THE BIPOLAR
WORLD AND THE
ARTISTIC
EXPRESSIONS OF
A CONSUMER
SOCIETY
First part
MA Rosa M. Brito
Historical, social and cultural-artistic
contexts of the postwar period

MA Rosa M. Brito
The Cold War was one of the most
significant political events of the
20th. Century. Any crisis
precipitated by the conflic...
For over 40 years, the world was under
the constant threat of total
devastation, caught between the nuclear
arsenals of th...
Cultural-artistic context of the postwar
period
•The Cold War was reflected in the artistic production of
the period: fine...
1940´s

World War II ends in Europe as Germany surrenders to the
Allies (U.S., Russia, Great Britain, France). The four
su...
1940´s

1945 – The first
Atomic Bomb is
dropped in
Hiroshima, signaling the
beginning of the
Nuclear Age

MA Rosa M. Brito
Hiroshima, August 6, 1945
The fear of nuclear catastrophe marked the 1950´s-1960´s.

Duck and Cover http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKqXu-5jw60

MA R...
Sally Edelstein,

Sleep Soundly,
collage

MA Rosa M. Brito
Letter from President John F.
Kennedy to the American
nation: "there is much you can

do to protect yourself against
the t...
MA Rosa M. Brito
Barefoot Gen (Hadashi no Gen), Hiroshima destroyed ,by Keiji Nakasawa
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BfJZ6nwxD38

MA Rosa ...
Butoh, dance of the dark soul, originated in 1950, by Kazuo Ohno and Tatsumi
MA Rosa M. Brito
Hijikata
Sankai Juku, contemporary Butoh dance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT-v9cxf7g
MA Rosa M. Brito
Japanese contribution to the science-fiction cinematography
of the 50´s and 60´s
• Creation of radioactive sea monsters (k...
1950´s
Arms Race:
mass
production of
nuclear
weapons on
both sides.

Distribution of
nuclear reactors
(nuclearinfo.net
htt...
1950´s
Ideological
Propaganda

Open for
business, collage by Sally
Edelstain

“During the Cold War, the Third World was a ...
1950´s

1950-1953 Korean War
The Cold War was marked
by a series of crisis called
proxy, or “limited wars”.
This proxy war...
MASH TV series, 1972-1983

MA Rosa M. Brito
1950´s
1953 – The Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, dies.

Satellite States take
advantage of the
opportunity to gain more
inde...
• United States assumes a leadership in the arts during the
Cold War. The American art expressions were financed by
the CI...
Jackson Pollock (1912-1956), American painter
•Representative of action painting,
“gestural painting”.
•Since 1947, this p...
Jackson Pollock
https://www.youtu
be.com/watch?v=w
GVuJ3q8fuQ&list=
PL23C1EBB25895B
637

MA Rosa M. Brito
Convergence, 1952

Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950, National

Gallery of Art, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund, 1976.37.1

“Wh...
The Space Race

1960´s

“We have a long way to go in the space race. We started late.
But this is the new ocean, and I bel...
Science Fiction Movies

MA Rosa M. Brito
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AA4qGc2z-rs&playnext=1&list=PLEA7F8FE763C87DB8
Space Age Fashion, 1960´s
MA Rosa M. Brito
Conceptual Art and the social phenomenon of the
counterculture
“Conceptual art is based on the concept that art may exist
...
Ha Schult, Trash people

Bill Viola, Ocean without a shore, 2007

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eTakwOpWqG4

Piero Manzon...
Publicity and
Propaganda

Happening
and
Performance

CONCEPTUAL
ART

Art Object
and
Installation

Pop Art and
Op Art
MA Ro...
Concept art for publicity and social campaigns

MA Rosa M. Brito
Art Object
The art object dignifies simple and everyday life objects as evidence that
art, above all, is a mental attitude...
Installation
• Creation of an autonomous space, within another space.
• Ephemeral art,;it can be recreated in other places...
Sam
Spencer, Bloom, for the
Wrapping Project,

Cornelia Parker
Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View, 1991

Helmut Smits, Par...
Iván Puig, artista mexicano.
hasta las narices, 2004
Materiales: VW sedan, agua, pigmento, plotter sobre
pvc, vaso de vidr...
Sam Taylor Wood, Still Life, 2001, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIzXWGcb3u0

MA Rosa M. Brito
Pop Art
•At the end of the 50´s and the decade of the
60´s, a reaction against the subjective character of
Abstract Expres...
MA Rosa M. Brito
MA Rosa M. Brito
Andy Warhol (1928-1987), American artist

