A Critical Discourse Analysis of Malaysian prime minister's speech in Copenhagen


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This paper aim to ‎analysis ‎environmental speech given by Malaysian PM (Najib Tun Razak) during the U.N. ‎CLIMATE ‎CHANGE CONFERENCE 2009 in Copenhagen(cop15).

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  • Ton adriano fan diek/فان دک /
  • اکسپلانت ری /کانستیتوت
  • دایمنشن
  • ایمپلست /اکسیزتنشال //پروپوزشنال
  • کلوز
  • پروتاگنیست
  • دیستنیگویش
  • دیستینکت
  • A Critical Discourse Analysis of Malaysian prime minister's speech in Copenhagen

    1. 1. Roozbeh Kardooni,PhD Candidate in Environment science , University MalayaSumiani YusoffAssociate Professor, Department of Engineering, University MalayaA Critical Discourse Analysis ofMalaysian PM’s speech in Copenhagen5/3/2013 1UMDS2012University of Malaya Conference on Discourse and Society(UMDS 2012)
    2. 2. 5/3/2013 2UMDS2012About ClimatechangeClimate change andMalaysiaResearch AimImportance ofresearchDiscourseDiscourseAnalysisCriticalDiscourseAnalysis (CDA)Analytical toolSocial PracticegenrestyleAssumptionsIdeologymodalitySpeech actCitizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsIdeological viewChain of eventsStyleGenreKey wordsAnalysisModalityIntroductionLiteraturereviewConceptual basic Textual Analysis
    3. 3. About ClimatechangeClimate change andMalaysiaResearch AimImportance ofresearchIntroduction Climate change is important area forsustainable development and also is one ofthe most considerate environmental threats ofthis century.• The impact of Climate changes if felteverywhere such as agricultural,Costal resources, energy, forestry, tourismand water. Climate change will not affect the globaleconomy only, but will simplyreduce the welfare and quality of life. Although the impact of climate change willthreaten the bases of many ofthe countries worldwide, most vulnerable arethe developing countries especially those aremainly depended upon the agriculture andforestry sector like Malaysia.Note5/3/2013 3UMDS2012
    4. 4. About ClimatechangeClimate change andMalaysiaResearch AimImportance ofresearchIntroduction• Malaysia ranked 52 in the 2009 Climate ChangePerformance Index (Malaysian ranks in 2012 is 49). Increase in average temperatures as a result of globalwarming is of concern for MalaysiaThe CO2 emissions (kt) in Malaysia5/3/2013 4UMDS2012
    5. 5. 02468101214161971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001CO2 emissions, 1971 = 1BruneiIndonesiaMalaysiaMyanmarPhilippinesSingaporeThailandVietnamChinaIndiaJapanUSAOECD EuropeFigure 1. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in the ASEAN countries and in some referencecountries 1971-2005, 1971=1. Source: IEA 2007a.CO2 emissions in the ASEAN countries, 1971-2005
    6. 6. About ClimatechangeClimate change andMalaysiaResearch AimImportance ofresearchIntroduction• This paper aim to analysis environmentalspeech given by Malaysian PM (Najib TunRazak) during theU.N. CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE2009 in Copenhagen(cop15).• Following the objective of thispaper, by applying critical discourseanalysis the language Najib used inthis speech is criticallyanalyzed, described and interpretedin the context of his attempt to give aproposal for addressing climatechange issues especially in Malaysia.5/3/2013 6UMDS2012
    7. 7. About ClimatechangeClimate change andMalaysiaResearch AimImportance ofresearchIntroduction Understanding Malaysian approach aboutclimate change Get familiar with the developing countriesconcern in process of addressing climatechange• Importance of COP15 : The CopenhagenClimate Change Conference raised climatechange policy to the highest political level.According to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon participating of More than 130 headsof state and government in this summit is“Clear proof that climate change has risen tothe top of the global agenda”.5/3/2013 7UMDS2012
    8. 8. DiscourseDiscourse AnalysisCritical DiscourseAnalysis (CDA)Review ofLiterature• Discourse encompasses the meaning of a textas the producer intended it, and the meaningas the receiver reconstructed it.• Discourse is a broad term with many adefinition, which “integrates a whole paletteof meanings” (Wodak, Titscher, Meyer, & Vetter, 1998). “Discourse refers to the whole process ofsocial interaction of which a text is just apart” (Fairclough 1989: 24), discourse also can be used more precisely asdifferent ways of responding aspects ofthe world(Fairclough, 2003a)5/3/2013 8UMDS2012
