POLISH LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH 1619


                                  Pink = Kingdom of Poland
                         ...
SH

SHTETL means small town in Yiddish. The SHTETLS
were predominately Jewish and ranged in population
from several hundre...
Before WWII there
                       SH thousands
                      were            of Shtetls and
Shtots in Centr...
SH
Almost all of the remaining Polish and Lithuanian
Jews for Israel or America. In Ukraine, many of the
Jews who survived...
SH
But another plague would befall those survivors. Fifty
years of Communism had taken its toll and intermittent
periods o...
SH


Shtetls were mainly found in the areas which
constituted the 19th Century Pale of Settlement in the
Russian Empire, t...
After the Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian
Commonwealth between Hapsburg, Russian and
Prussian Empires, over a million ...
The period between 1791 and 1812 saw the formation
under special decrees of the Russian legislature, of what
was restricte...
SH
So the notion of Shtetl, just like the fate and history of
the Ashkenazi Jews, is inextricably linked with the
geopolit...
The three partitions of Poland took place in
1772, 1793 and 1795

These maps show how Poland changed during
the period it ...
The Jews who found
themselves in Prussian or
Hapsburg territory fared
much better and many of
them became assimilated.
Ema...
MAP OF AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN PROVINCE OF GALICIA
                AFTER 1815
Congress Poland was created out of the
Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna
in 1815, when European states reorganized...
RUMP POLAND BECAME DUCHY OF WARSAW (1807-1813)

 IT BECAME CONGRESS POLAND w/in RUSSIAN EMPIRE
                  (1815-192...
So once again the
  fate of Eastern
  European Jews
      became
inextricably linked
      with the
   geopolitics of
    ...
DESPITE ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS, THE
 POPULATION OF THE JEWS GREW TO
  NEARLY 5 MILLION IN THE PALE OF
SETTLEMENT BY THE END OF...
The Shtetl epitomized Jewish community life in
central and Eastern Europe. Everything centered
around the community: its r...
Based on religious devotion, a unique subculture
evolved, it included a sense of ethnic identity, and
a collective memory ...
It was in the shtetl that a full-fledged ethno-
cultural environment took shape, which
ultimately influenced the culture o...
POLAND
(1921-1939)
POLAND’S JEWISH
 COMMUNITIES
 BEFORE WWII
SHTOTS & SHTETLS
                   SHTOTS
                   SHTETLS
                   JEWISH QUARTERS
LUBLIN SHTOT 100 YEARS AGO
LUBLIN WAS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS THE
       JERUSALEM OF THE SOUTH

 THE NEXT TWO PICTURES ARE CURRENT
RENOVATIONS TAKING P...
WROCLAW

          IN SW POLAND
CAPITAL OF HAPSBURG PROVINCE OF SILESIA
           HAD A SIGNIFICANT
      PRE-WAR JEWISH ...
WARSAW

 CAPITAL OF POLAND
     HAD A SIGNIFICANT
PRE-WAR JEWISH POPULATION.
KAUNAS

CULTURAL & HISTORICAL CAPITAL OF
           LITHUANIA
          HAD A SIGNIFICANT
     PRE-WAR JEWISH POPULATION.
CHORALINER
   SYNAGOGUE
KAUNAS, LITHUANIA
FORMER JEWISH
ORPHANAGE IN
   KAUNAS,
  LITHUANIA
•   VILNIUS, CAPITAL OF LITHUANIA, WAS PART OF POLAND
    UNTIL 1939.

IN ITS HEYDAY, IT WAS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS THE
JERU...
SHTETL #1

        VABALNINKAS
   IN NORTH CENTRAL LITHUANIA

(2 1/2 HOURS DRIVE NORTH OF KAUNAS)
SH
       SHTETL #2

     BERSHAD
IN THE PODOLIA REGION
  OF CENTRAL UKRAINE
 (Between Kiev and Odessa)
The shetls in this particular region of Ukraine
were actually living shtetls up until just a few
years ago. By a fluke of ...
SHTETL #3

    TREBIC
IN MORAVIAN REGION
    IN SOUTHERN
   CZECH REPUBLIC
Bukovina was last of 2 provinces to be added
to the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1774 (the
other one being Galicia). It’s cr...
SHTOT

CHERNIVTSI
 (BUKOVINA)

IN SW UKRAINE
Paul
 Celan

  Rose
Auslander
Grosschil Synagogue
MAHSIKE SHABBOT
FORMER SCHOOL NOW HOSPITAL
A recurring theme
   in Ukraine:

