• Like
  • Save
Yoga philosophy talk 3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Yoga philosophy talk 3

on

  • 3,006 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,006
Views on SlideShare
3,001
Embed Views
5

Actions

Likes
7
Downloads
210
Comments
2

3 Embeds 5

http://www.pinterest.com 3
http://rootlock.com 1
http://www.rootlock.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

12 of 2

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Yoga philosophy talk 3 Yoga philosophy talk 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Yoga: History and Tradition
      Approximate outline of the History of Yoga
    • “Long before the word yoga acquired its customary meaning of spirituality or spiritual discipline, the sages of India had developed a body of knowledge and techniques that aimed at the transformation and transcendence of ordinary consciousness. This stock of ideas and practices formed the matrix out of which grew the complex historical phenomenon that later came to be called Yoga.”
      -The Yoga Tradition, Georg Feuerstein, PH.D.
    • Big Picture
    • Indus River Valley
      Usually dated between 3300 BCE and 1900 BCE (Bronze Age)
    • Pre-Vedic India
    • Pre-Vedic
      6500 – 4500 B.C.E.
    • PART 1 : Vedic Age
      4500 – 2500 BCE
    • The Vedas4500 BCE - 2000 BCE
      Vedas - written by Rishis, or “divinely inspired seers” or sages
      Presents a loose structure of ideas and practices that become a seed to what is now known as “Yoga”
      4 Vedic texts become the central texts of India covering ritual, sacrifice, mantra and devotion
      These are Rig Veda, Atharva-Veda, Yajur Veda and Sama Veda
    • Origin of the Vedas
      Mehrgarh and the Sarasvati River Civilization
      The fertile region surrounding the Sarasvati River provided became the location Neolithic nomads would settle down and become what we know as the Vedic people. Social and cultural elements become established creating the groundwork for a self-identifying community.
      Eventually, over the course of 100’s of years, the Sarasvati River dries up resulting from a geologic phenomenon causing the Vedic people to migrate to the banks of the Ganges.
      This was a tremulous period causing serious cultural shifts to take place including the formation of a priestly order.
    • Sacrificial Mysticism: The Seeds of Yoga
      In response to chaos, 2 practices materialized
      Ritualized Shamanism
      Tapas practices on one side and
    • Sacrifice
      The essence of Vedic yoga is in Sacrifice.
      Sacrifice in its original sense did not mean “giving up” or “going without”
      I
      Instead, sacrifice is an act that makes “Sacred.”
      Vedic yoga focused on a practice where the longing one has to experience the divine or sacred
    • Tapas (austerity)
      Personal austerity became the main form of sacrifice when the individual practice of the “forest dwellers” came known as yoga.
      Tapas brought merit and attainments, showing that yogic practice was bearing fruit. Tapas was the ”heat “ that cooked out “ the impurities and obstacles” to our experience of God
    • Tapas (in the Vedas)
      A Key element of practice that became a point of emphasis
      Tapas is “heat” or “glow” but also of the heat created by trial and tribulation
      Asceticism… Explained as the endurance of extremes
      Tapas as a practice became a testing of oneself and a testament toward ones spiritual power.
      (Later, recognized by Patanjali as one of the three “Kriya-yoga” and in the Niyamas signifies “self-discipline”)
    • Prana प्राण, prāṇa
      Concept of Prana enters the Picture.
      For the Vedic people, Prana (or Life Force) was seen as so closely linked to the Divine that understanding it became the basis for union with the Divine and the key to realizing immortality.
      Exploration of Prana became the basis for understanding the functions of life – or the ‘Vayus’- as well as the means for the transmigration of the soul from life to life.
      Later Prana will
    • Legacy of Vedas
      “Middle Way”
      Priests performed sacrifice as a “pay-for-service” and Tapas Veins performed austere acts as a way to show spiritual prowess. Both “Outward Expressions”
      Rishis respond by traveling a Middle Path… or choosing neither one extreme or another by instead choosing an inwardly moving practice being devoted to discovering inner truth and the chasm between the human and the divine.
      Buddhism is understood by some as being born here
    • Prana (प्राण, prāṇa)
      “Life Force” or simply “Life”
      It is the notion of a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy
      Its most subtle material form is the breath, but is also to be found in blood, and its most concentrated form is semen in men and vaginal fluid in women.