    9. 9. DiscourseDiscourse AnalysisCritical DiscourseAnalysis (CDA)Review ofLiterature Discourse analysis is a new, interdisciplinary field of studythat has emerged from several other disciplines (T.A. Van Dijk & studies, 1988) explain five important aspects ofdiscourse analysis as fallow:1-Discourse analysis is no longer the concern of a singlediscipline.2-both text and context is the actual field of discourse analyticaldescription and theory formation.3-After the initial interest in fixed and written types of text, wehave witnessed increasing attention for spoken, dialogical typesof talk in a variety of social situations, primarily informal,everyday conversation.4-The earlier emphasis on only a few discourse genres, such astalk and stories, now becomes broadened to many otherdiscourse genres, such as law, official discourse, textbooks,interviews, advertising, and news discourse.5-The theoretical framework has been enriched with newdevelopments in formal grammars, logic, and computer-simulated programs .5/3/2013 9UMDS2012
    10. 10. DiscourseDiscourse AnalysisCritical DiscourseAnalysis (CDA)Review ofLiterature Critical discourse analysis starts from the view thatmessages in language, whether written or spoken, areideological and may be used as tools for social controlor domination of some groups by others (Sigauke, 2011).• “The CDA as a network of scholars emerged in the early1990s, following a small symposium in Amsterdam, inJanuary 1991.Through the support of the Universityof Amsterdam, Teun van Dijk, Norman Fairclough,Gunther Kress, Theo van Leeuwen and Ruth Wodakspent two days together, and had the wonderfulopportunity to discuss theories and methodsof Discourse Analysis, specifically CDA”• The object of CDA is public speech, such asadvertisement,newspaper, political propagandas, official documents, laws and regulations and so on. Its aim isto explore the relationships among language ideologyand power(Wang, 2010) CDA objective is to perceive language use as socialpractice.5/3/2013 10
    11. 11. DiscourseDiscourse AnalysisCritical DiscourseAnalysis (CDA)Review ofLiteratureFairclough summarize the main tenets of CDA as follows:1. CDA addresses social problems,2. Power relations are discursive,3. Discourse constitutes society and culture,4. Discourse does ideological work,5. Discourse is historical,6.The link between text and society ismediated,7.Discourse analysis is interpretative andexplanatory,8. Discourse is a form of social actionFairclough5/3/2013 11UMDS2012
    12. 12. Analytical toolSocial PracticegenrestyleassumptionsIdeologymodalityConceptualbasis For this research Conceptual basis is adaptedfrom Norman Fairclough’s ideas oncritical discourse analysisFairclough• Three dimensional method of discourseanalysis”, introduced by Norman Fairclough inlanguage and power (2001) :• 1. Description is the stage which is concerned with theformal properties of the text.• 2. Interpretation is concerned with the relationshipbetween text and interaction – with seeing the text as aproduct of a process of production, and as a resource inthe process of interpretation…• 3. Explanation is concerned with the relationshipbetween interaction and social context – with the socialdetermination of the processes of production andinterpretation, and their social effects Textual analysis manifesto introduce by him in otherAnalyzing Discourse (2003).5/3/2013 12UMDS2012
    13. 13. Analytical toolSocial PracticegenrestyleassumptionsIdeologymodalitySpeech actConceptualbasicFaircloughWe attempt to link social practice and linguistic practice, aswell as micro and macro analysis of discourseSocial practice as a practiceof production involveforms of work identificationrepresentationsof the socialworldSocial practice brings together different elements of life(physicalelements, sociological elements, cultural/psychologicalelements, and text), Into a specific local relationship5/3/2013 13UMDS2012
    14. 14. Analytical toolSocial PracticegenrestyleassumptionsIdeologymodalitySpeech actConceptualbasicFaircloughGenreway of acting in its discourse aspect (Fairclough, 2003b) ,thequestion of genre is the question of how texts figure (inrelation to other moments) within work, the production ofsocial life, and therefore within the social interaction thatconstitutes workStyleparticular ways of being , particular social or personalidentities (Fairclough, 2003a),The question of styles is thequestion of how text figures (in relation to other moments)in the identification of people involved in the practice (theconstruction of identities for them, and differences betweenthem)(Fairclough, 2000).5/3/2013 14UMDS2012
