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P J020

  1. 1. PJ-020 FUNDAMENTOS DE JAVA www.profesorjava.com
  2. 2. Esta obra está bajo una licencia Reconocimiento 2.5 México de Creative Commons. Para ver una copia de esta licencia, visite http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/mx/ o envíe una carta a Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California 94105, USA.
  3. 3. Acerca de: En la compilación de esta obra se utilizaron libros conocidos en el ambiente Java, gráficas, esquemas, figuras de sitios de internet, conocimiento adquirido en los cursos oficiales de la tecnología Java. En ningún momento se intenta violar los derechos de autor tomando en cuenta que el conocimiento es universal y por lo tanto se puede desarrollar una idea a partir de otra. La intención de publicar este material en la red es compartir el esfuerzo realizado y que otras personas puedan usar y tomar como base el material aquí presentado para crear y desarrollar un material mucho más completo que pueda servir para divulgar el conocimiento. Atte. ISC Raúl Oramas Bustillos. rauloramas@profesorjava.com
  4. 4. Java Language Basics • Anatomy of a Simple Java Program • Built-In Data Types • Autoincrement/Decrement Operators • Java Expressions • Casting • Block Structured Languages and the Scope of a Variable • Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. • Exercises
  5. 5. Anatomy of a Simple Java Program. Comments main method class “wrapper”
  6. 6. Anatomy of a Simple Java Program.
  7. 7. Anatomy of a Simple Java Program. Examples
  8. 8. Anatomy of a Simple Java Program. Examples
  9. 9. Built-In Data types. Example.
  10. 10. Built-In Data types. Example.
  11. 11. Built-In Data types.
  12. 12. Built-In Data types. Example.
  13. 13. Built-In Data types. Example.
  14. 14. Built-In Data types. Example.
  15. 15. Built-In Data types. Example.
  16. 16. ++/-- Operators. Java provides autoincrement(++) and autodecrement(--) operators;
  17. 17. ++/-- Operators Example.
  18. 18. Java Expressions. An expression is a combination of one or more operators and operands. Expressions usually perform a calculation. The value calculated does not have to be a number, but it often is. The operands used in the operations might be literals, constants, variables, or other sources of data. Many programming statements involve expressions. Expressions are combinations of one or more operands and the operators used to perform a calculation.
  19. 19. Java Expressions. Example. Expr
  20. 20. Casting • Java automatically casts implicitly to larger data types. • When placing larger data types into smaller types, you must use explicit casting to state the type name to which you are converting.
  21. 21. Casting The rules governing automatic casting by the Java compiler are as follows when considering two operands within an arithmetic expression: – If either type is double, the other is cast to a double – If either type is float, the other is cast to a float – If either type is long, the other is cast to a long – Else both operands are converted to int
  22. 22. Casting int num1 = 53; int num2 = 47; byte num3 = (byte)(num1 + num2) //ok nhpp int valor; long valor2 = 99L; valor = (int)valor2; //no hay pérdida de precisión int valor; long valor2 = 123987654321; valor = (int)valor2; //el número se trunca
  23. 23. Casting short s = 259; //binario 100000011 byte b = (byte)s; //casting System.out.println(“b = ” + b); 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 b = (byte)s 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
  24. 24. Casting
  25. 25. Casting
  26. 26. Casting 1/2=0 en 32 bits entero
  27. 27. Casting 1.0 / 2 = 0 se representa en 64 bits
  28. 28. Casting
  29. 29. Block Structured Languages and the Scope of a Variable Java is a block structured language. A “block” of code is a series of zero or more lines of code enclosed within curly braces {…}
  30. 30. Block Structured Languages and the Scope of a Variable
  31. 31. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. do if while for
  32. 32. Conditional Statement Types: if-else • An if-else statement is a conditional expression that must return a boolean value • else clause is optional • Braces are not needed for single statements but highly recommended for clarity
  33. 33. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. If
  34. 34. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. If
  35. 35. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. If
  36. 36. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. If
  37. 37. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. If
  38. 38. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. If-else: ? • Shortcut for if-else statement: (<boolean-expr> ? <true-choice> : <false-choice>) • Can result in shorter code –Make sure code is still readable
  39. 39. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. Switch • Switch statements test a single variable for several alternative values • Cases without break will “fall through” (next case will execute) • default clause handles values not explicitly handled by a case
  40. 40. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. Switch
  41. 41. Controlling a Program’s Execution Flow. Switch
  42. 42. Looping Statement Types: while • Executes a statement or block as long as the condition remains true • while () executes zero or more times’ • do...while() executes at least once.
  43. 43. Looping Statement Types: while
  44. 44. Looping Statement Types: while
  45. 45. Looping Statement Types: while
  46. 46. Looping Statement Types: while
  47. 47. Looping Statement Types: for • A for loop executes the statement or block { } which follows it – Evaluates "start expression" once – Continues as long as the "test expression" is true – Evaluates "increment expression" after each iteration • A variable can be declared in the for statement – Typically used to declare a "counter" variable – Typically declared in the “start” expression – Its scope is restricted to the loop
  48. 48. Looping Statement Types: for
  49. 49. for vs. while • These statements provide equivalent functionality – Each can be implemented in terms of the other • Used in different situations – while tends to be used for open-ended looping – for tends to be used for looping over a fixed number of iterations
  50. 50. for vs. while
  51. 51. Branching statements • break – Can be used outside of a switch statement – Terminates a for, while or do-while loop – Two forms: • Labeled: execution continues at next statement outside the loop • Unlabeled: execution continues at next statement after labeled loop
  52. 52. Branching statements
  53. 53. Branching statements • continue – Like break, but merely finishes this round of the loop – Labeled and unlabeled form • return – Exits the current method – May include an expression to be returned • Type must match method’s return type • Return type “void” means no value can be returned
  54. 54. Branching statements
  55. 55. Branching statements
  56. 56. Abstraction and Modeling
  57. 57. Abstraction and Modeling • Simplification Through Abstraction • Generalization Through Abstraction • Reuse of Abstractions • Inherent Challenges • Exercises 57
  58. 58. Simplification Through Abstraction Abstraction: a process that involves recognizing and focusing on the important characteristics of a situation or object, and filtering out or ignoring all of the unessential details. – Is the process of ignoring details to concentrate on essential characteristics – Is the primary means of coping with complexity – Simplifies user’s interaction with abstracted objects 58
  59. 59. Simplification Through Abstraction 59
  60. 60. Simplification Through Abstraction One familiar example of an abstraction is a road map. 60
  61. 61. Simplification Through Abstraction As an abstraction, a road map represents those features of a given geographic area relevant to someone trying to navigate with the map, perhaps by a car: major roads and places of interest, obstacles such as major bodies of water, etc. Of necessity, a road map cannot include every building, tree, street sign, billboard, traffic light, fast food restaurant, etc. that physically exists in the real world. If i did, then it would be so cluttered as to be virtually unusable; none of the important features would stand out. 61
  62. 62. Simplification Through Abstraction Compare a road map with a topographical map, a climatological map, and a population density map of the same region: each abstracts out different features of the real world – namely, those relevant to the intender user of the map in question. 62