      Prana becomes a central concept in Ayurveda and Yoga where it is believed to flow through nadis, a network of fine subtle channels .
      Prana was first expounded in the Upanishads, where it is part of the worldly, physical realm, sustaining the body and the mother of thought and thus also of the mind.
      Prana suffuses all living forms but is not itself the Atman or individual soul.
      In the Ayurveda, the Sun and sunshine are held to be a source of Prana.
    • Prana Vayus
      When the Prana operates in the body, it divides into five major flows called Vayus.
      These 5 Vayus are somewhat like ocean currents, while there are 5 major currents, there may be thousands of smaller currents. The 5 major include
      Prana Vayu
      Apana Vayu
      Samana
      Udana
      Vyana
      Reversing Prana and Apana Vayu is a significant notion behind the Hatha Yoga practice
    • 5 Vayus
      Prana Vayu operates from the heart area, and is an upward flowing energy, having to do with vitalizing life forces.
      Apana Vayu operates from the base of the torso, in the rectum area, is a downward flowing energy, and has to do with eliminating or throwing off what is no longer needed.
      Samana Vayu operates from the navel area, deals with digestion, and allows the mental discrimination between useful and not useful thoughts.
      Udana Vayu operates from the throat and drives exhalation, operating in conjunction with Prana Vayu, which deals with inhalation.
      Vyana Vayu operates throughout the whole body, having no particular center, and is a coordinating energy throughout the various systems.
    • Real quick…
      Some scholars will say that the Vedic age ends with the beginning of the Kali-yuga and the war that would later be remembered in the Mahabharata
      What is the Kali-yuga?
    • Upanishads and the Brahmanic Period
      2500 – 1000 BCE
    • Post-Vedic Upanishads
      While the Vedas are more poetic and mythic and lyrical in nature, the Upanishads are more expository in nature. In addition, the Upanishads begin a new course of thought that is expresses a yearning for “unveiling of the divine”
      Upanishads - wisdom learned at the feet of guru ‘or’ good news.
      Many consider this is the primary source of the Yogic Tradition
      Brahman priest formalized rituals and create orthodox religion
      New concepts include “internalized sacrifice” which provides a basis for what some call “India’s psycho spiritual “ technology
    • The Pre-Classical or Epic Age
      1000 – 100 BCE
    • The BhagavadGita
      1000 – 100 BC
      The BhagavadGitais part of the epic poem the Mahabharata Epic
      It’s insertion in the Mahabharata is suspect. Some say it is most likely a later Upanishad.
      Focus on selfless actions (Karma Yoga), devotion (Bhakti Yoga), and wisdom (Jnana Yoga)
    • Jainism and Buddhism
      Various interpretations and expositions on the Vedas cause the creation of Jainism and BuddhismNear the end of the Pre-classical age
      Circa: 500 BCE …ish
    • Evolution Through Involution
      Classical Yoga through Modern Yoga
    • Problem = Ignorance (Avidya)
    • Solution = Freedom (Moksha)
    • Problem = Ignorance (Avidya)
      Here’s the problem,
      Misperception
      Our ability to perceive the world is out of wack
      Misidentification
      with physical reality (prakriti) rather than transcendent reality (purusha)
      Prakriti is considered illusion or lower level of truth because it is subject to change while Purusha is considered unchanging
      Change = Temporary
      Unchanging = Eternal
    • Yogic Puzzle:
      Misperception of Reality and Misidentification with Physical Reality
      Solution?
      Find movement upward and inward.
    • Kosha : Sheathes of Being
      A “sheath” is a covering or skin that covers. In the Koshas, these sheathes cover the “True Self” or “Atman”
    • The Journey Inward
      Movement Inward: Awareness is the result our interaction with and experience of the outer world. This awareness can be processed at the different levels of being. The deeper the movement inward the deeper the awareness.
      These sensations then become something that is either directly experienced or reacted against by the mental body. Our emotions get in the way of our directly experiencing of material reality
    • Kosha Attributes
    • The Classical Age
      100 BCE – 500 CE
      (Some will call this the age of Technology)
    • Samkhya System 100 BC - 500 AD
      Primary Text: SamkhyaKarika written by Ishvara Krishna (circa 350 CE)
      Influenced by Buddhist objective to put an end to suffering
      Presents a "Realist" philosophy based on reason and logical analysis rather than scripture
      Dualist system later criticized and essentially dropped by Tantric and Vedanta non-dual systems
    • Yoga Sutra of Patanjali
      Classic text outlining the Ashtanga of Yoga (Eight Limbs of Yoga)
      Considered as part or based upon the dualist system based on the Samkhya System (above) eventually rejected by Tantric and Vedanta philosophers
    • Yoga Sutras
      Patanjali’s “8 Fold Path” promotes a method called Raja Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga.
