Classical yoga

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Classical yoga

  1. 1. Classical Yoga Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, and the 8- Limb Path of Yoga
  2. 2. Review Pre-Classical Yoga
  3. 3. CLASSICAL DIVISIONS In Yoga Philosophy
  4. 4. Classical Divisions of Yoga Raja Yoga— Royal Yoga; or “The Resplendent Yoga of Spiritual Kings” Jnana Yoga— Yoga of Wisdom; or Cultivation of Discrimination Karma Yoga— Yoga of Action; Freedom from Action Bhakti Yoga— Yoga of Devotion; or The Self-Transcending Power of Love
  5. 5. Jnana Yoga Jnana Yoga—Yoga of Wisdom; or Cultivation of Discrimination Jnana Yoga is the path of knowledge,… wisdom, introspection and contemplation Jnana involves deep exploration of the nature our being by systematically exploring and setting aside false identities.
  6. 6. Karma Yoga • Karma Yoga— – Yoga of Action – Freedom from Action • Karma Yoga is the path of service,.. – mindfulness, and remembering the levels of our being while fulfilling our actions or karma in the world.
  7. 7. Bhakti Yoga • Bhakti Yoga— – Yoga of Devotion; or – The Self-Transcending Power of Love • Bhakti Yoga is the path of love… – devotion, emotion, compassion, and service to God and others. – All actions are done in the context of remembering the Divine.
  8. 8. Raja Yoga • Raja Yoga – Royal Yoga; or “The Resplendent Yoga of Spiritual Kings” – A comprehensive method that emphasizing meditation, while – Encompasses the whole of Yoga – It directly deals with the encountering and transcending thoughts of the mind.
  9. 9. 6 Schools of Indian Philosophy Yoga—Practical methods for direct experience Sankhya—Framework of Manifestation Vedanta—Contemplative Self-inquiry Vaisheshika—Physical Sciences Nyaya—Reasoning Mimasa—Freedom through action *Yoga as a philosophy relies heavily on the Sankhya and Vedantafor a philosophical framework.
  10. 10. Yoga— Practical methods of direct experience Yoga systematically deals with all of the levels of one's being as they strive to experience the eternal center of consciousness. Satcitananda: Sat (beingness) Cit (consciousness) Ananda (bliss) In the Yoga Sutras, andseems to be codified, systematized, or scientific study of inner states. The goal is to so as to experientially go beyond all of them to the center of consciousness.
  11. 11. Sankhya – Framework of Manifestation Sankhya philosophy offers a framework for all the levels of manifestation, from the subtlest to the grossest, creating a complete understanding of the whole of Reality. Sankhya deals with prakriti (matter), purusha (consciousness), buddhi or mahat (intelligence), ahamkara (I-am-ness), three gunas (elements of stability, activity, and lightness) mind (manas), cognitive and active senses (indriyas), and the five subtle and gross elements (earth, water, fire, air, and space).
  12. 12. Vedanta • *Vedanta—Contemplative Self-inquiry – Vedanta philosophy and practice provides contemplative methods of self-inquiry leading to the realization of one's true nature that which is not subject to death, decay, or decomposition. • The essential precept – Prakriti (matter), as a grosser element is subject to change, and therefore, neither a basis for reality nor eternal. – Purusha (consciousness), on the other hand, being the subtler element, is unchanging, and therefore, the foundation of Reality. • *The teachings of Vedanta are best captured in the books of
  13. 13. Remaining schools Vaisheshika—Physical Sciences The Vaisheshika system emphasizes the physical sciences such as chemistry, exploring the elements of earth, water, fire, air and space, as well as time, mind and soul. Nyaya—Reasoning The Nyaya system deals with logic, the process of reasoning. Doubt is considered a prerequisite for philosophical inquiry. Other systems of Indian philosophy draw on this process. Mimasa—Freedom through action The Mimasa system pursues freedom through action. It has a detailed philosophy related to ritual, worship and ethical conduct, which developed into the philosophy of karma.