  63. 63. Simplification Through Abstraction As another example, consider a landscape. An artist may look at the landscape from the perspective of colors, textures, and shapes as a prospective subject for a painting. 63
  64. 64. Simplification Through Abstraction A homebuilder may look at the same landscape from the perspective of where the best building site may be on the property, assessing how many trees will need to be cleared to make way for a construction project. 64
  65. 65. Simplification Through Abstraction 65
  66. 66. Generalization Through Abstraction If we eliminate enough detail from an abstraction, it becomes generic enough to apply to a wide range of specific situations or instances. Such generic abstractions can often be quite useful. For example, a diagram of a generic cell in the human body might include only a few features of the structures that are found in an actual cell: 66
  67. 67. Generalization Through Abstraction This overly simplified diagram doesn’t look like a real nerve cell, or a real muscle cell, or a real blood cell; and yet, it can still be used in a educational setting to describe certain aspects of the structure and function of all of these cell types – namely, those features that the various cell types have in common. 67
  68. 68. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies Even though our brains are adept at abstracting concepts such as road maps and landscapes, that still leaves us with hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of separate abstractions to deal with over our lifetimes. To cope with this aspect of complexity, human beings systematically arrange information into categories to established criteria; this process is known as classification. 68
  69. 69. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies 69
  70. 70. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies 70
  71. 71. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies For example, science categorizes all natural objects as belonging to either the animal, plant, or mineral kingdom. In order for a natural object to be classified as an animal, it must satisfy the following rules:  It must be a living being  It must be capable of spontaneous movement  It must be capable of rapid motor response to stimulation 71
  72. 72. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies The rules for what constitute a plant, on the other hand, are diferent:  It must be a living being (same as for an animal)  It must lack an obvious nervous system  It must possess cellulose cell walls 72
  73. 73. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies Given clear-cut rules such as these, placing an object into the appropriate category, or class, is rather straightforward. We can then “drill down”, specifying additional rules which differentiate various types of animal, for example, until we’ve built up a hierarchy of increasing more complex abstractions from top to bottom. 73
  74. 74. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies A simple example of an abstraction hierarchy is shown below. Natural Objects Plant Animal Mineral Mammal Fish Bird Reptile Insect Dog Cat Monkey 74
  75. 75. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies When thinking about an abstraction hierarchy such as the one shown previously, we mentally step up and down thehierarchy, automatically zeroing in on only the single layer or subset of the hierarchy (known as a subtree) that is important to us at a given point in time. For example, we may only be concerned with mammals, and so can focus on the mammalian subtree: Mammal Dog Cat Monkey 75
  76. 76. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies We temporarily ignore the rest of the hierarchy. By doing so, we automatically reduce the number of concepts that we mentally need to “juggle” at any one time to a manageable subset of the overall abstraction hierarchy; in the simplistic example, we are now dealing with only four concepts rather than the original 13. No matter how complex an abstraction hierarchy grows to be, it needn’t overwhelm us if it is properly organized. Mammal Dog Cat Monkey 76
  77. 77. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies Coming up with precisely which rules are necessary to properly classify an object within an abstraction hierarchy is not always easy. Take for example, the rules we might define for what constitutes a bird: namely, something which:  Has feathers  Has wings  Lays eggs  Is capable of flying 77
  78. 78. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies Given these rules, neither an ostrich nor a penguin could be classified as a bird, because neither can fly. Birds Non-Birds 78
  79. 79. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies If we attempt to make the rule set less restrictive by eliminating the “flight” rule, we are left with:  Has feathers  Has wings  Lays eggs According to this rule set, we now may properly classify both the ostrich and the penguin as birds. 79
  80. 80. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies Birds Non-Birds 80
  81. 81. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies This rule set is still unnecessarily complicated, because as it turns out, the “lays eggs” rule is redundant: whether we keep it or eliminate it, it doesn’t change our decision of what constitutes a bird versus a non-bird. Therefore, we simplify the rule set once again:  Has feathers  Has wings 81
  82. 82. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies We try to take our simplification process one step further, by eliminating yet another rule, defining a bird as something which:  Has wings We’ve gone too far this time: the abstraction of a bird is now so general that we’d include airplanes, insects, and all sorts of other non-birds in the mix. 82
  83. 83. Organizing Abstractions Into Classification Hierarchies The process of rule definition for purposes of categorization involves “dialing in” just the right set of rules –not too general, not to restrictive, and containing no redundancies- to define the correct membership in a particular class. 83
  84. 84. Abstractions as the Basis for Software Development When pinning down the requirements for an information systems development project, we typically start by gathering details about the real world definition on which the system is to be based. These details are usually a combination of:  Those that are explicitly offered to us as we interview the intended users of the system  Those that we otherwise observe. 84
  85. 85. Abstractions as the Basis for Software Development We must make a judgment all as to which of these details are relevant to the system’s ultimate purpose. This is essential, as we cannot automate them all!. To include too much details is to overly complicate the resultant system, making it that much more difficult to design, program, test, debug, document, maintain, and extend in the future. As with all abstractions, all of our decisions of inclusions versus elimination when building a software system must be made within the context of the overall purpose and domain, or subject matter focus, of the future system. 85
  86. 86. Abstractions as the Basis for Software Development Once we’ve determined the essential aspects of a situation we can prepare a model of that situation. Modeling is the process by which we develop a pattern for something to be made. A blueprint for a custom home, a schematic diagram of a printed circuit, and a cookie cutter are all examples of such patterns. 86
  87. 87. Abstractions as the Basis for Software Development A model is a simplification of the reality. 87
  88. 88. Abstractions as the Basis for Software Development • Modeling achieves four aims: – Helps you to visualize a system as you want it to be. – Permits you to specify the structure or behavior of a system. – Gives you a template that guides you in constructing a system. – Documents the decisions you have made. • You build models of complex systems because you cannot comprehend such a system in its entirety. • You build models to better understand the system you are developing. 88
  89. 89. Abstractions as the Basis for Software Development The importance of modeling: Less Important More Important Paper Airplane Fighter Jet 89