      Movement is from Physical (Prakriti) to Subtle (Purusha)
    • Post Classical
      500 – 1000 AD
    • Advaita Vedanta800 AD
      Bridges Gap between the Yoga Sutras “Ashtanga” and and Hatha Yoga
      Shankara articulates non-dual philosophy rooted in Vedas
      Non-dualist thought later adopted by most later forms of yoga and is shared with Tantra and Hatha Yoga
    • Hatha Yoga and Tantra
      Toward a contemporary practice
    • Founding of Hatha Yoga900 AD - 1000
      Siddha Yogis
      Tantric practitioners seeking enlightenment, immortality and paranormal powers
      Natha Yogis Matsyendra and student Goraksha are considered the founders of Hatha Yoga
    • Hatha Yoga, In short
      Hatha Yoga as preparatory stage of physical purification that the body practices for higher meditation. This practice is called shatkarma.
      The word Hatha is a compound of the words “Ha and Tha” meaning sun and moon referring to Prana and Apana, and also to the principal nadis (energy channels) of the subtle body that must be fully operational to attain a state of Dhyana or Samādhi.
    • Union and Yoga
      “Hatha” is a compound of the words “Ha” (sun) and Tha” (moon) and refers to the movement of “Prana” and “Apana” as they move through the nadis (energy channels) of the subtle body.
      “Ha" refers to the Solar (Pingala) and “Tha” to the Lunar (Ida) Channels (Nadis) within the subtle body.
      Thesemustbe fully operational to attain a state of Dhyana or Samādhi.
      However, when the two components of the word are placed together, "hatha" means "forceful", implying that powerful work must be done to purify the body.
      Hatha yoga is meant to join together sun or
      “Shiva” (masculine, active) energy with the moon or “Shakti”(feminine, receptive) energy,
      This union produces balance and greater power in an individual.
    • Tantra
      Meaning: Hidden
      Associations:
      Mantra: Chants that bring us to the immediate vibration of the present moment
      Yantra: the use of geometry of visualization of form bringing us into the experience of the present moment
    • Origin and History
      Difficult to explain the history of Tantra
      Views that are on the boarder line. Represent the language that lies in between different schools of yogic thought
      Where an exchange of differing ideas and thought takes place
      Practice and experience counts above historical reconciling these thoughts
    • Hatha Yoga Pradipika1350 AD – 1450 AD
      Important early Hatha Yoga text articulating 16 asanas along with information on pranayama, chakras, kundalini, bandhas, kriyas, shakti, nadis and mudras among other topics.
      Dedicated to Lord Adinath, a name for Lord Shiva, who is believed to have imparted the secret of Hatha Yoga to his divine consort Parvati
    • Kundalini
      According to Hindu tradition Kundalini yoga is a pure spiritual science that leads to means awakening of inner knowledge Enlightenment.
      Teachings of Hatha Yoga are Tantric
      Kundalini is the focus physical and meditative discipline within Hatha Yoga.
      The awakening of the Kundalini, the practice associated to the rising of Pranic energy up the Susumna Nadi is the foundation
    • Prana (प्राण, prāṇa)
      Sanskrit for "breath”
      In Vedantic philosophy, it is the notion of a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy
      Prana is a central concept in Ayurveda and Yoga where it is believed to flow through nadis, a network of fine subtle channels .
      Its most subtle material form is the breath, but is also to be found in blood, and its most concentrated form is semen in men and vaginal fluid in women.
      Pranamaya-kosha is one of the five Koshas or "sheaths" of Being.
      Prana was first expounded in the Upanishads, where it is part of the worldly, physical realm, sustaining the body and the mother of thought and thus also of the mind.
      Prana suffuses all living forms but is not itself the Atman or individual soul.
      In the Ayurveda, the Sun and sunshine are held to be a source of Prana.
    • Prana Vayus
      When the Prana operates in the body, it divides into five major flows called Vayus.