    15. 15. Analytical toolSocial PracticegenrestyleAssumptionIdeologymodalitySpeech actConceptualbasicFaircloughAssumption :The implicit meaning of text .( A number of other terms areused in the literature of pragmatics and semantics likepresupposition, entailment ,)Three kind :1- existential : assumption about what exist2- propositional : assumption about what is or can be or willbe the case3- Value : assumption about what is good or desirableIdeology :Representation of aspects of the world whichcontribute to establishing and maintaining relations ofpower , domination , and exploitation .They me beconcern in way of interacting ( genre) , and include inway of being ( style).Analyzing of texts especially assumption is animportant aspect of ideological analysis5/3/2013 15UMDS2012
    16. 16. Analytical toolSocial PracticegenrestyleAssumptionsIdeologymodalitySpeech actConceptualbasicFaircloughModalityThe modality of clause or sentence is the relationship it setsup between author and representations – what authorcommit themselves to in terms of truth or necessity .Two kind :1- Expressive : Modality of truth and probabilities2- Relational : Modality of necessity and obligationspeech actsare a central aspect of pragmatics and can be characterizedby some items like: making a promise, threating, warning,asking a question, giving an order, and so on.5/3/2013 16UMDS2012
    17. 17. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsChain of eventsStyleGenreKey words AnalysisModality(p1-line1) I bring to you the voice of MalaysiansTextualAnalysisText• introduce himself as massager of Malaysiannation• coming from democratic systems that isbased on a grass root• uses inclusive we on behalf of himself andMalaysiaAnalysis5/3/2013 17UMDS2012
    18. 18. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsChain of eventsStyleGenreKey words AnalysisModality(P2)… Malaysia believes that the science is sound and clear. Howeverlike other developing countries, we are now grappling with how totranslate the need to control emissions into our economicdevelopment system, plans and policies. The necessary adjustmentsrequire massive changes in many sectors that affect the very fabricof our economy.TextualAnalysisText1-Malaysia want to joint others countries for approachingclimate change challenge.2-Malaysia needs a major institutional reform in his economicsector for fallowing above intention.3-Malaysia believes that science and technology for addressingclimate change is sound and belongs to developed countries.Propositional assumptions5/3/2013 18UMDS2012
    19. 19. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsChain of eventsStyleGenreKey words AnalysisModality(P 7 ) Another serious concern we have is the looming threat of tradeprotection under the guise of addressing climate change. For Copenhagen tosucceed there must be a clear statement that developed countries shall nottake trade related measures such as carbon tariffs and border adjustmentmeasures against the products, services.(P13 – line 66)The key to our future cooperation is to recognize, adopt andwork out the realization of the principle of fair shares to the atmosphericspace and resource.(P14-line72) Any document that is placed into the process in a unilateralmanner will be counterproductive and risks the failure of Copenhagen. Thiswould be a catastrophe that our mother earth cans ill affordTextualAnalysisText1-The developing countries should be helped without anytrade related approach.2-Najib concentrates on the importance of “fair shares tothe atmospheric space ”3- Najib negatively outline his ideology about any processwith unilateral mannerValue assumption19
    20. 20. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsChain of eventsStyleGenreKey words AnalysisModalityit is only if these are accepted as part ofa integrated package that developing countries can agree to a global goalof emission reductionTextualAnalysisTextspeech acts : are a central aspect of pragmatics and can becharacterized by some items like: making a promise, threating,warning, asking a question, giving an order, and so on.• Najib ‘warns’ that accepting global goal of emissionreduction depend on receiving support from developedcountries.• Najib’s promise about 40% reductions in carbon dioxideemission shows another part of his speech acts.• This part of Najib’s discourse can be explained aspolicy discourse that contributes to social changeAnalysis20