  90. 90. Abstractions as the Basis for Software Development • Many software teams build applications approaching the problem like they were building paper airplanes – Start coding from project requirements – Work longer hours and create more code – Lacks any planned architecture – Doomed to failure • Modeling is a common thread to successful projects 90
  91. 91. Abstractions as the Basis for Software Development An object model of a software system is such a pattern. Modeling and abstraction go hand in hand, because a model is essentially a physical or graphical portrayal of an abstraction; before we can model something effectively, we must have determined the essential details of the subject to be modeled. 91
  92. 92. Reuse of Abstractions When learning about something new, we automatically search our “mental archive” for other abstractions/models that we’ve previously built and mastered, to look for similarities that we can build upon. When learning to ride a two-wheeled bicycle for the first time, for example, you may have drawn upon lessons that you learned about riding a tricycle as a child. 92
  93. 93. Reuse of Abstractions Both have handlebars that are used to steer; both have pedals that are used to propel the bike forward. Although the Abstractions didn’t match perfectly –a two– wheeled bicycle introduced the new challenge of having to balance oneself – there was enough of a similarity to allow you to draw upon the steering and pedaling expertise you already had mastered, and to focus on learning the new skill of how to balance on two wheels. 93
  94. 94. Reuse of Abstractions This technique of comparing features to find an abstraction that is similar enough to be reused successfully is known as pattern matching and reuse. A pattern reuse is an important technique for object oriented software development ,as well, because it spares us from having to reinvent the wheel with each new project. If we can reuse an abstraction or model from a previous project, we can focus on those aspects of the new project that differ from the old, gaining a tremendous amount of productivity in the process. 94
  95. 95. Reuse of Abstractions Pattern matching 95
  96. 96. Reuse of Abstractions 96
  97. 97. Reuse of Abstractions 97
  98. 98. Inherent Challenges Despite the fact that abstraction is such a natural process for human beings, developing an appropriate model for a software system is perhaps the most difficult aspect of software engineering. 98
  99. 99. Inherent Challenges 99
  100. 100. Objects and Classes
  101. 101. Objects and Classes • What is an object? • Methods • Reuse of Abstractions • Inherent Challenges • Exercises 101
  102. 102. What Is an Object?  A class is a collection of objects with related properties and behaviours.  In real-life we group things into classes to help us reduce complexity  Example:  The set of all dogs forms the class Dog  Each individual dog is an object of the class Dog  Firulais, Terry and Rex are all instances of the class Dog  To some extent, we can interact with Firulais based on our knowledge of dogs in general, rather than Firulais himself 102
  103. 103. What Is an Object? 103
  104. 104. What Is an Object? What is a Waiter?  A Waiter is someone who has the following properties and behaviours:  Properties of a Waiter  Full Name  Behaviours of a Waiter  Bring menus  Take orders  Bring meals  This collection of properties and behaviours defines the class of Waiters  Because these behaviours are standardized, we can deal with any Waiter just based on our “general knowledge” of Waiters 104
  105. 105. What Is an Object?  A class is a general description of the properties and behaviours of some entities. We described the class Waiter giving the general description Name of Waiter class of what properties Waiters have Properties and what things Waiters can fullName do. bringMenu Behaviours takeOrder bringMeal 105
  106. 106. What Is an Object?  An object is a specific member of a class.  An object belonging to the class of Waiters is an actual individual waiter  Pierre is an object of the class Waiter, and so is Bill and so is Jimmy –they can all take orders, bring menus and bring meals 106
  107. 107. What Is an Object? 107
  108. 108. What Is an Object? Class Object 108
  109. 109. What Is an Object? Classes in Java may have methods and attributes. – Methods define actions that a class can perform. – Attributes describe the class. 109
  110. 110. What Is an Object? 110
  111. 111. What Is an Object? The phrase "to create an instance of an object“ means to create a copy of this object in the computer's memory according to the definition of its class. 111
  112. 112. What Is an Object? 112
  113. 113. What Is an Object? 113
  114. 114. What Is an Object? 114
  115. 115. What Is an Object? The class BankAccount  A bank account has the following properties:  An account number and account name  A balance  A bank account has the following behaviours:  Money can be credited to the bank account  Money can be debited from the bank account 115
  116. 116. BankAccount What Is an Object? accountName accountNumber credit debit 116
  117. 117. What Is an Object? Objects in Java are creating using the keyword new. 117
  118. 118. What Is an Object? The arguments in the constructor are used to specify initial information about the object. In this case they represent the account number and account name. A constructor can have any number of arguments including zero. Arguments 118
  119. 119. What Is an Object? 1. Declare a reference. 2. Create the object. 3. Assign values. 119
  120. 120. What Is an Object? 1. Declare a reference. 2. Create the object. Two references to two objects, with values for their attributes. 120
  121. 121. What Is an Object? 121
  122. 122. What Is an Object? size ‘u0000’ price 0.0 lSleeved false AnotherShirt 0x334009 size ‘u0000’ myShirt 0x99f311 price 0.0 id lSleeved false 428802 Stack memory Heap memory 122
  123. 123. What Is an Object? size ‘u0000’ price 0.0 lSleeved false AnotherShirt X 0x334009 X size ‘u0000’ 0x99f311 price 0.0 myShirt 0x99f311 lSleeved false Stack memory Heap memory 123
  124. 124. What Is an Object. Examples. Consider a class that represents a circle. public class Circle { int radius; } public class ShapeTester { public static void main(String args[]) { Circle x; x = new Circle(); System.out.println(x); } } 124
  125. 125. What Is an Object. Examples. Here is another example defining a Rectangle that stores a width and height as doubles: public class Rectangle { double width = 10.128; double height = 5.734; } public class ShapeTester { public static void main(String args[]) { Circle x; Rectangle y; x = new Circle(); y = new Rectangle(); System.out.println(x + " " + y); } } 125
  126. 126. What Is an Object. Examples. public class ShapeTester { public static void main(String args[]) { Circle x; Rectangle y, z; x = new Circle(); y = new Rectangle(); z = new Rectangle(); System.out.println(x + " " + y + " " + z); } } 126
  127. 127. What Is an Object. Examples. public class ShapeTester { public static void main(String args[]) { Circle x; Rectangle y, z; x = new Circle(); y = new Rectangle(); z = new Rectangle(); x.radius = 50; z.width = 68.94; z.height = 47.54; System.out.println(x.radius + " " + y.width + " " + z.width); } } 127
  128. 128. Objects Interactions
  129. 129. Objects Interactions • Methods • Exercises 129
  130. 130. Methods The interesting part of OO-Programming is getting the objects to interact together. This is obvious when we look at real world examples: – A house not being lived in is not useful – A BankAccount in which no money is deposited or withdrawn is not useful either – A CD without a CD Player is useless too. Behaviour represents: – the things you can do with an object (i.e., a command) – information you can ask for from an object (i.e., a question) 130
  131. 131. Methods By definition an instance is created from its class definition and so it only uses the vocabulary defined in its own class. To help us understand object behaviour, we should try to think of objects as being “living” entities. When we want to "talk to" or "manipulate" an object, we must send it a message. A message: – is a set of one or more words (joined together as one) that is sent to an object. – is part of the "vocabulary" that an object understands. may have additional information (parameters) which are required by the object. You can send messages to objects, and they respond to you: 131
  132. 132. Methods May have additional information (parameters) which are required by the object. You can send messages to objects, and they respond to you: Objects only respond if they understand what you say: 132