      These 5 Vayus are somewhat like ocean currents, while there are 5 major currents, there may be thousands of smaller currents. The 5 major include
      Prana Vayu
      Apana Vayu
      Samana
      Udana
      Vyana
      Reversing Prana and Apana Vayu is a significant notion behind the Hatha Yoga practice
    • 5 Vayus
      Prana Vayu operates from the heart area, and is an upward flowing energy, having to do with vitalizing life forces.
      Apana Vayu operates from the base of the torso, in the rectum area, is a downward flowing energy, and has to do with eliminating or throwing off what is no longer needed.
      Samana Vayu operates from the navel area, deals with digestion, and allows the mental discrimination between useful and not useful thoughts.
      Udana Vayu operates from the throat and drives exhalation, operating in conjunction with Prana Vayu, which deals with inhalation.
      Vyana Vayu operates throughout the whole body, having no particular center, and is a coordinating energy throughout the various systems.
    • The Roll of Vayus in Awakening
      Prana Vayu is an upward flowing energy and Apana Vayu is a downward flowing energy.
      Reversing Prana and Apana Vayu is a significant notion behind the Hatha Yoga practice
      One of the ways of describing the process of intentional Kundalini Awakening is that these two energies are intentionally reversed through a variety of practices.
      Reversing the energy causes the Kundalini at the base of the subtle spine to awaken, and to begin to arise.
    • The Secret of Tantra:The Present Moment
      The Secret of Tantra is only secret only because the truth is by nature subtle and elusive
      The secret of Tantra, like the secret of yoga, is trapped in an experiential paradox where one’s attention and awareness of experience quickly gives way to theorizing and conceptualizing killing the experiencing itself
      The processes of Tantra and deep yoga practice
    • Caduceus
      Together, the Ida and Pingala nadis form the snakes of the caduceus, while Sushumna forms the staff. The snakes intersect at the chakras, as do the nadis described above.
      At the ajna chakra, between the eyebrows, there are two petals, one on either side, just as there are two wings at the top of the caduceus.
    • Susumna:Path of Prana Shakti
    • Open-nessKundalini in Postures
    • Chakra
      Yoga and The Anatomy of Personal Evolution
    • Introduction
      A chakra is a plexus of Pranic energy in the body that expresses our individual consciousness and energy in particular ways distinctive of our individuality. We are familiar withexpressions such as a ‘gut feeling,’ an ‘open heart,’ ‘fire in the belly’ and so on, all of which are colloquial expressions of the energy of the chakras.
      Our expressions also reflect our recognition that these energies can be ‘open’ – expansive, expressive, inclusive – or ‘closed’ – tight, narrow, self-absorbed. Our maturity and evolution as individuals and as spiritual beings depends upon how much these energies are ‘opened’ as we progress through life, bringing us into higher levels of harmony with the generous, inclusive and expansive energy of the universe, the creative Shakti.
      Doug Keller, Refining The Breath
    • Crown Chakra
      Compassion, at-oneness, seeing self in others, harmonious, peaceful, non-attachment, love, nonreactive; Spirit: Love
      Brow Chakra
      Overview, Visualizing, Clarity, Psychic / Subtle awareness of self in others; Spirit: Service
      Throat Chakra
      Open, clear communication; Creative; Speaking up; Releasing; Breathing life-force, Spirit: Healing
      Heart Chakra
      Harmony, trust, loving, gentle w/ self and others. Give and receive w/o condition. Flexible w/ loss; Spirit: Balance
      Mental Energy
      Will/power/control over self vs. others, beliefs, details, constructive vs. critical. Spirit: Thought Clarity
      Emotional Energy
      Emotionally open to new people, ideas & growth. Needs: Boundaries, Trust, Comfort, Intimacy, attachment. Spirit: Begin / End
      Physical Energy
      Physical & Financial Needs: Safety, Sexuality. Action Center. Spirit: Grounded-ness
      Mental - Emotional Strengths /Blocks of Each Chakra
    • Sahasrara: “The Crown Chakra” may be seen similarly to the pituitary gland, which secretes hormones to communicate to the rest of the endocrine system and connects to the central nervous system via the hypothalamus. Ajna: “The Brow Chakra” (also known as the third eye chakra) is linked to the pineal gland which may inform a model of its envisioning. The pineal gland is a light sensitive gland that produces the hormone melatonin, which regulates sleep and waking up. Vishuddha: “The Throat Chakra” may be understood as relating to communication and growth through expression. This chakra is paralleled to the thyroid, a gland that is also in the throat and which produces thyroid hormone, responsible for growth and maturation. Anahata: “The Heart Chakra” is related to the thymus, located in the chest. The thymus is an element of the immune system as well as being part of the endocrine system. It is the site of maturation of the T cells responsible for fending off disease and may be adversely affected by stress.Manipura: The “Solar Plexus Chakra” is related to the metabolic and digestive systems. Manipura is believed to correspond to groups of cells in the pancreas, as well as the outer adrenal glands and the adrenal cortex. These play a valuable role in digestion, the conversion of food matter into energy for the body. Svadhisthana: “The Sacral Chakra” is located in the sacrum (hence the name) and is considered to correspond to the testes or the ovaries that produce the various sex hormones involved in the reproductive cycle. Svadhisthana is considered to be related to, more generally, the genitourinary system and the adrenals.Muladhara: “The Base Chakra” is related to instinct, security, survival and basic human potentiality. This centre is located in the region between the genitals and the anus. Although no endocrine organ is placed here, it is said to relate to the gonads and the adrenal medulla, responsible for the fight-or-flight response when survival is under threat.
