same culture and historical background: nation. • The romantic nationalists declared that a nation has a right to be independent : nation-state. • MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 18. Period of Revolutions The 19th. Century was the period of revolutions, thanks to the parallel nationalist movements. • Nations under the foreign domain establish their own nationstates. This didn´t happen only in Europe but also in the Latinoamerican territories. • • Declared their independence • Venezuela, 1811 • Argentina, 1816 • Chile, 1817 • México, 1821 • Brasil, 1822 • Perú, 1824 • Colombia y Ecuador, 1830 • El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala y Honduras, 1841 MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 19. Social context in the 19th. Century In the first half of the 19th. Century, three forces fought over the supremacy of European society: • • Conservatives: rich owners of property and nobles who • Liberals: merchants and middle class , who wanted more • Radicales: wanted a drastic change to achieve democracy. protect the monarchies. power for the Parliament. The poorest being supported by some intellectuals. Portrait of Emile Zola, Manet 1968 Henry Mosler (American artist, 1841 – 1920) Canal Street Market
  • 20. The Industrial Revolution created social, political and economic reforms: • Capitalism. Adam Smith. The economic liberty warranties the economic progress. There is no government intervention in the economics of the State. • Socialism. Some theoreticians belief that the government must intervene in the economics of the State. The factors of production are owned by the people and are administered for the benefit of all. • Communism. Karl Marx, German journalist, introduced a radical form of socialism , Marxism (Communist Manifest)). According to Marx and Engels, the industrial revolution has enriched the rich and impoverished the poor. Communism promotes one society without social classes, and the ownership of the means of production by the people. Private property does not exist. MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 21. What are the effects of industrialization present in this lithograph ?
  • 22. Describe the scene… MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 23. Cultural context on the 19th. Century • Intellectual and artistic movements promoted and reflected the social and political changes in Europe during the 19th. Century. • A new movement in the arts and ideas, with a profound interest in nature and the thoughts and feelings of the individual, was the central axis of the artistic production • The new voices are in favor of creative freedom. The arts´movement is the Romanticism, at the beginning of the 19th Century. The contemporary artist is born. MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 24. Architecture In the 19th. Century, the architecture style became simple and elegant, with a similar style to the classic Greece and Rome. The new style was called Neoclassicism. Teatro Degollado, Guadalajara, Jalisco Instituto Cultural Cabañas, Guadalajara, Jalisco MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 25. Music It acquires a new style too. A more grandiose, with bigger symphonic and bigger and more dramatic works in organ and coral music. This style was called Classic. As example of classical music, we have: • Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer •George Frederick Handel, English composer • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven had their most creative period in Vienna, Austria. MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 26. Literature •Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote his master piece, Faust, about a medieval scholar who, unsatisfied with the fruits of knowledge, sells his soul to the devil as payment for pleasure and mundane wisdom. • Víctor Hugo, French poet. His novels and theatre pieces expressed the romantic and revolutionary spirit. His novels Les Misérables and The Hunchback of Notre Dame present the challenges of the individual against a hostile society. MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 27. The popularity of the novel. • Extensive work in prose and fiction • A well taken story through suspense and climax • An exploration of the thoughts and feelings of the characters. • Frankenstein, of Mary Shelley, who wrote her first novel at 18 years-old. She starts the science fiction genre. • Tom Jones, of Henry Fielding. It is about an orphan who is thrown out of his adoptive home. He travels around England and encounters many obstacles to win the hand of his lady. • Robinson Crusoe, of Daniel Defoe. It is about a lost sailor in a tropical island. With his abilities and the help of a native named “Friday”, he survives and finally he is rescued. MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 28. Dance The highly controlled minuet (a court dance) was replaced by the popularity of the waltz. The choreographers focused in a dance taken from the opera, called ballet, to expressed the world of Romanticism. Among the most representative works of classical ballet are Swan Lake, Giselle and Les Sylphides. • MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 29. Painting 19th Century was a revolutionary period for painting. Major art movements were gaining momentum: • Romanticism: emphasis on the individual rather than on society. Evokes emotion, heroism, exotic lands, fantasy, mythology Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830 • Realism: emphasis on nature and the struggle of social classes Honoré Dumier, The Third Class Wagon, 1862 MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 30. • Impressionism: emphasis on out door scenes especially of the Claude Monet, everyday life of the bourgeoisie. Woman with a Parasol, 1886 Modern art is born due to the breaking of the standards of painting • Post-impressionism: everyday life scenes, and landscapes with emphasis on geometric forms, distortions for expressive effect, and the use of unnatural color. Vincent Van Gogh, The Mulberry Tree, 1889 • Symbolism: and art movement against realism and naturalism which favor spirituality and the inner self expressions (emotions, dreams, imagination) Carlos Schwabe, The Death of the Grave Digger, 1895
  • 31. Animation Eadweard J. Muybridge, English photographer (1830-1904) Pioneer of animation and cinematography Muybridge, by Adam Pellin Deeve The horse in motion, 1878 MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 32. Cinema Auguste and Louis Lumière, French earliest filmmakers, (1862-1954, 1864 -1948) In 1892 they started to work with images in motion. They invented the camera-projector, “cinèmatographe” (1894) Workers leaving the Lumière factory, 1895, DF_121U&feature=related Georges Mèllié, French earliest filmmakers, (1861-1938) The father of special effects The Trip to the Moon, 1902 MA Rosa M. Brito
  • 33. References and Bibliography Arnason, H. H., & Prather, M. (1998). History of modern art: painting, sculpture, architecture, photography (4th ed.). New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.. Beck, R. B. (2009). World history: patterns of interaction. Evanston, Ill.: McDougal Littell. Figueroba, A., & Madrid, M. T. (1996). Historia del arte . Madrid: McGraw-Hill. Kemp, P. (2011). Cinema: the whole story. London: Thames & Hudson. Mittler, G. A. (2000). Art in focus: aesthetics, criticism, history, studio (4th ed.). New York : GLENCOE/MCGRAW-HILL. Steam Locomotive Stock Photography Images From SuperStock. (n.d.). SuperStock - The Best in Stock Photography, Vintage Photos and Fine Art Images. Retrieved January 24, 2011, from Velasco. (n.d.). RedEscolar - Portal Educativo. Retrieved January 23, 2011, from tmex05.htm century, t. e., & the, s. h. (n.d.). Lixl. Lesson 3. Machine Age and Middle Class Culture. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Retrieved January 24, 2011, from gonzonet. (2007, August 5). YouTube. Huapango de Moncayo e imágenes de José MarÃ-a Velasco. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from