  133. 133. Methods The message may require some parameters (i.e., pieces of data): 133
  134. 134. Methods Thus, by defining behaviour, we simply add to the vocabulary of words (i.e., messages) that the object understands. Objects communicate by sending messages back and forth to each other: 134
  135. 135. Methods As we can see, many objects are often involved in a more difficult task. For example, consider building a house. A person asks a house building company to build them a house. In fact, the house building company then "sub-contracts" out all of the work in that it then hires others to do all the work. So the house builder actually co-ordinates the interactions with all of the contractors. The contractors themselves contact suppliers to get their parts as well as other helpers to help them accomplish their tasks: 135
  136. 136. Methods 136
  137. 137. Methods To define a particular behaviour for an object, we must write a method A method : – is the code (expressions) that defines what happens when a message is sent to an object. – may require zero or more parameters (i.e., pieces of data): • Parameters may be primitives or other objects • Primitives are “passed-by-value” (the actual value is “copied” and passed with the message) • Objects are “passed-by-reference” (a pointer to the object is passed with the message) – may be either a class method or an instance method. Methods are typically used to do one or more of these things: get information from the object it is sent to change the object in some way compute or do something with the object obtain some result. 137
  138. 138. Methods Methods are typically used to do one or more of these things: – get information from the object it is sent to – change the object in some way – compute or do something with the object – obtain some result. 138
  139. 139. Methods 139
  140. 140. Methods Sending a message to an object is also known as calling a method. So the method is actually the code that executes when you send a message to an object. Some methods return answers, others may do something useful but do not return any answer. 140
  141. 141. Methods A method is calling by specifying  The target object, following by a dot  The method name  The method arguments (is there are any) cheque.getBalance();  The target object is the one called cheque  The getBalance method has been called  There are no arguments for this method  The result will be returned to whoever called the method 141
  142. 142. Methods 142
  143. 143. Methods 143
  144. 144. Methods 144
  145. 145. Methods 145
  146. 146. Methods Calling its method 146
  147. 147. Methods In general, methods calls may  Send information to the target, or not  Receive information from the object, or not The method signature tell us whether information is to be sent, received or both. 147
  148. 148. Methods 148
  149. 149. Methods 149
  150. 150. Methods 150
  151. 151. Collection of Objects
  152. 152. Data Structures. A data structure can be thought of as container that is used to group multiple elements into a single representation, and is used to store, retrieve, and manipulate the contained data. 152
  153. 153. Basic Data Structure Mechanisms. Before the development of the Java2 platform, only a small set of classes and interfaces were available in the supplied Standard Class. Library for data store manipulation. – Arrays – Vector – Stack – Hashtable – Properties – BitSet – Enumeration 153
  154. 154. The Vector Class. • Contains a collection of object references. • Can vary in size. • Can hold objects of different types. • The Vector class is more flexible than an Array: 154
  155. 155. The Vector Class. 155
  156. 156. The Vector Class. 156
  157. 157. The Vector Class. 157
  158. 158. The Vector Class. 158
  159. 159. The Vector Class. 159
  160. 160. The Vector Class. 160
  161. 161. The Vector Class. 161
  162. 162. The Vector Class. 162
  163. 163. The Vector Class. 163
  164. 164. The Vector Class. 164
  165. 165. HashTable. • Maps keys to values • Keys and values can be any non-null object 165
  166. 166. Enumeration Interface. The Enumeration interface allows the developer to traverse collections at a high level, with little concern for the underlying collection. Used specifically when traversal order is not important. Vector's elements() method and Hashtable's keys() and elements() methods return Enumeration objects. The Enumeration interface contains two methods: hasMoreElements() and nextElement() 166
  167. 167. Enumeration Interface. 167
  168. 168. The Collection API. 168
  169. 169. The Collection API. 169
  170. 170. Set Interface. • The Set interface adds no methods to the collection interface. • Set collections add the restriction of no duplicates. • boolean add(Object element) fails to update the collection and returns false if the element already exists. • Adds a stronger contract on the behavior of the equals and hashCode operations, allowing Set objects with different implementation types to be compared. 170
  171. 171. HashSet Class. 171
  172. 172. TreeSet Class. 172
  173. 173. Iterator Interface. The Iterator interface is used to traverse through each element of a collection. This interface offers the same functionality as the Enumeration interface, with an additional method that enables us to remove an object. The presence of this additional method makes it preferable over the Enumeration interface. • Object next() • boolean hasNext() • void remove() 173
  174. 174. Iterator Interface. 174
  175. 175. List Interface. A List is a collection of elements in a particular order. Also referred to as a sequence, a List can contain duplicate elements. The List interface extends from the Collection interface an has an index of elements. The index, which is an integer, denotes the position of elements in the list. The index also helps us include a new element into a list in the specific position required. 175
  176. 176. List Interface. 176
  177. 177. ListIterator Interface. 177
  178. 178. LinkedList Class. 178
  179. 179. LinkedList Class. 179
  180. 180. Concrete Collections. 180
  181. 181. Objects 1
  182. 182. 1. Objects
  183. 183. Overview of Object Orientation. • Technique for system modeling • Models the system as a number of related objects that interact • Similar to the way people view their environment Object technology is a set of principles guiding software construction together with languages, databases, and other tools that support those principles. (Object Technology: A Manager’s Guide, Taylor, 1997) 183
  184. 184. Overview of Object Orientation. 184
  185. 185. Identifying Objects. • Object can be a sentence, bank account, number, or car • Objects are: – Things – Real or imaginary – Simple or complex An object is an entity with a well-defined boundary and identity that encapsulates state and behavior. 185
  186. 186. Identifying Objects. An object is an entity with a well-defined boundary and identity that encapsulates state and behavior. 186
  187. 187. Identifying Objects. 187
  188. 188. Identifying Objects. Physical entity Conceptual entity (Chemical process) Software entity (Linked list) 188
  189. 189. Identifying Objects. • Objects have many forms: – Tangible things (Airplane, Computer, Car) – Roles (Doctor, Teacher) – Incidents (Meeting) – Interactions (Interview, Agreement) 189
  190. 190. Object definition. Case Study • Throughout this course, a case study of a clothing catalog, DirectClothing, Inc., will be used to illustrate concepts. 190
  191. 191. Object definition. Case Study • Most projects start by defining the problem domain by gathering customer requirements and by writing a statement of scope that briefly states what you, the developer, want to achieve. • For example, a scope statement for the DirectClothing project might be: “Create a system allowing order entry people to enter and accept payment for an order.” • After you have determined the scope of the project, you can begin to identify the objects that will interact to solve the problem. 191
  192. 192. Object definition. Case Study • Object names are often nouns, such as “account” or “shirt.” Object attributes are often nouns too, such as “color” or “size.” Object operations are usually verbs or noun-verb combinations, such as“display” or “submit order.” • Your ability to recognize objects in the world around you will help you to better define objects when approaching a problem using object-oriented analysis. Solution 192