  14. 14. PROCESS OF YOGA In Yoga Philosophy
  15. 15. Nesting of Patterns • A nesting pattern becomes apparent as one begins to study yoga. There is no doubt that the lessons learned on the mat can translate to off the mat. On the other hand, is what happens on the mat a metaphor for what happens off the mat? Or, is what happens on the mat merely a reflection of another greater but veiled reality? • This is one of the greatest discussions to come out of the yoga tradition. Is there merely a singular basis for what is real where body and
  16. 16. OM KOSHA CHAKRA ANATOMY AND POSTURES 8-LIMB GROSS Anatomy Inhale Annamaya Kosha: Food-apparent- sheath Muladhara: Root Chakra “Primal Instinct” Male - Earth - Red Rooted Postures: Feet, Legs, Spine (base), large intestine Yama / Niyama: Foundation A “Ah” Swadhisthana: Sacral Chakra “ Creativity or one’s own place Female - Water - Yellow Hips, Sacrum, Genitals, lower back, genitals, womb, bladder, and kidney Asana: Dynamic extension from and toward the core U “Uh?” Pranamaya Kosha: Air-apparent- sheath Manipura: Solar Plexus Chakra “Personal Power” “Get up and go” Fire -Male Navel, Solar Plexus, digestive system Tapas: Sun Salutation, Core Strength, Boat Pose, Warrior poses, twists, passive backbends Pranayama: Breath restriction; Organization and movement of Prana Integration Anahata: Heart Chakra “un-struck” or “unhurt” Air (female) Heart, upper chest, and upper back: passive chest openers, shoulder stretches, backbends love and appreciate as we practice Pratyahara: Sense Withdrawal O “Oh” Manomaya Kosha: mind- stuff-apparent- sheath Vishuddha: Throat Chakra “Expression” (male) Neck, throat, jaw, and mouth, expression actions: Camel, bow, shoulder-stand, bridge, plow Dharana: Concentration M “M” Vijnanamayakos ha: wisdom- apparent-sheath Ajna: 3rd Eye Chakra “Insight” (female) Forward folds, postures placing pressure on forehead. Creative, focused, affirmative energy Dhyana: Meditation Subtle Anatomy Silence Anandamaya Kosha: bliss- apparent-sheath Sahasrara: “Pure consciousness” White & Male (I suspect union) Meditation Primary; Postures that confront preconceived notions, fears, and anxieties Samadhi: Freedom (moska) through
  17. 17. Anandamaya Kosha • Bliss Body Vijnanamaya Kosha • Wisdom Body Manomaya Kosha • Mental Body Pranamaya Kosha • Energetic body Annanamaya Kosha • Physical Body Movement Inward: Awareness is the result our interaction with and experience of the outer world. This awareness can be processed at the different levels of being. The deeper the movement inward the deeper the awareness. These sensations then become something that is either directly experienced or reacted against by the mental body. Our emotions get in the way of our directly experiencing of material reality
  18. 18. Anandamaya Kosha “Bliss Body” Vijnanamaya Kosha “Wisdom Body” Manomaya Kosha “Mind Body” Pranamaya Kosha “Energy Body” Annanamaya Kosha “Food Body” A “sheath” is a covering or skin that covers. Peel these away to reveal the “true self”.
  19. 19. Annanamaya Kosha Pranamaya Kosha Manomaya Kosha Vijnanamaya Kosha Anandamaya Kosha
  20. 20. Annanamaya Kosha Food Apparent Sheath Physical body Asana Stability Pranamaya Kosha Air Apparent Sheath Energy Body Prana (Energy) Vitality Manomaya Kosha Mind-Stuff Apparent Sheath Mental Body Manas (Mind) Clarity Vijnanamaya Kosha Wisdom Apparent Sheath Intellectual Body Vijnana (Intellect) Wisdom Anandamaya Kosha Bliss Apparent Sheath Bliss Body Ananda (Bllss) Bliss Kosha Attributes Physical Subtle
  21. 21. Annanamaya Kosha Pranamaya Kosha Manomaya Kosha Vijnanamaya Kosha Anandamaya Kosha
  22. 22. SAMKHYA Theory and practice of Samkhya Yoga
  23. 23. Gunas Prakriti (primordial "matter") has three characteristics or attributes of Sattva (Lightness) Rajas (Activity) Tamas (Stability) These three combine and re-combine so as to form the various aspects of mind, senses, and the five elements: earth, water, fire, air, and space.
  24. 24. Self Realization The journey of Self-realization, or discrimination of pure consciousness (Purusha) from unmanifest matter (Prakriti) is one of systematically using attention to encounter, examine, and transcend each of the various levels of manifestation, ever moving attention further inward towards the core of our being.
  25. 25. Purusha Purusha is, Of the two companion principles, Purusha is consciousness that is untainted, ever-pure. It is self-existent, standing alone from other identities of individuality; conscious being-ness; the principle of spiritual energy. Purusha is the Transcendental Self or Pure Consciousness. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible, unknowable, above any experience and beyond any words or explanation. It remains pure, non-attributive consciousness that is undifferentiated and without distinction .
  26. 26. Prakriti • Prakriti, as related to Purusha which is transendent , is the subtlest of the material aspect of energy. It is the primordial state of matter, even prior to matter as we know it in the physical sense. Prakriti manifests as the three gunas and the other evolutes. • While Purusha is considered “uncaused,” Prakriti is the considered the “first cause” of the universe. As the base of physical reality, both matter and force are considered to emanate from Prakriti. Since it is the first principle (tattva) of the universe, it is called the Pradhana, but, as it is the unconscious and unintelligent principle, it is also called the Jada. It is composed of three essential characteristics (trigunas). These are: • sattva - fineness, lightness, illumination, and joy; • rajas - activity, excitation, and pain; • tamas - coarseness, heavyness, obstruction, and sloth.[10][11][12] • All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of Prakriti, or primal nature (from which all physical bodies are derived). Each sentient being is a Purusha, and is limitless and unrestricted by its physical body. Samsaara or bondage arises when the Purusha does not have the discriminate knowledge and so is misled as to its own identity, confusing itself with the physical body, which is actually an evolute of Prakriti. The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious Purusha and unconscious Prakriti is realized.