Campbell´s Soup Can, 1960´s

Marilyn Monroe prints, 1960´s
MA Rosa M. Brito
Female head, 1950´s In the bottom of
my garden, 1956

Silver Liz, 1963
Ché Guevara, 1962

Ten Punching Bags (Last Supper),...
Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997), American artist

Hopeless, 1963

Tin tin in
the New
World, 1993

Interior with Skyline, 1991...
Bedroom at Arles, 1992

MA Rosa M. Brito
Julian Murphy (1959-), British artist

MA Rosa M. Brito
Heaven to Hell
(Pietá with
Courtney
Love), 2006

David LaChapelle (1963), American photographer

Dollhouse
disaster, love
...
Op Art
•This art movement also flourished in the 60´s. In Op Art the
object is not recognizable, as a matter of fact, it i...
Victor Vasarely (1906-1997), Hungarian-French

The Zebras, 1938

Duo-2, 1967

Outdoor work in the church of Pálos in Pécs
...
The logo of the Olympic
Games in México, 1968, was
created Lance Wyman and
Eduardo Terrazas, based on
the Huichol art of t...
The Olympic Games of México ´68 was one of the most
remembered worldwide, because of its innovative and
efficient communic...
Textures

MA Rosa M. Brito
References and Bibliography
the warhol:. (n.d.). the warhol:. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://www.warhol.org/
Juli...
Besset, M. B. (1988). The Twentieth Century (Universe History of Art and Architecture). New York: Universe Publishing(Ny)....
LaChapelle México 2009. (n.d.). 212 PRODUCITONS. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from
http://www.212fashion.tv/DAVID_LACHAP...
Película de monstruos. (n.d.). Diccionarios y enciclopedias en el Akademik. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from
http://www.e...
WatchMojo. (n.d.). YouTube - Bill Viola - Ocean Without A Shore YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved March 25, 2011, ...
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Historical, social and cultural artistic contexts of the Cold War period. Artistic expressions of the period 1940´s-1960's

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First part, the bipolar world and the artistic expressions of a consumer society