  193. 193. Object definition. Case Study • The problem domain of the DirectClothing, Inc. case study has the following nouns. Each could be an object in the catalog’s order entry system.  catalog  clothing  subscribers  closeout items  monthly items  normal items  order 193
  194. 194. Object definition. Case Study  customer  CSR ( customer service representative)  order entry clerk  Supplier  Payment  warehouse  credit car  order entry  mail order  fax order  online order 194
  195. 195. Object definition. Case Study  inventory  back-ordered items  system  Internet  business  year  month  order form  check 195
  196. 196. Identifying Object Attributes and Operations • Example: – Cloud attributes: size, water content, shape – Cloud operations: rain, thunder, snow Attributes: an object’s characteristics Operations: what an object can do 196
  197. 197. Identifying Object Attributes and Operations 197
  198. 198. Identifying Object Attributes and Operations. Case Study • When you are attempting to assign operations to an object, operations performed on an object are assigned to the object itself. For example, in a bank an account can be opened and closed, balanced and updated, receive additional signers, and generate a statement. All of these would be the Account object’s operations. 198
  199. 199. Identifying Object Attributes and Operations. Case Study • For the Order object, the following attributes and operations could be defined: – Attributes: orderNumber, customerNumber, dateOrdered, amountOwed – Operations: whatCustomer, calcAmountOwed, printOrder, payOrder • What would be the attributes and operations for the Customer object? 199
  200. 200. Testing an Identified Object: • Use the following criteria to test object validity: – Relevance to the problem domain – Need to exist independently – Having attributes and operations 200
  201. 201. Relevance to the Problem Domain. • Does it exist within the boundaries of the problem statement? • Is it required in order for the system to fulfill its responsibility? • Is it required as part of interaction between a user and the system? • Can objects sometimes be a characteristic of other objects? 201
  202. 202. Testing an Identified Object. Case Study • The Order object exists within the boundaries of the problem statement, it is required for the system to fulfill its responsibilities, and as part of an interaction between a user and the system. The Order object passes the test. • Test the other candidate objects in the case study. What are the results? 202
  203. 203. Testing an Identified Object. Case Study The following objects can probably be removed from the list: • Internet, system, business – Not necessary within the boundaries of the problem statement • month, year – May be attributes of the date of an order being placed, but not necessary as an object itself 203
  204. 204. Testing an Identified Object. Case Study The following objects can probably be removed from the list: • online order, fax order, mail order – Can probably be captured as special cases of the order object, or you could have a type attribute on the order object to indicate how the order was made. You may not want to eliminate here, but to note these nouns are special cases. • back-ordered items, closeout items, monthly sales item – Can probably be captured as special cases of a normal item object. You may not want to eliminate these nouns, but to note these are special cases. 204
  205. 205. Independent Existence. • To be an object and not a characteristic of another object, the object must need to exist independently 205
  206. 206. Independent Existence. Case Study • Can an Order object exist without any of the other objects? It can, but in use, it must have an associated Customer object. • Address could be an attribute of Customer, but in this case study it is advantageous for Address to be a separate object. 206
  207. 207. Attributes and Operations. • An object must have attributes and operations • If it does not, it is probably and attribute or operation of another object 207
  208. 208. Attributes and Operations. Case Study • An object must have attributes and operations. If you cannot define attributes and operations for an object, then it probably is not an object but an attribute or operation of another object. • The Order object has many attributes and operations defined, as do most of the candidate objects. 208
  209. 209. Encapsulation. • Encapsulation separates the external aspects of an object from the internal implementation details • Internal changes need not affect external interface Hide implementation from clients. Clients depend on interface 209
  210. 210. Encapsulation. 210
  211. 211. Implementing Encapsulation. • An object’s attributes and operations are its members • The members of an object can be public or private • In pure OO systems, all attributes are private and can be changed or accessed only through public operations 211
  212. 212. Objects 2
  213. 213. Overview of Object Orientation. • Technique for system modeling • Models the system as a number of related objects that interact • Similar to the way people view their environment Object technology is a set of principles guiding software construction together with languages, databases, and other tools that support those principles. (Object Technology: A Manager’s Guide, Taylor, 1997) 213
  214. 214. Class Overview. • A class is a description of a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, relationships, and semantics. – An object is an instance of a class. • A class is an abstraction in that it Emphasizes relevant characteristics. Suppresses other characteristics. 214
  215. 215. Class Overview. • An object is an instance of a class. 215
  216. 216. Class Overview. A class is represented using a rectangle with compartments. 216
  217. 217. Class Overview. • A class is an abstract definition of an object. It defines the structure and behavior of each object in the class. It serves as a template for creating objects. • Classes are not collections of objects. 217
  218. 218. Class Overview. • An attribute is a named property of a class that describes a range of values that instances of the property may hold. • A class may have any number of attributes or no attributes at all. 218
  219. 219. Class Overview. • An operation is the implementation of a service that can be requested from any object of the class to affect behavior. • A class may have any number of operations or none at all. 219
  220. 220. Generalization Generalization identifies and defines the common attributes and operations in a collection of objects. Example: Transport is a generalization of several classes that provide transportation. 220
  221. 221. Generalization A relationship among classes where one class shares the structure and/or behavior of one or more classes. 221
  222. 222. Inheritance • Is a mechanism for defining a new class in terms of an existing class. • Allows you to group related classes so that they can be managed collectively. • Promotes reuse. • Allows you to hide or override inherited members. • Relevant terms: generalization, specialization, override. 222
  223. 223. Inheritance 223
  224. 224. Inheritance 224
  225. 225. Inheritance 225
  226. 226. Inheritance 226
  227. 227. Specialization Specialization is inheritance with the addition and modification of methods to solve a specific problem. 227
  228. 228. Polymorphism • Allows you to implement an inherited operation in a subclass • Works only when the common operation gives the same semantic result • Implementation of a polymorphic function depends on the object it is applied to • Can be used only with inheritance 228
  229. 229. Polymorphism Polymorphism is the ability to hide many different implementations behind a single interface. 229
  230. 230. Polymorphism Interfaces formalize polymorphism. 230
  231. 231. Objects 3
  232. 232. Object Messaging. • One object sends a message to another (the receiving object) • The receiving object may send other messages, change its attribute, or read in any other appropriate way. • Messaging in handled by operations in the public interface of the receiving object. 232
  233. 233. Association and Composition. • Objects interact through one of two relationships: association or composition. • Association: Two independent objects collaborate to achieve some goal, like a person using a computer (“uses a ” relationship) • Composition: One object contains another, like a pencil that has a lead (“has a” relationship) 233
