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Celebrity Endorsements: A study
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Celebrity Endorsements: A study



An analysis of the role of a celebrity in brand building, with a study of the Pepsi advertisement campaigns, to choose the correct celebrity to endorse your brand.

An analysis of the role of a celebrity in brand building, with a study of the Pepsi advertisement campaigns, to choose the correct celebrity to endorse your brand.



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    Celebrity Endorsements: A study Celebrity Endorsements: A study Document Transcript

    • Celebrity Endorsements ROOPAN ROY JOHN (B13168) SAIYAM S SANGHVI (B13169) SANTANU K MALLICK (B13170)
    • Bob Meguire, the Marketing head at Dazzle Jewellers, walks into a crowded café with his colleague John DCosta. John joined Dazzle recently after completing his Masters in business administration from XLRI. Both of them sat down for a bite of snacks and cold drinks. They are soon munching into their food, occasionally sipping into the large cup of cold soda. John notices that the soda can featured the picture of the hero from the latest blockbuster. He asks Bob as to why Dazzle ,a trusted name in the rare metals business, has not until now considered associating itself with celebrities. Bob, who had until then never thought in that direction, jumped up in excitement at the thought. He urges John to study the impact of Celebrity endorsements on sales by taking up the case of the Cola industry. John, later in the evening, sits down at his desk thinking back about the persuasive power of Celebrity endorsements to make a powerful case for the same to be implemented at Dazzle. He sets to work and soon comes up with the following notes the following day. Celebrity marketing can be tracked back to the 19th century, long before it was recognized as a critical marketing communications tool. History Charles Worth, the creator of haute couture in Paris, understood the importance of linking celebrities to brands. To promote his fashion house ‘La Maison Worth’, he sought a high society lady and an influencer of the court fashions, Princess Von Metternich, wife of the then Austria’s ambassador to France and close friend of Napoleon’s wife Empress Eugenie. This celebrity’s patronage and connection with ‘La Maison Worth’ contributed immensely to the success and status of this couture house as the most influential in the world at its time. Businesses have long sought to distract and attract the attention of potential customers that live in a world of ever-increasing commercial bombardment. Everyday consumers are exposed to thousands of voices and images in magazines, newspapers, and on billboards, websites, radio and television. About 20% of U.S. ads feature celebrities (Solomon 2009), and the percent of ads using celebrities in other countries, such as Japan, is thought to be even higher. This brings us to the crucial question regarding the definition of a Celebrity. Celebrities are people that exert significant influence in several facets of society, ranging from arts, music, movies and television, sports, culture, politics and even religion. They range from film and television stars to musicians, sports personalities, royals, politicians, and even socialites who have no defined careers apart from looking beautiful and attending the right events.. The celebrities that
    • are most utilized in the promotion of luxury fashion brands are those in the film and music industries as a result of the major role that fashion plays in these entertainment sectors. Celebrities are people who enjoy public recognition by a large share of a certain group of people. Attributes like attractiveness, extraordinary lifestyle or special skills are just examples and specific common characteristics that are observed and celebrities generally differ from the social norm and enjoy a high degree of public awareness. The term Celebrity refers to an individual who is known to the public (actor, sports figure, entertainer, etc.) for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed. Endorsement is a channel of brand communication in which a celebrity acts as the brand’s spokesperson and certifies the brand’s claim and position by extending his/her personality, popularity, stature in the society or expertise in the field to the brand. In a market with a very high proliferation of local, regional and international brands, celebrity endorsement was thought to provide a distinct differentiation. Celebrities in India are on such high pedestal that over 60% of brands in India use celebrities to push products, compared to 25% in the US, revealed a study by IIM- Ahmedabad titled 'Role of culture in celebrity endorsement: Brand endorsement by celebrities in Indian context' Functions of a Celebrity Endorser As an endorser, one has to fulfill all the FRED objectives namely: Familiarity (target market is aware of him, finds him friendly, likeable and trustworthy) Relevance (which says that there should be a link between the endorser and the product as well between the endorser and the audience) Esteem (credibility to the mass) Differentiation (in all his projections, he is seen to be one among the masses, and yet he towers above them. He is different). Brand Building and Celebrity Endorsement: A glimpse into India Celebrity endorsements cannot replace the comprehensive brand building processes. As branding evolves as a discipline companies must be extra cautious to utilize every possible channel of communication rather than just a celebrity endorsement. When all other steps in the branding process is followed and implemented, then channels such as celebrity endorsements can provide the cutting edge as it did for Nike endorsement romance with Tiger woods. What Nike did was to use celebrity endorsement as one of the main channels of