  27. 27. Ahamkara (ego) • This is the process of ego, by which consciousness can start to (incorrectly) take on false identities. Here, the word ego is used not to mean the actual qualities such brother or sister, or loving or cruel, but the capacity itself to take on the countless identities.
  28. 28. Manas Mind (manas) is the instrument, which is the driving force behind actions, speech, and the thinking process. It is also the recipient of the sensory input. It is useful to know that, here, mind is being used in this more limited way, rather than the whole of the inner process called antahkarana, which includes manas, ahamkara, buddhi, chitta, along with the senses and the five elements.
  29. 29. Mahat or Buddhi This is the purest, finest spark of individuation of Prakriti (primordial matter). It is very first of the evolutes of Prakriti. It is individuation, but yet, without characteristics. Buddhi is the word, which applies to the individual person, while Mahat refers to the universal aspect of this process.
  30. 30. “According to the Yogis there are two nerve currents in the spinal column, called Pingala and Ida, and there is a hollow canal called Susumna running through the spinal cord. At the lower end of the hollow canal is what the Yogis call the “Lotus of the Kundalini.” They describe it as triangular in form, in which, in the symbolical language of the Yogis, there is a power called the Kundalini coiled up. When that Kundalini awakes it tries to force a passage through this hollow canal, and, as it rises step by step, as it were, layer after layer of the mind becomes open, all these different visions and wonderful powers come to the Yogi. When it reaches the brain the Yogi is perfectly detached from the body and mind; the soul finds itself free.” • +Swami Vivekananda on Psychic Prana
  31. 31. The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali – 196 aphorisms that make up the foundational text of Raja Yoga. The Yoga Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy and are generally seen as the practice while Samkhya is the theory. Patañjali's Yoga Sutras accept the Samkhya's dualist perspective dividing reality into of the world and phenomena. According to Samkhya, Purusha (Self or consciousness or soul) is opposite Prakriti (nature or matter) from which the world is created. The second part of the Sutras, the Sadhana, also summarizes the Samkhya perspectives about all seen activity lying within the realm of the three Gunas of Sattva (illumination), Rajas (passion) and Tamas (lethargy). Who was Patanjali? While there is wide speculation as to the identity of Patanjali, most scholars believe that the Patanjali responsible for the Yoga Sutras was more of a compiler of than an author. However, this need not diminish the authoritative nature of the Sutras. In order to compile a body of yogic wisdom into a coherent and connected thoughts marks Patanjali as an inspired authority on Yoga.
  32. 32. • Yoga originated in India 4,000 years ago as a spiritual practice focused on uniting the earthly practitioner with a universal, divine consciousness. Today it is practiced around the world with a diversity of intention that still anticipates union; however yoga has evolved to encompass a broad acceptance for what that union is and for what purpose. In general it is best described as a mind body spirit system for achieving self- awareness.
  33. 33. Historical Context The Yoga sutras incorporated the teachings of many other Indian philosophical systems prevalent at the time, specifically Buddhism and Jainism Much of Patanjali's system takes on the formulation and terminology that was common among Buddhists of the time. Meditation and samadhi techniques are directly borrowed from the Buddhists, which with the addition of the mystical and divine interpretations of mental absorption, make up the over-arching technique of the 8-limbed practice. Patañjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system to formulate his own matrix for the version of thought he considered orthodox.[29] However, it is also to be noted that the Yoga Sutra, especially the fourth segment of Kaivalya Pada, is critical of various elements of Buddhism Similarly, five Yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali resemble to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating influence of Jainism. Three other teachings closely associated with Jainism also make an appearance in Yoga. The practice of non-violence (ahimsa) is one example The Yoga Sutras appear to have much in terms of “connective tissues” linking it to other schools of philosophy of prevalent at that time. For instance, many concepts common to Buddhist teachings can be sifted from the Yoga Sutras. Just as understanding the anatomy and alignment of the human body in one postures helps inform other postures, a lot can be learned from those understanding how those connective tissues work create a fully functional system.