    • Crown Chakra
      Pineal Gland; Hair, Top of Head, CNS (Nerve System)
      Brow Chakra
      Pituitary and Hypothalamus; eyes, Autonomic Nerve System
      Throat Chakra
      Thyroid, parathyroid, neck ears, atlas Respiratory System; Colds, sinus allergies
      Heart Chakra
      Thymus, Heart, Breathing Allergies, Lungs, Blood Pressure, Lymph, Immunity System
      Solar Plexus Chakra
      Pancreas, Stomach, Liver, Small Intestine, Blood Sugar, Digestion
      Spleen Chakra
      Blood Sugar; Spleen, Ovaries, Urinary Tract, Uterus; Kidney, Adrenals
      Base Root Chakra
      Lower Sex / Reproductive System, Tailbone, Legs, Feet.
      Physical Areas and Glands
    • MULADHARACHAKRA
      1st Energy Center – “Action, Speed Chakra”
      Anatomy: Perineum, Base of the spine
      Color: Red
      Element: Earth
      Symbol: Square / Cube
      Polarity: ( — )
      Sound: “LAM”
      Instrument: Drum
      Sense: Smell
      Sense Reception: External Visual Movement
      Food: Proteins, Beans, Nuts
      Open and Clear:
      Physically strong. Healthy sex drive. Grounded wellbeing.
      Closed or Clouded:
      Base emotions such as anger, resentment, jealousness. Sex w/ personal pleasure as focus. Ungrounded.
    • SVADDHISANA CHAKRA
      2nd Energy Center – “Feeling and Empathy”
      Anatomy: Spleen 2 -3 inches below navel
      Color: Orange
      Element: Water
      Symbol: Circle or sphere
      Polarity: ( + )
      Sound: “VAM”
      Instrument: String instruments
      Sense: Taste
      Sense reception: Feelings, Kinesthetic
      Food: Water, Juice, TEA
      Healthy, Open, Clear
      Emotionally energetic, passionate and warm. Caring with out need for attachment.
      Unhealthy, closed or clouded
      Emotions such as fear, anxiety manifest as attachment addictions and distrust.
    • MANIPURA CHAKRA
      3rd Energy Center - “Thought, Logic” Chakra
      Color - Yellow
      Anatomy - Solar Plexus (upper stomach)
      Element - Fire
      Symbol - Pyramid or Triangle
      Polarity - ( — )
      Instrument - “RAM” (horn / reed)
      Sense - Sight
      Receptive Mode - Auditory/digital (hands on)
      Food - Complex Carbohydrates, Grains
      Healthy & Open
      Calm, Clear, confident, flexible
      Unhealthy & Closed
      Excessive worry, obsessive actions, easily irritated and often complaining
    • ANAHATA CHAKRA
      4th Energy Center – “Care and Compassion” Chakra
      Anatomy - Heart (center of chest)
      Color - Green
      Element - Air
      Polarity - ( + )
      Symbol - Cross
      Note - “YAM” (flute or wind)
      Sense - Touch
      Reception - Internal Visual
      Food - Dark, Leafy, Green Vegetables
      Healthy & Open
      Calm, trusting, loving, centered, giving, capable of giving and receiving
      Unhealthy & Closed
      Distrust, closed, guarded, unable to give or receive. Possible resentment.