  234. 234. Association and Composition. • a 234
  235. 235. Association and Composition. • a 235
  236. 236. Association and Composition. • a 236
  237. 237. Association and Composition. • a 237
  238. 238. Association and Composition. • a 238
  239. 239. Association and Composition. • a 239
  240. 240. Association and Composition. • a 240
  241. 241. Association and Composition. • a 241
  242. 242. Association and Composition. • a 242
  243. 243. Association and Composition. • a 243
  244. 244. Association and Composition. • a 244
  245. 245. Association and Composition. • a 245
  246. 246. Association and Composition. • a 246
  247. 247. Objects 4
  248. 248. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. • Unified Modeling Language (UML) is used to notate the design. • UML diagrams: – Use case diagram – Sequence diagram – Class diagrams – Activity diagrams 248
  249. 249. Use Case Diagrams. • A use case diagram contains use cases, actors, and relationship links • A use case is an interaction of a user with the application in order to achieve a desired result • An actor is a role that a user plays when interfacing with the application • Relationship links between use cases are “uses” and “extends.” 249
  250. 250. Use Case Diagrams. • There are two types of relationship links that can be made in the diagram. These are the extends and uses relationships between the use cases. • The extends relationship links two use cases that are similar but one does a little more than the other. It is implied that the actor who performs the first use case will also perform the extension use case. This relationship is indicated by <<extends>> on the link’s line. 250
  251. 251. Use Case Diagrams. • The second type of link is the uses relationship, which occurs when there is a behavior that is used by many use cases. To avoid repetition, make that behavior a use case itself, and have other use cases “use” it. It is implied that an actor does not perform the “used” use case, but that the base use case does the performing. • This relationship is indicated by <<uses>> on the link’s line. 251
  252. 252. Use Case Diagrams. • An actor represents anything that interacts with the system. • A use case is a sequence of actions a system performs that yields an observable result of value to a particular actor. 252
  253. 253. Use Case Diagrams. 253
  254. 254. Use Case Diagrams. 254
  255. 255. Use Case Diagrams. Follow these steps to create a use case diagram: 1. Identify each use case in your application. (It might help to identify events you need to react to.) 2. Draw and label each of the actors of the application. 3. Draw and label the use cases of the application. 4. Draw the links from the actor to the use cases they perform. 5. Write a short description of each use case. The diagram and the description together will give a representation of the functionality that must be implemented in the system. 255
  256. 256. Example: Use Case Diagrams. A use case specifies a set of scenarios for accomplishing something useful for an actor. In this example, one use case is "Buy soda." 256
  257. 257. Example: Use Case Diagrams. Restocking a soda machine is an important use case. 257
  258. 258. Example: Use Case Diagrams. Collecting the money from a soda machine is another important use case. 258
  259. 259. Example: Use Case Diagrams. 259
  260. 260. Use Case Diagrams. Use case diagrams describe what a system does from the standpoint of an external observer. The emphasis is on what a system does rather than how. Use case diagrams are closely connected to scenarios. A scenario is an example of what happens when someone interacts with the system. 260
  261. 261. Use Case Diagrams. Here is a scenario for a medical clinic: "A patient calls the clinic to make an appointment for a yearly checkup. The receptionist finds the nearest empty time slot in the appointment book and schedules the appointment for that time slot. " 261
  262. 262. Use Case Diagrams. A use case is a summary of scenarios for a single task or goal. An actor is who or what initiates the events involved in that task. Actors are simply roles that people or objects play. The picture below is a Make Appointment use case for the medical clinic. The actor is a Patient. The connection between actor and use case is a communication association (or communication for short). 262
  263. 263. Use Case Diagrams. A use case diagram is a collection of actors, use cases, and their communications. We've put Make Appointment as part of a diagram with four actors and four use cases. Notice that a single use case can have multiple actors. 263
  264. 264. Use Case Diagrams. A use case describes a single task or goal and is indicated by an oval. The task or goal is written inside the oval and usually it contains a verb. 264
  265. 265. Use Case Diagrams. TIP: Start by listing a sequence of steps a user might take in order to complete an action. For example a user placing an order with a sales company might follow these steps. 1. Browse catalog and select items. 2. Call sales representative. 3. Supply shipping information. 4. Supply payment information. 5. Receive conformation number from salesperson. 265
  266. 266. Use Case Diagrams. 266
  267. 267. Exercises: Use Case Diagrams. Diseñar diagramas de casos de uso para las siguientes situaciones: • Comprar una paleta en la cafetería de la escuela. • Cancelar una cita con el(la) novio(a) ó una salida con los amigos. • Enviar un mensaje de correo electrónico. • Enviar un mensaje de texto de un teléfono celular a otro. • Copiar un archivo a la memoria USB. • Imprimir un documento de Word en el centro de cómputo. 267
  268. 268. Use Case Relations. <<extend>> (extensión) : Los casos de uso pueden extenderse a otros casos de uso. Se recomienda utilizar cuando un caso de uso es similar a otro (características). 268
  269. 269. Use Case Relations. <<include>> (inclusión) : Los casos de uso pueden incluir a otros casos de uso. Se recomienda utilizar cuando se tiene un conjunto de características que son similares en más de un caso de uso y no se desea mantener copiada la descripción de la característica. 269
  270. 270. Use Case Relations. <<include>> Cuando un número de casos de uso comparten un comportamiento común puede ser descrito por un caso de uso que es utilizado por otros casos de uso. 270
  271. 271. Use Case Relations. <<extends>> Es una relación de dependencia donde un caso de uso extiende otro caso de uso añadiendo acciones a un caso de uso extendido. 271
  272. 272. Example: Use Case Diagrams. Máquina Recicladora: Sistema que controla una máquina de reciclamiento de botellas, tarros y jabas. El sistema debe controlar y/o aceptar: • Registrar el número de ítems ingresados. • Imprimir un recibo cuando el usuario lo solicita: • Describe lo depositado • El valor de cada item • Total 272
  273. 273. Example: Use Case Diagrams. • Existe un operador que desea saber lo siguiente: – Cuantos ítems han sido retornados en el día. – Al final de cada día el operador solicita un resumen de todo lo depositado en el día. • El operador debe además poder cambiar: – Información asociada a ítems. – Dar una alarma en el caso de que: • Item se atora. • No hay más papel. 273
  274. 274. Example: Use Case Diagrams. Actores que interactuan con el sistema: 274
  275. 275. Example: Use Case Diagrams. Un Cliente puede depositar Items y un Operador puede cambiar la información de un Item o bien puede Imprimir un Informe. 275
  276. 276. Example: Use Case Diagrams. Un item puede ser una Botella, un Tarro o una Jaba. 276
  277. 277. Example: Use Case Diagrams. la impresión de comprobantes, que puede ser realizada después de depositar algún item por un cliente o bien puede ser realizada a petición de un operador. 277
  278. 278. Example: Use Case Diagrams. 278
  279. 279. Example: Use Case Diagrams. Sistema de ventas. Un sistema de ventas debe interactuar con clientes, los cuales efectúan pedidos. Además los clientes pueden hacer un seguimiento de sus propios pedidos. El sistema envía los pedidos y las facturas a los clientes. En algunos casos, según la urgencia de los clientes, se puede adelantar parte del pedido (pedidos parciales). 279
  280. 280. Example: Use Case Diagrams. 280