  34. 34. Structure It is easy to study the Yoga Sutras and the 8-Limbed Practice as separate from one another. However, there is a lot to be learned by how the Sutras exist as a whole. It is important to notice, for instance, that Book 1 is named after the final limb of the 8-limbed path, Samadhi Pada. Right from aphorism 1.2 we notice yoga clearly defined clearly with "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ,” or, “yoga is the science of the calming of the mind,” while 1.3 tells us why this matters. It isn’t until Book 2, Sadhana Pada, that we see the elements of the practice itself addressed. Sadhana Pada is translated as “Practice” or “Discipline.” 8-Fold Path containing a process that becomes increasingly subtle. We see that the Sadhana Pada addresses the more “tangible” limbs, Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama and Pratyahara while book 3, Vibhuti Pada, contains the more “subtle” limbs Dharana, Dhyana, and Samadhi. Do we practice the first 5 with the expectation of gaining the powers discussed in the Vibhuti Pada? Book I: Samadhi Pada •Yoga is defined •Proposes Yoga Practices- •Ashtanga Yoga •Kriya Yoga Book II: Sadhana Pada •Yama •Niyama •Asana •Pranayama Book III: Vibhuti Pada •Pratyahara •Dharana •Dhyana •Samadhi Book IV: Kaivalya Pada •On Samadhi •Subdivisions of Samadhi
  35. 35. Organizatio n 4 Sections or “Pada” Book 1 : Samâdhi-pâdaï on “Concentration: Its Spiritual Uses” or “Integration” Book 2 : Sâdhana-pâdaï on “Practice" or “Discipline" Book 3: Vibhûti-pâdaï on Extraordinary Powers or Progressing Book 4: Kaivalya Pada on "isolation,” “liberation (Moksha),” or “transcendence”
  36. 36. Considerations• Yoga is defined • Proposes Yoga Practices: • Ashtanga Yoga • Kriya Yoga Book 1 : Samâdhi-pâdaï on “contentration, integration, enlightenment • Discusses practice: Yama, Niyama, Asana, and Pranyama Book 2 : Sâdhana- pâdaï: Practice, Discipline, • on Extraordinary Powers or Progressing Book 3: Vibhûti- pâdaï • on "isolation,” “liberation (Moksha),” or “transcendence” Book 4: Kaivalya Pada
  37. 37. Samadhi Pada On being absorbed in spirit
  38. 38. Regarding translations and interpretations • Generally speaking, there is consensus as to the over-arching purpose of the Yoga Sutras, however the words used to describe that purpose vary widely. • At first it would seem that this is because of the interpreter’s personal opinion, which is undoubtedly partially the case, differs from other’s translations. • However, articulating the ideas that are the true content of the Sutras is difficult not only because of the barriers of time, language and philosophical perspective, but also because each author’s audience can harbor bias toward one language system over another language system. • For instance, the word “faith” holds different meanings within different contexts. – Faith in a Christian sense may point toward a faith in a triune God manifesting as Father, Son and Holy Spirit each set apart from mankind. – At the same time, various eastern understandings of faith may be more equated in terms of a belief that one day they will reach a state of realization or enlightenment. • All of this culminate interpretations that frequently vary in minor ways and often in larger ways. • Regardless, it is important to understand both the leanings of the writer as well as the needs of the reader. • It is also important to consider the interpreters “purpose” when reading a translation or commentary: – to convey a body of information or articulate a concept believing that true understanding appears as a topic becomes clearly grasped? – Is it to bring about realization by guiding the student along a path that will articulate itself as each step is taken? • Both have their virtues. • It seems however that the former is a more recent phenomenon. Until the invention of the printing press and the ability to acquire and study information, teaching was meant to illicit a “response” from the student that signified an understanding that showed the student as prepared for taking the next step. • All this to say that a teacher will use whatever words necessary to create understanding in the student, even if it isn’t the ideal word or the direct interpretation of the concept. • Likely, the best translation or interpretation will be the one that brings about the greatest realization for the individual reader
  39. 39. “Now, yoga is explained” • Renown teacher Tim Miller suggests that the 1st aphorism of the Yoga Sutras, atha yogânusâsanam, often translated as “Now, yoga is explained” or “Now, begins the teaching of yoga”
  40. 40. Samadhi Pada(51 sutras) Yoga Defined In a similar way as many classical works of its variety, the beginning of the Yoga Sutras clearly states the purpose of the Sutras, a clear “thesis statement,” and a clear description of the benefits found within the Sutras. of with “yogaścitta- vritti-nirodhah” Yoga Sutra 1.1 Various Interpretations of the second aphorism in the Samadhi Pada "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ" Yoga Sutra 1.1 "Yoga is the restraint of mental modifications” Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Chitta) from taking various forms (Vrttis) Swami Vivekananda or Union, spiritual consciousness, is gained through control of the versatile psychic nature --Charles Johnson
  41. 41. Now, yoga is explained Sutra1.1 Now, the process of union or yoking is explained Now then authoritative instruction in yoga – Gregor Maehle Now concentration is explained -Swami Vivekananda OM: Here follows Instruction in Union - Charles Johnson Now the teachings of yoga - Chip Hartranft Now, here the science of training the mind is explained -author Atha Yogânusâsanam atha = now yoga = process of yoking; union anusasanam= teaching, exposition
  42. 42. consider… Here in the first verse of the Yoga Sutras, we have the word “Now,” which, when you think about it, is an odd way of initiating the work. It is almost as though the piece were part intended as a speech or as an proposal. If this were the case, “Now” could be taken several ways. 1. In a traditional way, now means as you begin read these words, yoga is being explained and the process of learning about yoga has began.. “I will explain yoga, now.” 2. Another way to read now in this context would be something like, “Now, having tried everything else, finally yoga.” 3. Finally, perhaps Now actually means Now as in right now, in this present moment. The study of yoga only takes place in the now. It is as if now signifies that the text is not teaching, but instead that in each moment there is a potential for understanding. The text then becomes something like field notes or a guide book. I think that in many ways the Yoga Sutras can be read in these, and probably many other ways. It may be that Patanjali might be saying simply, “Hey, pay attention to your life.”