  1. 1. THE BIPOLAR WORLD AND THE ARTISTIC EXPRESSIONS OF A CONSUMER SOCIETY First part MA Rosa M. Brito
  2. 2. Historical, social and cultural-artistic contexts of the postwar period MA Rosa M. Brito
  3. 3. The Cold War was one of the most significant political events of the 20th. Century. Any crisis precipitated by the conflicts between the forces of capitalism and communism could trigger a nuclear exchange of major proportions. MA Rosa M. Brito
  4. 4. For over 40 years, the world was under the constant threat of total devastation, caught between the nuclear arsenals of the United States, Britain and France on the one hand, and on the other, the Soviet Union and Communist Republic China. MA Rosa M. Brito
  5. 5. Cultural-artistic context of the postwar period •The Cold War was reflected in the artistic production of the period: fine arts, performing arts, literature and multimedia. •The devastation of cultural centers in Europe created a void in the world of art, which was filled out by the new center for the arts: New York. •The policies of the bipolar world led to what was considered the essence of Americanism: Abstract Expressionism or the New York School MA Rosa M. Brito
  6. 6. 1940´s World War II ends in Europe as Germany surrenders to the Allies (U.S., Russia, Great Britain, France). The four superpowers contested for the control of Berlin. 1945 – The Yalta Conference marks the beginning of the Cold War. The “Big Three”: Great Britain´s Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin, met to split the city of Berlin into 4 sectors. MA Rosa M. Brito
  7. 7. 1940´s 1945 – The first Atomic Bomb is dropped in Hiroshima, signaling the beginning of the Nuclear Age MA Rosa M. Brito
  8. 8. Hiroshima, August 6, 1945
  9. 9. The fear of nuclear catastrophe marked the 1950´s-1960´s. Duck and Cover http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKqXu-5jw60 MA Rosa M. Brito
  10. 10. Sally Edelstein, Sleep Soundly, collage MA Rosa M. Brito
  11. 11. Letter from President John F. Kennedy to the American nation: "there is much you can do to protect yourself against the threat of nuclear fallout.” http://faculty.txwes.edu/csmeller/HumanProspect/ProData09/03WW2CulMatrix/ColdW ar/Kennedy/Kenn1961Life.htm MA Rosa M. Brito
  12. 12. MA Rosa M. Brito
  13. 13. Barefoot Gen (Hadashi no Gen), Hiroshima destroyed ,by Keiji Nakasawa http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BfJZ6nwxD38 MA Rosa M. Brito
  14. 14. Butoh, dance of the dark soul, originated in 1950, by Kazuo Ohno and Tatsumi MA Rosa M. Brito Hijikata
  15. 15. Sankai Juku, contemporary Butoh dance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxT-v9cxf7g MA Rosa M. Brito
  16. 16. Japanese contribution to the science-fiction cinematography of the 50´s and 60´s • Creation of radioactive sea monsters (kaiju) Godzilla, 1954 Agon, the Atomic Dragon, 1964 MA Rosa M. Brito
  17. 17. 1950´s Arms Race: mass production of nuclear weapons on both sides. Distribution of nuclear reactors (nuclearinfo.net http://nuclearin fo.net/Nuclearp ower/CurrentRe actors Great advances in technology to the service of the military ENIAC, 194 3-1945 construction (U.S. Army Photo) Salyut, Soviet military space station program MA Rosa M. Brito
  18. 18. 1950´s Ideological Propaganda Open for business, collage by Sally Edelstain “During the Cold War, the Third World was a battleground of dueling ideologies between the U.S. and the Soviets for their loyalty. We would “help” underdeveloped countries improve their lives and know the real joy of good living by exporting American consumer goods so they could better resist Communist pressures.” (Sally Edelstein Collage, American Crusaders) MA Rosa M. Brito
  19. 19. 1950´s 1950-1953 Korean War The Cold War was marked by a series of crisis called proxy, or “limited wars”. This proxy wars were fought in Third World countries. MA Rosa M. Brito
  20. 20. MASH TV series, 1972-1983 MA Rosa M. Brito
  21. 21. 1950´s 1953 – The Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, dies. Satellite States take advantage of the opportunity to gain more independence from the USSR. Nikita Khrushchev 1957 – The Soviets launched the first artificial satellite: Sputnik http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NL5xZ_hgNNI&featu re=related MA Rosa M. Brito
  22. 22. • United States assumes a leadership in the arts during the Cold War. The American art expressions were financed by the CIA through the Congress for Cultural Freedom • In the United States emerges a new art movement: Abstract Expressionism or the New York School. Characteristics of Abstract Expressionism: • The object disappears through various levels of abstraction (depending of the artist) • Effect of the subconscious in the creative process of the artist • Spontaneity and vitality, which contrasted with the image that Western society had of the communist culture, impoverished by the lack of financial support and dominated by the State. MA Rosa M. Brito
  23. 23. Jackson Pollock (1912-1956), American painter •Representative of action painting, “gestural painting”. •Since 1947, this painter used a technique known as dripping. Photograph of Pollock, © 1999 Estate of Hans Namuth. Courtesy Pollock-Krasner House •Pollock participated in Siqueiros´s Experimental Workshop in New York City, in 1936. Siqueiros and Members of his Experimental Workshop in New York City , c. 1935. Photograph © Archivo CENIDIAP-INBA •Since the 1950´s, Pollock was financially supported by the CIA, up to his premature death, at age 44. MA Rosa M. Brito