  281. 281. Exercises: Use Case Diagrams. Encontrar los casos de uso para la biblioteca sencilla: • De cada libro tengo uno o varios ejemplares. • Cada usuario puede mantener un máximo de tres ejemplares en préstamo de forma simultánea. • Los usuarios pueden solicitar al bibliotecario un libro en préstamo (dando el autor o el título, etc.) y el sistema debe determinar si hay al menos un ejemplar en las estanterías. Si es así, el bibliotecario entrega un ejemplar y registra el préstamo (usuario, fecha y ejemplar concreto). 281
  282. 282. Exercises: Use Case Diagrams. • El préstamo es semanal y si se produce un retraso en la devolución, se impone una multa en forma de días sin derecho a nuevos préstamos (3 días por cada día de retraso). • Antes de cualquier préstamo, el bibliotecario debe comprobar esta situación. 282
  283. 283. Exercises: Use Case Diagrams. Encontrar los casos de uso para las tareas uno y dos. 283
  284. 284. Use Case Diagrams. 284
  285. 285. Sequence Diagrams. • Capture the operations of a single use case and show how groups of objects collaborate on those operations. • Exist for each use case. • Contains objects, objects lifelines, messages between objects, conditions, iteration markers, activations, and object deletions. 285
  286. 286. Sequence Diagrams. • A Sequence Diagram is an interaction diagram that emphasizes the time ordering of messages. • The diagram show: – The objects participating in the interaction – The sequence of messages exchanged 286
  287. 287. Sequence Diagrams. 287
  288. 288. Sequence Diagrams. :Sistema :cajero crearNuevaVenta() ingresarItem(codItem, cant) descripción, total Bucle *[más items] finalizarVenta() total con imptos. realizarPago() monto cambio, recibo Un diagrama de secuencia del sistema muestra, para un escenario particular de un caso de uso, los eventos externos que los actores generan, su orden y los eventos inter-sistemas. 288
  289. 289. Sequence Diagrams. :JuegodeDados dado1:Dados dado2:Dados jugar() lanzar() val1:=getValorMostrado() lanzar() val2:=getValorMostrado() 289
  290. 290. Sequence Diagrams. :Computer :PrintServer :Printer print(arch) print(arch) [no queue] print(arch) 290
  291. 291. Sequence Diagrams. Objetos participantes en la interacción :Computer :PrintServer :Printer print(arch) print(arch) [no queue] Condición print(arch) Mensaje Mensaje Sincrónico Activación Línea de vida Retorno Puede omitirse 291
  292. 292. Sequence Diagrams. Flecha hacia un objeto :ItemWindow índica creación del objeto. NuevoItem(data) crearItem(data) :Item :ItemWindow :Item EliminarItem() BorrarItem() X X indica destrucción del objeto 292
  293. 293. Sequence Diagrams. Mensaje Simple / Sincrónico No se dan detalles de la comunicación cuando no son conocidos o no son relevantes. Respuesta / Resultado Mensaje Asincrónico Sintaxis del mensaje: Número de secuencia [condición] * [expresión iteración] valor de retorno := nombre del mensaje (parámetros) 293
  294. 294. Sequence Diagrams. a1:ClaseA b1:ClaseB [x<0] Op1() :ClaseC [x>0] Op1() X u Una ramificación es mostrada por múltiples mensaje que abandonan un mismo punto, cada una etiquetada con una condición u Si las condiciones son mutuamente excluyentes representan condiciones; de otra manera representan concurrencia. 294
  295. 295. Sequence Diagrams. a1:Order b1:OrderLine OrderTotal() *[for each] subtotal() Sintaxis: * [expresión-iteación ] mensaje 295
  296. 296. Sequence Diagrams. 296
  297. 297. Sequence Diagrams. Activation boxes represent the time an object needs to complete a task 297
  298. 298. Sequence Diagrams. Messages are arrows that represent communication between objects. Use half-arrowed lines to represent asynchronous messages. Asynchronous messages are sent from an object that will not wait for a response from the receiver before continuing its tasks. 298
  299. 299. Sequence Diagrams. Lifelines are vertical dashed lines that indicate the object's presence over time. 299
  300. 300. Sequence Diagrams. Objects can be terminated early using an arrow labeled "< < destroy > >" that points to an X. 300
  301. 301. Sequence Diagrams. A repetition or loop within a sequence diagram is depicted as a rectangle. Place the condition for exiting the loop at the bottom left corner in square brackets [ ]. 301
  302. 302. Example: 302
  303. 303. Example: 303
  304. 304. Example: 304
  305. 305. Example: 305
  306. 306. Example: 306
  307. 307. Example: 307
  308. 308. Example: 308
  309. 309. Example: 309
  310. 310. Sequence Diagrams. Follow these steps to create a sequence diagram. (These are General guidelines; to write a sequence diagram you must make sure you check for all interactions among all objects.) 1. Select a use case. 2. Add the first object in the use case to the diagram. 3. Add its method, the message it sends to the next object, and the next object. 4. Check whether the second object replies to the first or sends on another message and add the appropriate elements. 310
  311. 311. Sequence Diagrams. 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 as necessary. 6. Add any necessary elements mentioned in this section such as conditions, iteration markers, or object deletions. 311
  313. 313. Collaboration Diagrams. 313
  314. 314. Collaboration Diagrams. GENERAR EL DIAGRAMA DE StECUENCIA PARA LA MAQUINA RECICLADOR • Alternative to Sequence diagrams • Objects are connected with numbered arrows showing the flow of the information • Arrows are drawn from the source of the interaction • The object towards with the arrow points is known as the target • Arrows are numbered to show the order in which they are used within the scenario • Also marked with a description of the task required of the target object 314
  315. 315. Sequence Diagrams. 315
  316. 316. Sequence Diagrams. 316
  317. 317. Sequence Diagrams. 317
  318. 318. Arrays
  319. 319. Declaring arrays. • Group data objects of the same type. • Declare arrays of primitive or class types: char s[]; Point p[]; char[] s; Point[] p; • Create space for a reference. • An array is an object; it is created with new. 319
  320. 320. Declaring arrays. • Use the new keyword to create an array object. • For example, a primitive (char) array: public char[] createArray() { char[] s; s = new char[26]; for ( int i=0; i<26; i++ ) { s[i] = (char) (’A’ + i); } return s; } 320
  321. 321. Initializing Arrays. • Initialize an array element • Create an array with initial values: String names[]; names = new String[3]; names[0] = "Georgianna"; names[1] = "Jen"; names[2] = "Simon"; String names[] = { "Georgianna","Jen","Simon"}; MyDate dates[]; dates = new MyDate[3]; dates[0] = new MyDate(22, 7, 1964); dates[1] = new MyDate(1, 1, 2000); dates[2] = new MyDate(22, 12, 1964); MyDate dates[] = { new MyDate(22, 7, 1964),new MyDate(1, 1, 2000), new MyDate(22, 12, 1964) }; 321
  322. 322. Multidimensional Arrays. • Arrays of arrays: int twoDim [][] = new int [4][]; twoDim[0] = new int[5]; twoDim[1] = new int[5]; int twoDim [][] = new int [][4]; illegal 322
  323. 323. Multidimensional Arrays. 323
  324. 324. Multidimensional Arrays. 324
  325. 325. Multidimensional Arrays. • Non-rectangular arrays of arrays: twoDim[0] = new int[2]; twoDim[1] = new int[4]; twoDim[2] = new int[6]; twoDim[3] = new int[8]; • Array of four arrays of five integers each: int twoDim[][] = new int[4][5]; 325
  326. 326. Array Bounds. • All array subscripts begin at 0: int list[] = new int [10]; for (int i = 0; i < list.length; i++) { System.out.println(list[i]); } 326
  327. 327. Array Resizing. • Cannot resize an array • Can use the same reference variable to refer to an entirely new array: int myArray[] = new int[6]; myArray = new int[10]; 327
  328. 328. Copying arrays The System.arraycopy() method: 328
  329. 329. Copying arrays The System.arraycopy() method: 329
  330. 330. Class Design
  331. 331. Subclassing 331
  332. 332. Subclassing 332
  333. 333. Single Inheritance • When a class inherits from only one class, it is called single inheritance. • Interfaces provide the benefits of multiple inheritance without drawbacks. • Syntax of a Java class: <modifier> class <name> [extends <superclass>] { <declarations>* } 333
  334. 334. Single Inheritance 334
  335. 335. Access Control 335
  336. 336. Overriding Methods • A subclass can modify behavior inherited from a parent class. • A subclass can create a method with different functionality than the parent’s method but with the same: – Name – Return type – Argument list 336
  337. 337. Overriding Methods 337
  338. 338. The Super Keyword • super is used in a class to refer to its superclass. • super is used to refer to the members of superclass,both data attributes and methods. • Behavior invoked does not have to be in the superclass; it can be further up in the hierarchy. 338