  43. 43. Some translations: Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Chitta) from taking various forms (Vrttis) -Swami Vivekananda Union, spiritual consciousness, is gained through control of the versatile psychic nature -Charles Johnson Yoga is the suspension of the fluctuations of the Mind -Gregor Maehle Yoga is to still the patterning of consciousness. - Chip Hartranft yogascitta-vrtti-nirodhaï yogaï = process of yoking; union citta = consciousness vëtti = patterning, turnings, movements nirodhaï = stilling, cessation, restriction Yoga is Defined Sutra 1.2
  44. 44. 1.2 considerations Chitta is the various processes in the mind, or mind stuff The waves of thought in the Chitta are called Vrtti (literally, “the whirlpool”) What is thought? With regard to these varied translations we see that thought does seem to have aspects that refer to the physical world. While thought doesn’t have material qualities, it does have the ability to affect change within the physical world. In this respect, thought is a ‘force’ in a similar manner as gravity or electricity. Would then it be possible to say that thought by itself is something to be measured rather than to be valued? Could thought be understood in terms of intensity rather than if it is a good thought or a bad thought? In this context, thought as force can be suspended, equalized or negated. At the same time, thought can be intensified, added to and or increased.
  45. 45. Sadhana Pada On being immersed in spirit
  46. 46. Sadhana Pada 2 forms of yoga outlines: Ashtanga Yoga Eightfold or Eight limbed Yogic Path Kriya Yoga Action Yoga Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". (55 Sutras)
  47. 47. Considerations Note: Kriya yoga, sometimes called Karma Yoga. In the Bhagavad-Gita, Arjuna is encouraged by Krishna to act without attachment to the results or fruit of action and activity. In other words, Kriya yoga is the yoga of selfless action and service.
  48. 48. Ahimsa Non violence toward any living thing. Satya Truth and honesty Asteya Non-stealing Brahmacharya Celibacy or sexual fidelity Aparigraha Lack of possessiveness; non clinging Designed to lessen suffering – to be practiced in thoughts, words & actions Yamas Sutra ?
  49. 49. Saucha Cleanliness of body and mind Santosha Contentment with what you have Tapas Self-discipline Svadhyaya Study of the self Ishvara-pranidhana Surrender to the divine “Observances” Designed to build character – to be practiced with body, mind and spirit Niyamas Sutra ?
  50. 50. “Sitting” Physical postures to be held with steadiness and ease. Originally only sitting postures were described by Patanjali. Today, the exploration of asana has given rise to countless styles of yoga “Sitting” Asana
  51. 51. “life force extension” Practice of breath control. The goal of Pranayama is to lengthen, control and free of the subtle energies within the body. “Sutra ?” Pranayama Sutra ?
  52. 52. “withdrawal of the senses” Objective witness of one’s own self “Sutra ?” Pratyahara
  53. 53. “to think of” Single pointed concentration in meditation. “Sutra ?” Dharana
  54. 54. “uninterrupted concentration” State of being keenly aware in meditation without focus “Sutra ?” Dhyana
  55. 55. “absorption” Blissful transcendence through meditation “Sutra ?” Samadhi
  56. 56. Vibhuti Pada On supernatural abilities and gifts
  57. 57. Vibhuti Pada Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation". ’ Supra-normal powers' (Siddhi) are acquired by the practice of yoga.  the entering of another’s soul  ability to fly or move great distances in moments  increase or decrease in size  the ability to acquire great wealth with little effort Disclaimer: The temptation of these powers should be avoided and the attention should be fixed only on liberation. 56 sutras Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation”. The Yoga Sutras assert that through the practice of yoga, the yogi can aquire ‘Super powers' (Sanskrit: siddhi) are acquired by the practice of yoga.
  58. 58. Kaivalya Pada On absolute freedom
  59. 59. Kaivalya Pada The Kaivalya Pada describes the nature of liberation and the reality of the transcendental self. Think Samadhi "…Or, to look from another angle, the power of pure consciousness settles in its own pure nature." —Kaivalya Pada: Sutra 35. "Only the minds born of meditation are free from karmic impressions." —Kaivalya Pada: Sutra 7. "Since the desire to live is eternal, impressions are also beginning-less. The impressions being held together by cause, effect, basis and support by they disappear with the disappearance of these four." —Kaivalya Pada: Sutra 11-12. 34 sutras Kaivalya literally means "isolation”. In the Yoga Sutras, emancipation, liberation (moksha), or freedom are often considered appropriate and/or acceptable terms to express the meaning of Kaivalya. Often cited as the goal of yoga, Moksha (liberation), is used interchangeably with Kaivalya. The Kaivalya Pada describes the nature of liberation and the reality of the transcendental self.