    21. 21. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsIdeological viewChain of eventsStyleGenreKey words AnalysisModalityTextualAnalysisNote• Since Najib’s speech is part this event , it can be saidthat Najib discourse is part of international chain ofevents that aim to address climate changeAnalysis5/3/2013 21UMDS2012
    22. 22. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsChain of eventsStyleGenreKey wordsAnalysisModalityTextualAnalysis• 1- Najib on one hand is speaking on behalf of and as partof developing countries and on the other hand he isspeaking as leader of Malaysia . Furthermore , Najib isreporting the concern of Malaysia and other developingcountries in terms of addressing climate change . Thus , itmight be said that there is mixture of style : the speakeras reporter and the speaker as protagonist .• 2- Najib’s style in the speech characterize by :• 2-1 modality• 2-2 VocabularyAnalysis5/3/2013 22UMDS2012
    23. 23. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsIdeological viewChain of eventsStyleGenreKey wordsAnalysisModalityTextualAnalysisGenre• Considering this explanation Najib’s speech in COP15could be interpreted as governance genre. Thisspeech is a position of Malaysian governance aboutclimate and might be made for a purpose of record.Analysis5/3/2013 23UMDS2012
    24. 24. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsChain of eventsStyleGenreKey words AnalysisModalityTextualAnalysisRepeated wordMake distinguish between developed and developingcountries in term of having technology and financialfacilities .Attempt to insist the necessity of transferring technologyand financial support from developed countries todeveloping countries .AnalysisKeyword Repeats1.countries 232.climate 123.our 124.developed 105.developing 106.Malaysia 87.dollars 78.reduction 69. technology 410.finance 35/3/2013 24UMDS2012
    25. 25. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsIdeological viewChain of eventsStyleGenreKey words AnalysisModalityWewe haveweTextualAnalysisText• “inclusive” we that according to Fairclough (2001) ‘is of the readeras well as the writer’1-Inclusive ‘we’ on behalf of himself and Malaysia which Malaysiaor the government could both replace we.2-Inclusive ‘we’ on behalf of himself and developing countries.3-Inclusive ‘we’ on behalf of all participant and it is making animplicit authority claim.Analysis5/3/2013 25UMDS2012
    26. 26. Citizen-centeredattitudeAssumptionSpeech actsIdeological viewChain of eventsStyleGenreKey words AnalysisModalitymustmustTextualAnalysisTextmodality is to do with speaker authority and thereare two dimensions to modality: relational (if it is a matter of theauthority of one participant in relation to others) and expressive (if it is amatter of the speaker or writer’s authority with respect to the truth) .Considering Najib speech it can be assert thatNajib has been used relational modality that show the authorityand power relation to others.Analysis5/3/2013 26UMDS2012
    27. 27. Conclusion• The speech analysis show that ,• this text belong to international chain of network inattempting tackle climate change challenge .• Using inclusive ‘we’ in this speech have seen a sign of tryto show that there is no distinct between government andpeople in Malaysia .• In terms of modality the study assert that using relationalmodality is evident in Najib’s discourse.• There is mixture of style in Najib’s speech : reporter andprotagonist .• Najib’s promise for reducing CO2 has explained as signof policy document in this text.5/3/2013 27UMDS2012
    28. 28. Conclusion• Decipher the ideological standpoint of Najib lead us to make fallowingconclusion as well:• 1- Unilateral manner process in addressing climatechange has been rejected by Najib.• 2- The developing countries should be helped withoutany trade related approach.• 3- Necessity of transferring technology and financialsupport from developed countries to developing countrieshas to consider as high priority.• 4- Although Malaysia takes his step for addressingclimate change, successfulness of this attempt depends onreceiving needed technology and financial support fromdeveloped countries.5/3/2013 28UMDS2012
    29. 29. 5/3/2013 29UMDS2012Q&A