  24. 24. Jackson Pollock https://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=w GVuJ3q8fuQ&list= PL23C1EBB25895B 637 MA Rosa M. Brito
  25. 25. Convergence, 1952 Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950, National Gallery of Art, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund, 1976.37.1 “When I am in my painting, I'm not aware of what I'm doing. It's only after a sort of "get acquainted" period that I see what I have been about. I have no fears about making changes, destroying the image, etc., because the painting has a life of its own.” - quoted in Possibilities I, Winter 1947-48 Untitled, 1950 MA Rosa M. Brito
  26. 26. The Space Race 1960´s “We have a long way to go in the space race. We started late. But this is the new ocean, and I believe the United States must sail on it and be in a position second to none” President John F. Kennedy, 1962 1961 – First man into space: cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin 1969 - Astronauta norteamericano, Neil Armstrong, primer hombre en la luna http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMINSD7MmT4MA Rosa M. Brito
  27. 27. Science Fiction Movies MA Rosa M. Brito
  28. 28. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AA4qGc2z-rs&playnext=1&list=PLEA7F8FE763C87DB8 Space Age Fashion, 1960´s MA Rosa M. Brito
  29. 29. Conceptual Art and the social phenomenon of the counterculture “Conceptual art is based on the concept that art may exist solely as an idea and not in the physical realm. For advocates of this movement, the idea of a work matters more than its physical identity. “ World Wide Art Resources "One and Three Chairs" by Joseph Kossuth, 1965 Murat Suyur, digital photographer MA Rosa M. Brito
  30. 30. Ha Schult, Trash people Bill Viola, Ocean without a shore, 2007 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eTakwOpWqG4 Piero Manzoni, Artist´s Breath, 1960 Marina Abramovic, The Family III, 2008 MA Rosa M. Brito
  31. 31. Publicity and Propaganda Happening and Performance CONCEPTUAL ART Art Object and Installation Pop Art and Op Art MA Rosa M. Brito
  32. 32. Concept art for publicity and social campaigns MA Rosa M. Brito
  33. 33. Art Object The art object dignifies simple and everyday life objects as evidence that art, above all, is a mental attitude that resides in the viewer. When these objects are observed in an exhibition room, the aesthetic qualities, nor the utilitarian qualities, are appreciated. (Tus sobras son obras, arte del reciclaje) Joaquin Segura , Inaugural Address, confederate knife & Barack Obama's Inaugural Address, 2009 photos by Aleksandra Ajdukovic Alejo Pernigotti, Arte ObjetoLiberar la Voz, Las Ideas y La Memoria, 2006 Pablo Reinoso, Spaghetti Bench, 2006 MA Rosa M. Brito
  34. 34. Installation • Creation of an autonomous space, within another space. • Ephemeral art,;it can be recreated in other places, but never repeated. The space determines the arrangement of objects. • It is not a commercial work, although the objects are. •The artist may use any means: natural materials, synthetic, digital, video, audio, plasma, etc. Marcel Duchamp, 16 miles of string, 1942 Ilya Kabacov, Ukranian artist, The man who flew into space from his apartment, 1984 MA Rosa M. Brito
  35. 35. Sam Spencer, Bloom, for the Wrapping Project, Cornelia Parker Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View, 1991 Helmut Smits, Parking for white cars only, MA Rosa M. Brito
  36. 36. Iván Puig, artista mexicano. hasta las narices, 2004 Materiales: VW sedan, agua, pigmento, plotter sobre pvc, vaso de vidrio y figurillas escala, medidas variables MA Rosa M. Brito
  37. 37. Sam Taylor Wood, Still Life, 2001, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIzXWGcb3u0 MA Rosa M. Brito
  38. 38. Pop Art •At the end of the 50´s and the decade of the 60´s, a reaction against the subjective character of Abstract Expressionism takes the form of “return to the object”. •The images of Pop Art, or Popular Art, come from commercial sources, mass media, and every day life objects, with no connection to nature. •The impact of Pop Art was due to the mundane nature of their objects. "It uses the familiar images in a different sense ,to achieve aesthetic position or reach a critical stance about the consumer society." (Spanish Arts) MA Rosa M. Brito
  39. 39. MA Rosa M. Brito
  40. 40. MA Rosa M. Brito
  41. 41. Andy Warhol (1928-1987), American artist Campbell´s Soup Can, 1960´s Marilyn Monroe prints, 1960´s MA Rosa M. Brito
  42. 42. Female head, 1950´s In the bottom of my garden, 1956 Silver Liz, 1963 Ché Guevara, 1962 Ten Punching Bags (Last Supper), 1985 MA Rosa M. Brito
  43. 43. Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997), American artist Hopeless, 1963 Tin tin in the New World, 1993 Interior with Skyline, 1991 Women in Bath, 1963 MA Rosa M. Brito
  44. 44. Bedroom at Arles, 1992 MA Rosa M. Brito
  45. 45. Julian Murphy (1959-), British artist MA Rosa M. Brito