  60. 60. Considerations Deals with impressions left by our endless cycles (Samasara) of birth and the rationale behind the necessity of erasing such impressions. It portrays the yogi, who has attained kaivalya, as an entity who has gained independence from all bondages and achieved the absolute true consciousness or ritambhara prajna described in the Samadhi Pada.
  61. 61. dve Part 2
  62. 62. Ashtanga Yoga’s 8-Limb Path of Yoga The Practice of Yoga
  63. 63. 8 Limbed Yoga • Yama • Niyama • Asana • Pranayama • Pratyahara • Dharana • Dhyana • Samadhi More correctly known as the Ashtanga (Ashta = 8 and anga meaning
  64. 64. YAMA External Ethics
  65. 65. Yamas are…. What does Yama Mean? 5 Yamas • Ahimsa, or non-violence – “Ahimsa traditionally meant "do not kill or hurt people.” – This can be extended to mean that violent in feelings, thoughts, words, or actions should be avoided. – At root, ahimsa is the practice of compassion towards yourself and others. • Satya, or truthfulness, is the practice of truthful thoughts words and deeds. It is the cultivation of honest living within relationship to ourselves and with others. Satya develops the ability to assess situations honestly without need for apology. • Asteya, or Non-stealing, asserts that one should not take or desire something that is his own. Why? The act of stealing that stems from the misperception that the universe is lacking in abundance. In this way, desire or jealousy similarly rooted in subconscious beliefs of “lack” and “scarcity,” cause greed, clinging and hoarding in their various manifestations including theft. • Brahmacharya: – We practice Brahmacharya when we consciously choose to use our life force to cultivate a "virtuous" way of life. – Both limited and precious, life-force can quickly dissipate as a result of frivolous sexual activity. – As yogis, we choose to use the power behind sexuality as a resource for living a fulfilling life. • Aparigraha: non-possessiveness
  66. 66. NIYAMA Internal Disciplines
  67. 67. Niyama Saucha Purity Santosha Contentment Tapas heat, intensity of discipline, austerity Svâdhyâya self-study Ishvara prañidhânâni surrender, dedication, application, alignment What are they? What does it mean Niyama: religious or internal observances or commitments Cleanliness, Contentment, Mortification, Study, and Self- surrender to God
  68. 68. Saucha The most common translation is "cleanliness." But Shaucha, at root, is concerned with keeping different energies distinct. Shaucha protects the purity and sanctity of the energy around us. Shaucha focuses on the grossest physical concerns (bodily and environmentally) as well as more subtle energetic issues (mental and physically). “Cleanliness”
  69. 69. Santosha Samtosha, as a practice, prevents desire to obtain, experience and /or accumulate objects of pleasure. A common example is overexerting in a pose, tell them to stop and reestablish a calm breath and the feeling of Samtosha. Only then, in that spirit, should they resume the practice of the pose. This quality of contentment leads to mental peace. “Contentment”
  70. 70. Tapas- Austerity Often translated as heat or austerity, Tapas can also be considered in terms of simple living or wise effort. Austerity: by practicing a self-denying and austere life style, we can learn to control desire-generated emotions. Also, by living simply we recognize a space is created where greater endeavors replace baser desires. Wise effort can be discerned as the difference between someone who simply fantasizes and someone who is on the path toward their dreams. Effort is required to make anything bear fruit in the physical world, and yet we have to balance Tapas with Samtosha-effort with contentment. If we try to force things, we will end up doing harm. Lastly, Tapas can also be considered as the heat generated that creates a purifying effect. “Austerity” “Wise Effort” Embody Courage, Create Change
  71. 71. Tapas- Austerity Often translated as heat or austerity, Tapas can also be considered in terms of simple living or wise effort. Austerity: by practicing a self-denying and austere life style, we can learn to control desire-generated emotions. Also, by living simply we recognize a space is created where greater endeavors replace baser desires. Wise effort can be discerned as the difference between someone who simply fantasizes and someone who is on the path toward their dreams. Effort is required to make anything bear fruit in the physical world, and yet we have to balance Tapas with Samtosha-effort with contentment. If we try to force things, we will end up doing harm. Lastly, Tapas can also be considered as the heat generated that creates a purifying effect. Austerity Wise Effort Embody Courage, Create Change
  72. 72. Svadhyaya Svadhyaya translates as “Study of One's Self” and/or as the “Study about the Self.” As a practice Svadhyaya enlightens the true nature of human nature and facilitates healthy thoughts Evolution through Involution This is largely accomplished through careful self-observation. After working in a pose, pause, become still and feel the changes. This builds self-awareness, the foundation of Svadhyaya. Austerity Wise Effort Embody Courage, Create Change
  73. 73. Ishvara Pranidhana- Surrender Ishvara Pranidhana can be translated as “Surrender to God” and/or as “Surrender of Ego.” In short, A practice of Ishvara Pranidhana may manifest itself as a desire to be less self- centered by aiming at higher goals. In terms of our asana practice, most of us are concerned with "getting there." We want results. We want to achieve. In consideration of Ishvara Pranidhana, will be able to do yoga with both intensity and calmness when they dedicate practice to a universal life force of which we are all a part. We realize it is our intention and effort that count.