Synagogue turned
  movie theater
SHTETL #4

     VASHKIVTSI
       (BUKOVINA)
JUST OUTSIDE OF CHERNIVTSI
  SOUTHWESTERN UKRAINE
SHTETL #5

    VYZHNYTSIA
       (BUKOVINA)
JUST OUTSIDE OF CHERNIVTSI
  SOUTHWESTERN UKRAINE
SHTOT

      LVIV
 (EASTERN GALICIA)

IN WESTERN UKRAINE
MAP OF AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN PROVINCE OF GALICIA
                AFTER 1815
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Shtetl projektprez
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Shtetl projektprez

1,509 views
1,431 views

Published on

Published in: Spiritual
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,509
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
20
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Shtetl projektprez

  1. 1. POLISH LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH 1619 Pink = Kingdom of Poland Lt. Pink = Duchy of Prussia Purple = Grand Duch of Lithuania Lt. Gray = Duchy of Courland
  2. 2. SH SHTETL means small town in Yiddish. The SHTETLS were predominately Jewish and ranged in population from several hundred to several thousand inhabitants. A SHTOT is a larger SHTETL and could be compared to a city rather than a small town.
  3. 3. Before WWII there SH thousands were of Shtetls and Shtots in Central and Eastern Europe, the majority of these were located in what is now Poland, Lithuania and Ukraine. After WWII 90 percent of the Lithuanian (Litvak) and Polish (Galician) and 60 percent of the Ukrainian Shtetl inhabitants were wiped out by the Nazis.
  4. 4. SH Almost all of the remaining Polish and Lithuanian Jews for Israel or America. In Ukraine, many of the Jews who survived stayed behind, some returning to Shtetls , others settling in larger Shtots like Chernivtsi and Lviv.
  5. 5. SH But another plague would befall those survivors. Fifty years of Communism had taken its toll and intermittent periods of state-sponsored anti-semitism as well as general neglect greatly reduced the Jewish populations in living Shtetls as well as cultural sites in the remnant Shtetls.
  6. 6. SH Shtetls were mainly found in the areas which constituted the 19th Century Pale of Settlement in the Russian Empire, the Congress Kingdom of Poland, Galicia and Romania.
  7. 7. After the Partitions of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth between Hapsburg, Russian and Prussian Empires, over a million Jews now found themselves living in the Russian Empire in the late 1790’s.
  8. 8. The period between 1791 and 1812 saw the formation under special decrees of the Russian legislature, of what was restricted space, both territorial and legal, known as the PALE OF SETTLEMENT, i.e. “the areas where the Jews were permitted to settle and reside.” It included the following provinces: NW RUSSIA: Vitebsk, Minsk, Mogilev, Kovno & Grodno provinces SW RUSSIA: Volhyn, Kiev, Podolsk, Bessarabia & Kherson provinces SE RUSSIA: Chernigov, Poltava, Yekaterinoslav & Tavrichesky provinces KINGDOM OF POLAND: Suvalki, Sedlec, Lublin, Lomza, Plotsk, Warsaw, Petrokovskaya, Kalishskaya, Radom & Keletskaya provinces.
  9. 9. SH So the notion of Shtetl, just like the fate and history of the Ashkenazi Jews, is inextricably linked with the geopolitical upheavals of Poland and its neighors, specifically the partitions of Poland and the Pale of Settlement placed upon Polish-Lithuanian Jews by the Russians.
  10. 10. The three partitions of Poland took place in 1772, 1793 and 1795 These maps show how Poland changed during the period it was under Napoleonic rule (Duchy of Warsaw), Congress Poland or Kingdom of Poland (within the Russian Empire), and Independent Poland (after 1921).
  11. 11. The Jews who found themselves in Prussian or Hapsburg territory fared much better and many of them became assimilated. Emancipation took place in these territories generations before they were finally granted in the Russian Empire.
  12. 12. MAP OF AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN PROVINCE OF GALICIA AFTER 1815
  13. 13. Congress Poland was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European states reorganized Europe following the Napoleonic wars. The creation of Congress Poland created a partition of Polish lands in which the state was divided and ruled between Russia, Austria and Prussia