  339. 339. Polymorphism • Polymorphism is the ability to have many different forms; for example, the Manager class has access to methods from Employee class. • An object has only one form. • A reference variable can refer to objects of different forms. 339
  340. 340. Virtual Method Invocation • Virtual method invocation: Employee e = new Manager(); e.getDetails(); • Compile-time type and runtime type 340
  341. 341. Rules About Overriding Methods • Must have a return type that is identical to the method it overrides • Cannot be less accessible than the method it overrides 341
  342. 342. Heterogeneous Collections • Collections of objects with the same class type are called homogenous collections. MyDate[] dates = new MyDate[2]; dates[0] = new MyDate(22, 12, 1964); dates[1] = new MyDate(22, 7, 1964); • Collections of objects with different class types are called heterogeneous collections. Employee [] staff = new Employee[1024]; staff[0] = new Manager(); staff[1] = new Employee(); staff[2] = new Engineer(); 342
  343. 343. The InstanceOf Operator 343
  344. 344. Casting Objects • Use instanceof to test the type of an object • Restore full functionality of an object by casting • Check for proper casting using the following guidelines: – Casts up hierarchy are done implicitly. – Downward casts must be to a subclass and checked by the compiler. – The object type is checked at runtime when runtime errors can occur. 344
  345. 345. Overloading method names • Use as follows: – public void println(int i) – public void println(float f) – public void println(String s) • Argument lists must differ. • Return types can be different. 345
  346. 346. Overloading Constructors • As with methods, constructors can be overloaded. • Example: public Employee(String name, double salary, Date DoB) public Employee(String name, double salary) public Employee(String name, Date DoB) • Argument lists must differ. • You can use the this reference at the first line of a constructor to call another constructor. 346
  347. 347. Overloading Constructors 347
  348. 348. The Object Class • The Object class is the root of all classes in Java • A class declaration with no extends clause, implicitly uses “extends the Object” public class Employee { ... } • is equivalent to: public class Employee extends Object { ... } 348
  349. 349. The == Operator Compared with the equals Method • The == operator determines if two references are identical to each other (that is, refer to the same object). • The equals method determines if objects are “equal” but not necessarily identical. • The Object implementation of the equals method uses the == operator. • User classes can override the equals method to implement a domain-specific test for equality. • Note: You should override the hashCodemethod if you override the equals method. 349
  350. 350. The toString Method • Converts an object to a String. • Used during string concatenation. • Override this method to provide information about a user-defined object in readable format. • Primitive types are converted to a String using the wrapper class’s toString static method. 350
  351. 351. Wrapper Classes 351
  352. 352. Advanced Class Features
  353. 353. The Static Keyword • The static keyword is used as a modifier on variables, methods, and nested classes. • The static keyword declares the attribute or method is associated with the class as a whole rather than any particular instance of that class. • Thus static members are often called “class members,” such as “class attributes” or “class methods.” 353
  354. 354. Class Attributes • Are shared among all instances of a class • Can be accessed from outside the class without an instance of the class (if marked as public) 354
  355. 355. Class Attributes • You can invoke static method without any instance of the class to which it belongs. 355
  356. 356. Static Initializers • A class can contain code in a static block that does not exist within a method body. • Static block code executes only once, when the class is loaded. • A static block is usually used to initialize static (class) attributes. 356
  357. 357. Abstract Classes • An abstract class models a class of objects where the full implementation is not known but is supplied by the concrete subclasses. 357
  358. 358. Interfaces • A “public interface” is a contract between client code and the class that implements that interface. • AJava interface is a formal declaration of such a contract in which all methods contain no implementation. • Many unrelated classes can implement the same interface. • A class can implement many unrelated interfaces. • Syntax of a Java class: <class_declaration> ::= <modifier> class <name> [extends <superclass>] [implements <interface> [,<interface>]* ] { <declarations>* } 358
  359. 359. Interfaces 359
  360. 360. Java Language Basics 360
  361. 361. Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you should be able to:  Apply the concept of inheritance  Define a subclass and a superclass  Explain overriding methods  Describe the principle of dynamic binding  Explain polymorphism  Define abstract classes and interfaces 361
  362. 362. Review. Classes in Java may have methods and attributes. – Methods define actions that a class can perform. – Attributes describe the class. 362
  363. 363. Review. 363
  364. 364. Review. The phrase "to create an instance of an object“ means to create a copy of this object in the computer's memory according to the definition of its class. 364
  365. 365. Review. 365
  366. 366. Review. 366
  367. 367. Review. • Inheritance - a Fish is Also a Pet 367
  368. 368. Review. 368
  369. 369. Review. 369
  370. 370. Inheritance. • Is a mechanism for defining a new class in terms of an existing class. • Allows you to group related classes so that they can be managed collectively. • Promotes reuse. • Allows you hide or override inherited methods. • Relevant terms: generalization, specialization, override. 370
  371. 371. Inheritance. 371
  372. 372. Inheritance. Inheritance is often represented as a tree. Moving down the tree, classes become more specialized, more honed toward An application. Moving up the tree, classes are more general; they contain members suitable for many classes but are often not complete. 372
  373. 373. Inheritance Hierarchy. 373
  374. 374. Inheritance Hierarchy. 374
  375. 375. Inheritance Hierarchy. 375
  376. 376. Inheritance Hierarchy. 376
  377. 377. Inheritance Hierarchy. Animal Cat Dog Horse 377
  378. 378. Inheritance Hierarchy. 378
  379. 379. The Constructor Process. 379
  380. 380. Inheritance Hierarchy. 380
  381. 381. Inheritance Hierarchy. 381
  382. 382. Overriding. 382
  383. 383. Polymorphism. 383
  384. 384. Dynamic Binding. Dynamic Binding is when an operation and operands don't find each other until execution time. Dynamic binding works with polymorphism and inheritance to make systems more malleable. Dynamic binding happens when the JVM resolves which method to call at run time and is a form of polymorphism. Dynamic binding is based on the type of the object, not the type of the object reference. 384
  385. 385. Dynamic Binding and Polymorphism. 385
  386. 386. Dynamic Binding and Polymorphism. 386
  387. 387. Dynamic Binding and Polymorphism. 387
  388. 388. Dynamic Binding and Polymorphism. 388
  389. 389. Upcast/Downcast. 389
  390. 390. Abstract Classes. 390
  391. 391. Abstract Classes. 391
  392. 392. Interfaces. • Interfaces encapsulate a coherent set of services and attributes, for example, a role. • Objects in order to participate in various relationships, need to state that they have the capability to fulfill a particular role. • All interfaces must have either public or default access. • All methods (if any) in an interface are public, and abstract (either explicitly or implicitly). • All fields (if any) in an interface are public, static, and final (either explicitly or implicitly). 392
  393. 393. Interfaces. 393
  394. 394. Interfaces. 394
  395. 395. Interfaces. 395
  396. 396. Exceptions and Exceptions Handling
  397. 397. Exceptions. • An exception is an event or condition that disrupts the normal flow of execution in a program – Exceptions are errors in a Java program – The condition causes the system to throw an exception – The flow of control is interrupted and a handler will catch the exception • Exception handling is object-oriented – It encapsulates unexpected conditions in an object – It provides an elegant way to make programs robust – It isolates abnormal from regular flow of control 397