  74. 74. ASANA The Field of Experience
  75. 75. Asana 2.46 “sthira-sukham âsanam” sthira = steady, stable sukham = happiness âsanam = posture The postures of meditation should embody steadiness and ease.
  76. 76. This occurs as all effort relaxes and coalescence arises, revealing that the body and the infinite universe are indivisible prayatna = effort saithilya = relaxation ananta = endless, boundless samâpattibhyâm = coalescence, unified contemplation Asana 2.47
  77. 77. PRANAYAMA The Field of Experience
  78. 78. Sanskrit for "extending of the prana or breath" or more accurately, "extension of the life force". Prāna: life force, or vital energy Yama: to extend, draw out, restraint, or control. Āyāma: Pranayam a Once that perfected posture has been achieved, the slowing or braking of the force behind, and of unregulated movement of inhalation and exhalation is called breath control and expansion of Prana (pranayama), which leads to the absence of the awareness of both, and is the fourth of the eight rungs. Yoga Sutra 2.49
  79. 79. As the movement patterns of each breath - inhalation, exhalation, lull - are observed as to duration, number, and area of focus, breath becomes spacious and subtle. Sutra II.50 As realization dawns, the distinction between breathing in and out falls away. Sutra II.51 Then the veil lifts from the mind’s luminosity. Sutra II.52
  80. 80. Sanskrit for "extending of the prana or breath" or more accurately, "extension of the life force". Prāna: life force, or vital energy Yama: to extend, draw out, restraint, or control. Āyāma: General Pranayama Terms Kumbhaka Stopping the Breath Nigarbha Pranayama without Mantra Sagarbha Pranayama with Mantra Pranayama Prana: breath, life force ayama: lengthen, expansion yama: restriction Puraka Inhalation Recaka Exhalation
  81. 81. Pranayama Breathing Tecniques Anuloma: Anu: along with, according to; loma: hair Bhramari: Large black bee Bhastrika: Bellows Kapalabhati: Skull Polishing (Kapala: Skull; Bhati: light, splendor) Murccha: to swoon Nadi Sodhana: Nerve Cleansing (nadi: tubular organ; Sodhana: purifying or cleansing Plavini (plavana: to bathe, float) Pratiloma: (prati: in opposition to; loma: hair) SamaVritti: Even breathing (Sama: Even, smooth, level; vritti: action) Surya Bhedana: surya: sun; bhedana: breaking, splitting dividing) Ujjayi: Victorious lengthening of the internal breath (jaya: to conquer) Viloma (vi: away from; loma: hair) Visama Vrtti (visama: difficult, uneven; vrtti: action)
  82. 82. Pratyahara The Field of Experience
  83. 83. Pratyahara 2.54 When the mental organs of senses and actions (indriyas) cease to be engaged with the corresponding objects in their mental realm, and assimilate or turn back into the mind-field from which they arose, this is called pratyâhâra, and is the fifth step. 2.55 Through that turning inward of the organs of senses and actions (indriyas) also comes a supreme ability, controllability, or mastery over those senses inclining to go outward towards their objects. sva = own visaya = object (of experience), phenomenon asamprayoge = uncoupling cittasya = consciousness sva = own rupa= form anukara= imitation, following suit iva = like, thus, as it were indriyañam= sensory apparatus pratyaharai= withdrawal of the senses
  84. 84. Dharana Concentration
  85. 85. d
  86. 86. Dharana “ekagra chitta” or “ekagrata” Eka = “one” and Chitta = Mind or Consciousness holding holding steady concentration single focus
  87. 87. Dyhana Meditation
  88. 88. Dyhana • Nullafacilisi. Duisaliquetegestaspurus in blandit. Curabiturvulputate, ligulalaciniascelerisquetempor, lacus lacus ornare ante, ac egestasesturna sit ametarcu. Class aptenttacitisociosqu ad litoratorquent per conubia nostra, per inceptoshimenaeos. Sedmolestieaugue sit ametleoconsequatposuere. Vestibulum ante ipsumprimis in faucibusorciluctus et ultricesposuerecubiliaCurae; Proinvel ante a orci tempus eleifendut et magna. Loremipsum dolor sit amet, consecteturadipiscingelit. Vivamusluctusurnasedurnaultricies ac tempor dui sagittis. In condimentumfacilisisporta. Sednecdiameudiammattisviverra. Nullafringilla, orci ac euismodsemper, magna diamporttitormauris, quissollicitudinsapienjusto in libero. Vestibulummollismaurisenim. Morbieuismod magna ac loremrutrumelementum. Donecviverraauctorlobortis. Pellentesqueeuest a nullaplaceratdignissim. Morbi a enim in magna semperbibendum. Etiamscelerisque, nunc ac egestasconsequat, odionibheuismodnulla, egetauctororcinibhvel nisi. Aliquameratvolutpat. Maurisvelneque sit ametnuncgravidaconguesed sit ametpurus. Quisque lacus quam, egestas ac tincidunt a, laciniavelvelit. Aeneanfacilisisnulla vitae urnatinciduntconguesedut dui. Morbimalesuadanullanecpurusconvallisconsequat. Vivamus id mollis quam. Morbi ac commodonulla. In condimentumorci id nislvolutpatbibendum. Quisquecommodohendreritloremquisegestas. Maecenas quistortorarcu. Vivamusrutrumnunc non nequeconsecteturquisplaceratnequelobortis. Nam vestibulum, arcusodalesfeugiatconsectetur, nislorcibibendumelit, eueuismod magna sapienutnibh. Donecsemper quam scelerisquetortor dictum gravida. In hachabitasseplateadictumst. Nam pulvinar, odiosedrhoncussuscipit, semdiamultricesmauris, euconsequatpurusmetuseuvelit. Proinmetusodio, aliquamegetmolestienec, gravidautsapien. Phasellusquisestsedturpissollicitudinvenenatissedeuodio. Praesentegetnequeeuerosinterdummalesuada non velleo. Sedfringillaportaligulaegestastincidunt. Nullamrisus magna, ornare vitae variuseget, scelerisque a libero. Morbieuporttitoripsum. Nullamlorem nisi, posuerequisvolutpateget, luctusnecmassa. Pellentesquealiquamlaciniatellus.