  14. 14. RUMP POLAND BECAME DUCHY OF WARSAW (1807-1813) IT BECAME CONGRESS POLAND w/in RUSSIAN EMPIRE (1815-1921)
  15. 15. So once again the fate of Eastern European Jews became inextricably linked with the geopolitics of Poland
  16. 16. DESPITE ECONOMIC HARDSHIPS, THE POPULATION OF THE JEWS GREW TO NEARLY 5 MILLION IN THE PALE OF SETTLEMENT BY THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY.
  17. 17. The Shtetl epitomized Jewish community life in central and Eastern Europe. Everything centered around the community: its religious observances, a major emphasis on studying the Talmud and carrying for one another.
  18. 18. Based on religious devotion, a unique subculture evolved, it included a sense of ethnic identity, and a collective memory of living in a thousand- year-old diaspora that made itself apparent through folk tradition.
  19. 19. It was in the shtetl that a full-fledged ethno- cultural environment took shape, which ultimately influenced the culture of Eastern European Jews. It captured and encapsulated a Jewish cultural DNA.
  20. 20. POLAND (1921-1939)
  21. 21. POLAND’S JEWISH COMMUNITIES BEFORE WWII
  22. 22. SHTOTS & SHTETLS SHTOTS SHTETLS JEWISH QUARTERS
  23. 23. LUBLIN SHTOT 100 YEARS AGO
  24. 24. LUBLIN WAS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS THE JERUSALEM OF THE SOUTH THE NEXT TWO PICTURES ARE CURRENT RENOVATIONS TAKING PLACE BENEATH THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE HISTORIC GRODZKA GATE, THAT SEPARATED THE CHRISTIAN AND JEWISH PARTS OF LUBLIN UNTIL WWII
  25. 25. WROCLAW IN SW POLAND CAPITAL OF HAPSBURG PROVINCE OF SILESIA HAD A SIGNIFICANT PRE-WAR JEWISH POPULATION. AMONG THEM WAS FRITZ STERN
  26. 26. WARSAW CAPITAL OF POLAND HAD A SIGNIFICANT PRE-WAR JEWISH POPULATION.
  27. 27. KAUNAS CULTURAL & HISTORICAL CAPITAL OF LITHUANIA HAD A SIGNIFICANT PRE-WAR JEWISH POPULATION.
  28. 28. CHORALINER SYNAGOGUE KAUNAS, LITHUANIA
  29. 29. FORMER JEWISH ORPHANAGE IN KAUNAS, LITHUANIA
  30. 30. • VILNIUS, CAPITAL OF LITHUANIA, WAS PART OF POLAND UNTIL 1939. IN ITS HEYDAY, IT WAS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS THE JERUSALEM OF THE NORTH. JEWS SETTLED THERE IN THE 15TH CENTURY. BEFORE WWII 100,000 JEWS LIVED IN VILNIUS. 26,000 OF THEM SURVIVED THE HOLOCAUST. TODAY, THERE ARE 5,000 JEWS LIVING IN VILNIUS. THERE WERE ONCE OVER 100 SYNAGOGUES IN VILNIUS, NOW THERE IS ONLY ONE FUNCTIONING SYNAGOGUE.
  31. 31. SHTETL #1 VABALNINKAS IN NORTH CENTRAL LITHUANIA (2 1/2 HOURS DRIVE NORTH OF KAUNAS)
  32. 32. SH SHTETL #2 BERSHAD IN THE PODOLIA REGION OF CENTRAL UKRAINE (Between Kiev and Odessa)
  33. 33. The shetls in this particular region of Ukraine were actually living shtetls up until just a few years ago. By a fluke of history, most of the Jews of this region of Ukraine known as Transnistria survived the Holocaust because they fell under Romanian rather than German occupation during the war.
  34. 34. SHTETL #3 TREBIC IN MORAVIAN REGION IN SOUTHERN CZECH REPUBLIC
  35. 35. Bukovina was last of 2 provinces to be added to the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1774 (the other one being Galicia). It’s crown jewel and capital city was Chernivitsi, a city in which the Austrian Emperor encouraged Jews to settle. It became the cultural capital of modern Jewish culture and incubator for many movements. The first Yiddish Conference was held there in 1908 and another one marking the 100 th Anniversary was held there last year.
  36. 36. SHTOT CHERNIVTSI (BUKOVINA) IN SW UKRAINE
  37. 37. Paul Celan Rose Auslander
  38. 38. Grosschil Synagogue
  39. 39. MAHSIKE SHABBOT
  40. 40. FORMER SCHOOL NOW HOSPITAL
  41. 41. A recurring theme in Ukraine: Synagogue turned movie theater
  42. 42. SHTETL #4 VASHKIVTSI (BUKOVINA) JUST OUTSIDE OF CHERNIVTSI SOUTHWESTERN UKRAINE
  43. 43. SHTETL #5 VYZHNYTSIA (BUKOVINA) JUST OUTSIDE OF CHERNIVTSI SOUTHWESTERN UKRAINE
  44. 44. SHTOT LVIV (EASTERN GALICIA) IN WESTERN UKRAINE
  45. 45. MAP OF AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN PROVINCE OF GALICIA AFTER 1815

×