  46. 46. Heaven to Hell (Pietá with Courtney Love), 2006 David LaChapelle (1963), American photographer Dollhouse disaster, love scorned (Ewan McGregor) Last Supper, 2003 Destruction and disaster, 2005 MA Rosa M. Brito
  47. 47. Op Art •This art movement also flourished in the 60´s. In Op Art the object is not recognizable, as a matter of fact, it is eliminated in favor of geometric abstraction, and the experience is exclusively a retinal one. • The Op artist produces kinetic effects using color, lines, shapes, or any combination of these. Escher, Balcony, 1945 Victor Vasarely, animati on MA Rosa M. Brito
  48. 48. Victor Vasarely (1906-1997), Hungarian-French The Zebras, 1938 Duo-2, 1967 Outdoor work in the church of Pálos in Pécs MA Rosa M. Brito
  49. 49. The logo of the Olympic Games in México, 1968, was created Lance Wyman and Eduardo Terrazas, based on the Huichol art of the indigenous communities, and influenced by the Op art MA Rosa M. Brito
  50. 50. The Olympic Games of México ´68 was one of the most remembered worldwide, because of its innovative and efficient communication´s visual proposal, highly influenced by pop art. MA Rosa M. Brito
  51. 51. Textures MA Rosa M. Brito
  52. 52. References and Bibliography the warhol:. (n.d.). the warhol:. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://www.warhol.org/ Julian Murphy : The Singular Art Of Julian Murphy : Hoover Groover. (n.d.). Spike Magazine: Book Reviews, Interviews, Music, Art, Self Publishing, Travel and More. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://www.spikemagazine.com/0400julianmurphy.php Rauschenberg y la épica del basurero | Una temporada en el infierno. (n.d.). Una temporada en el infierno. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://unatemporadaenelinfierno.net/2006/11/12/rauschenberg-y-la-epica-del-basurero/ // h a s t a l a s n a r i c e s //. (n.d.). // i v a n p u i g . n e t // . Retrieved March 25, 2011, from http://www.ivanpuig.net/hln.html 1945., & 1945.. (n.d.). Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima - The Free Information Society. The Free Information Society - Educating and Entertaining since 2003. Retrieved March 21, 2011, from http://www.freeinfosociety.com/article.php?id=9 ADOLFO VÕSQUEZ ROCCA: ILYA KABAKOV; EL ARTE DE LA INSTALACIÓN Y EL PALACIO DE LOS PROYECTOS Por Adolfo Vásquez Rocca. (n.d.). ADOLFO VÕSQUEZ ROCCA. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://arteaisthesis.blogspot.com/2008/01/ilya-kabakov-el-arte-de-la-instalacin-y.html ATOMIC-ANNIHILATION: ... Atomic Comics!. (n.d.). ATOMIC-ANNIHILATION. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://atomicannhilation.blogspot.mx/2011/07/atomic-comics.html Alejo Pernigotti - Artista Visual. (n.d.). Alejo Pernigotti - Artista Visual. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://alejopernigotti.blogspot.com/ ArtLex on Op Art. (n.d.). ArtLex Art Dictionary. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/o/opart.html BBC - History: Cold War. (n.d.). BBC - Homepage. Retrieved October 18, 2010, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/ Beck, R. B. (2006). World History: Patterns of Interaction (Student ed.). United States of America: Mcdougal Littell.
  53. 53. Besset, M. B. (1988). The Twentieth Century (Universe History of Art and Architecture). New York: Universe Publishing(Ny). Chipp, H. B. (1995). Teorias del arte contemporaneo/ Theories of Modern Art: Fuentes artisticas y opiniones criticas/ A Source Book by Artists and Critics (Fuentes De Arte/ Art Sources) (Tra ed.). Barcelona: Akal Ediciones. Cold War Museum. (n.d.). Cold War Museum. Retrieved October 18, 2010, from http://www.coldwar.org/ David LaChapelle y sus “Delirios de razón― en México | ExpresionMX.com. (n.d.). ExpresionMX. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://expresionmx.com/2009/01/30/david-lachapelle-y-sus-delirios-de-razon-en-mexico/ Diseñando México 68: una identidad olÃ-mpica - Artes e Historia México. (n.d.). Artes e Historia México. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://www.arts-history.mx/semanario/?id_nota=01082008171346 Don McLeod - History of Butoh. (n.d.). Don McLeod's Butoh Theatre. Retrieved July 26, 2012, from http://www.zenbutoh.com/history.htm EUXTV. (n.d.). YouTube - Sputnik 1 newsreel 1957 YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. . Retrieved March 23, 2011, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NL5xZ_hgNNI&feature=related Edelstein, S. (n.d.). American Crusaders | Sally Edelstein Collage | DEFROSTING THE COLD WAR. Sally Edelstein Collage | DEFROSTING THE COLD WAR. Retrieved July 24, 2012, from http://www.sallyedelsteincollage.com/content.html?page=7 Gilbert, R. (1998). Living With Art. España: McGraw - Hill. Imagen collage Pop art. (n.d.). Bitácora de AnÃ-bal de la Torre. Retrieved October 25, 2010, from http://www.adelat.org/index.php?title=ibuscas_algo&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1 Jackson Pollock Online. (n.d.). Art cyclopedia: The Fine Art Search Engine. Retrieved October 19, 2010, from http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/pollock_jackson.html La Instalación. (n.d.). Scribd. Retrieved October 20, 2010, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/3967004/La-Instalacion
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