    • VISHUDDHACHAKRA
      5th Energy Center – “Communicate, Create Chakra”
      Anatomy: Mid-Throat, Nose, Mouth, Sinus
      Color: Blue
      Element: Aether
      Symbol: Cup / Chalice
      Note: “HAM”
      Instrument: Voice
      Sense: Hearing
      Sense Reception: Audio w/ minor Visual
      Food: Raw Fruit (Blue or Black)
      Healthy and Open
      Clear and capable communication, assertive, creative verbally
      Unhealthy and Closed
      Lacks ability to express. Guarded. Hesitant to express emotions. Frustrated easily
    • AJNACHAKRA
      6th Energy Center – “Overview, Community” Chakra
      Anatomy: 3rd Eye
      Element: Thought
      Symbol: Star of David
      Polarity ( + )
      Note: “OM”
      Instrument: Creative Vibration, Spanda*
      Sense: Intuition
      Sense Reception: Overview
      Food: Breath, Air, Chlorophyll
      Healthy & Open
      Mental clarity and insightful. Manifesting intention and desires comes easily
      Unhealthy & Closed
      Disharmony. Mental fluctuations. Difficult meditating. Muted intuitively. Lacking in Compassion
    • SAHASRARACHAKRA
      7th Energy Center - “Inner Knowledge, Service” Chakra
      Color: Violet
      Anatomy: Crown
      Element: Light
      Symbol: Lotus
      Note: Silence
      Instrument: none
      Sense: Oneness
      Sense Reception: Knowingness
      Food: Sunshine, Juice, Fasting
      Healthy & Open
      Inner knowingness, serenity, enjoys selfless service.
      Unhealthy & Closed
      Lacks larger perspective. Lacks Intuition. Unable to care or be compassionate.
    • Contemporary Yoga
      In Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Hatha Yoga is described as relating to Kundalini Yoga. It also explains that the purpose of Hatha Yoga is Raja Yoga.
      Thus, we can easily see the relationship of Hatha Yoga and Kundalini Yoga as being parts or aspects of Raja Yoga, which is one of the traditional four paths of Yoga.
    • Modern Age
      1700 - Present
    • GherandaSamhita 1750 AD
      Popular Manual for Hatha Yoga
      1 of 3 key Hatha Yoga Texts (the other being Hatha Yoga Pradipika and Shiva Samhita the others)
      Outlines over 100 practices w/ 32 asanas
      Includes an outline for a 7-Fold Yoga
      1. Shatkarma for purification
      2. Asana for strengthening
      3. Mudra for steadying
      4. Pratyahara for calming
      5. Pranayama for lightness
      6. Dhyana for perception
      7. Samadhi for isolation
    • Shiva Samhita 1750 AD
      One of 3 Key Hatha Yoga texts (the others being Gheranda Samhita and Hatha Yoga Pradipika)
      Combines Advaita Vedanta philosophy with Tantric anatomy and Hatha Yoga practices
      Describes Complex physiology,
      names 84 different asanas and 11 mudras
      Explains abstract philosophy, mudras, tantric practices, and meditation
    • Shiva Samhita…continued 1750 AD
      Emphasizes that even a common householder can practice and benefit from yoga. Describes the four types of aspirants and the importance of the guru
      Methods and Obstacles of liberation and philosophical standpoints.
      The nadis, the internal fire, and the working of the Jiva.
      Describes five specific types of Prana, the four stages of the Yoga, the five elemental visualizations
      Introduces esoteric ideas such as: shadow gazing, the internal sound, the esoteric centers and energies in the body, the seven lotuses, the "king of kings of yogas", and a global mantra
    • Swami Vivekananda1893 AD
      Disciple of Sri Ramakrishna
      1893 Presented Vedanta and Yoga philosophy at Chicago's Parliament of Religions marking the beginning of American yoga
      Author of Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga and Jnana Yoga key texts describing contemporary yoga tradition
    • Sri TirumalaiKrishnamacharya
      (November 18, 1888 – November 3, 1989)
      Indian Yoga teacher, healer and scholar.
      His students include:
      B.K.S. Iyengar,
      Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, the late
      Indra Devi
      T.K.V. Desikachar
      SrivatsaRamaswami, A.G. Mohan, and Krishnamacharya’s own sons T.K. Srinivasan, and T.K. Sribhashyam.
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FYtX7xsXxw&feature=related