  89. 89. Samadhi Absorption
  90. 90. Samadhi In a state of Samadhi, absorption occurs. There is no distinction between act of meditation and the object of meditation. There are 2 kinds and 3 levels of of Samadhi: 2 kinds- Samprajnata Samadhi (conscious) Asamprajnata Samadhi (supra conscious) 3 levels- Savikalpa– Asamprajñata Nirvikalpa When the perceiving consciousness in this meditative is wholly given to illuminating the essential meaning of the object contemplated, and is freed from the sense of separateness and personality, this is contemplation (samadhi)
  91. 91. Mirror of yoga Sutras • Samprajnata Samadhi conscious samadhi. The mind remains concentrated (ekagra) on the object of meditation, therefore the consciousness of the object of meditation persists. Mental modifications arise only in respect of this object of meditation. – Savitarka: the Citta is concentrated upon a gross object of meditation such as a flame of a lamp, the tip of the nose, or the image of a deity. – Savichara: the Citta is concentrated upon a subtle object of meditation , such as the tanmatras – Sananda: the Citta is concentrated upon a still subtler object of meditation, like the senses. – Sasmita: the Citta is concentrated upon the ego- substance with which the self is generally identified. • Asamprajnata Samadhisupraconscious. The citta and the object of meditation are fused together. The consciousness of the object of meditation is transcended. All mental modifications are checked (niruddha), although latent impressions may continue. Reflects on Samadhi Pada 1.2: Yogascittavrittinarodaha
  92. 92. 3 levels of Samādhi Savikalpa– Transitional state between Meditation and Higher awareness state. The mind retains its consciousness and continues to experience thought, bliss and self-awareness. Asamprajñata– Higher awareness state with absence of physical awareness. Nirvikalpa– In this state there is no longer mind, duality, a subject-object relationship or experience Distinction fades and we can see everything as one. Here, nothing but pure awareness remains and nothing detracts from wholeness and perfection
  93. 93. On Samadhi When you say you sit for meditation, the first thing to be done is understand that it is not this body identification that is sitting for meditation, but this knowledge ‘I am’, this consciousness, which is sitting in meditation and is meditating on itself. When this is finally understood, then it becomes easy. When this consciousness, this conscious presence, merges in itself, the state of ‘Samadhi’ ensues. It is the conceptual feeling that I exist that disappears and merges into the beingness itself. So this conscious presence also gets merged into that knowledge, that beingness – that is ‘Samadhi’.
  94. 94. Prakriti • Prakriti, as related to Purusha which is transendent , is the subtlest of the material aspect of energy. It is the primordial state of matter, even prior to matter as we know it in the physical sense. Prakriti manifests as the three gunas and the other evolutes. • While Purusha is considered “uncaused,” Prakriti is the considered the “first cause” of the universe. As the base of physical reality, both matter and force are considered to emanate from Prakriti. Since it is the first principle (tattva) of the universe, it is called the Pradhana, but, as it is the unconscious and unintelligent principle, it is also called the Jada. It is composed of three essential characteristics (trigunas). These are: • sattva - fineness, lightness, illumination, and joy; • rajas - activity, excitation, and pain; • tamas - coarseness, heavyness, obstruction, and sloth.[10][11][12] • All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of Prakriti, or primal nature (from which all physical bodies are derived). Each sentient being is a Purusha, and is limitless and unrestricted by its physical body. Samsaara or bondage arises when the Purusha does not have the discriminate knowledge and so is misled as to its own identity, confusing itself with the physical body, which is actually an evolute of Prakriti. The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious Purusha and unconscious Prakriti is realized.

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