    • communicating its brand to a highly focused set of customers. So, Nike’s association with Tiger Woods was one of the parts of an entire branding process that Nike has been practicing consistently. In India, probably the first ad to cash in on star power in a strategic, long- term, mission statement kind of way was for Lux soap, a brand which has, perhaps as a result of this, been among the top three in the country for much of its life-time. In recent times, we had the Indian cine star Shahrukh Khan – Hyundai Santro campaign with the objective of mitigating the impediment that an unknown Korean brand faced in the Indian market. Think of great cricket star Sachin Tendulkar. He means Pepsi in soft drinks, Boost in malted beverages, MRF in tyres, Fiat Palio in cars, TVS Victor in two-wheelers, Colgate Total in toothpastes, Britannia in biscuits, Visa in credit cards, Airtel in mobile services and Band-aid. John studies the case of Pepsi to make a relation as to how Pepsi utilized the celebrity power to drives sales consistently leaving behind competitors to eat the dust. PepsiCo entered India in 1989 with a joint venture with Parle Agro and Voltas India Ltd. In 1995, Coke had 52 % of the Indian soft-drink market share and Pepsi had around 42% market share. Since then Pepsi has had a really strong growth in India and has comprehensively pushed aside Coke sales in India. In much of India, the Pepsi brand has become synonymous with cold beverages. Pepsi has had a strong Marketing campaign targeting mainly Youngsters which has worked wonders for Pepsi. Pepsi has had alliances with most of the popular actors, it has been the Official Sponsor of Indian cricket team for a long time now. Pepsi's 'Change The Game' ad campaign in the 2011 Cricket World Cup was a mega success and boosted the Sales a lot. John looked back to the campaigns Pepsi rolled out since he was a school boy and was appreciative of the celebrity selection which boosted the campaign even further.
    • “Yehi hai Right Choice Baby” - 1992 Pepsi began with the Yehi hai Right Choice Baby campaign, which has been one of the most memorable campaigns of the brand, featuring celebrity endorsers such as Shah Rukh Khan among others. The focus, as is clearly evident, is on the product with the youth as its target segment. Yeh Dil Mange More and Yeh Pyaas Hai Badi were some of the later campaigns. In the Yehi hai Right Choice Baby campaign, the celebrities that were actively featured in the adverts were Aamir Khan, Aishwarya Rai and Mahima Chowdhury. As Pepsi was a newcomer, Pepsi very early differentiated itself from the brands and steered clear of the me-too tag. The “Yehi hai right choice baby” campaign ambushed the whole process of decision-making about the choice of soft drink brand, by proclaiming with all youthful brashness “Yehi hai right choice baby”. Roping in the actors and models that the youth were into helped it market itself to the youth also and thus paved the way for future success in Indian soil. “Nothing official about it” – 1996 The next campaign of Pepsi was a classic example of ambush marketing. During the 1996 World Cup, although Coca Cola was the official sponsor of the tournament, Pepsi ambushed the campaign by coming up with the tagline “nothing official about it”. The then captain of India Sachin Tendulkar, Mohammed Azharuddin, Ian Bishop, Curtley Ambrose, Dominic Cork, Dickie Bird among others were roped in and owing to the cricket crazy crowd at that time and also the way the cricketers roped in, Pepsi lead to more volume sales than Coca Cola although it was not the official sponsor for the World Cup. Getting in the key players who had the maximum fans from the respective countries paid dividends for Pepsi. It played on the emotional appeal by relating it with the stars of that time. “Yeh Dil Mange More” - 1999 The slogan was coined as a tagline for a Pepsi television advertisement series that first ran in December 1998 and sought to establish Pepsi as a strong brand with Indian youth. It was a continuation of Pepsi's advertising campaign in the mid-to- late nineties, which it had initially launched as an ambush marketing effort against Coca Cola during the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The ads featured prominent sports personalities and film stars, such as Sachin Tendulkar, Shahrukh Khan, Amitabh Bachchan, and Pawan Kalyan. Yeh Dil Mange More campaign was again a great success, having balanced the emotional as well as the functional appeal of the product. This was also one of the longest campaigns carried out by Pepsi. The company however failed to maintain the trend and leverage it. Instead of moving on to a complete emotional appeal platform, the company decided on a product based promotion campaign. Though
    • there is still some amount of emotional appeal to its campaigns, the principal focus is on the product - it being a preferred thirst quencher. “Youngistaan” – 2008 While keeping the brand identity of youthfulness intact, the new campaign of Pepsi takes forward the concept of Youngistaan. As its rival 'opens happiness' for its consumers, Pepsi, the flagship brand of PepsiCo, vows to 'wow' the 'now' generation. Pepsi came up with a 360-degree media campaign, 'Youngistaan Ka Wow', using multiple platforms such as TV, out-of-home, radio and digital media. While keeping the brand identity of youthfulness intact, the campaign takes forward the concept of Youngistaan. The campaign broke with a TVC starring Ranbir Kapoor, a bunch of outdoor innovations and a one-of-its-kind radio activation. In its pursuit of bonding better with the 'youngistaanis' by co-creating, the beverage brand created a first-of-its- kind Youngistaan anthem on radio -- a song weaving together thoughts from young India. As part of the activation, Pepsi invited youngsters from across 23 cities to share their thoughts through interesting words, descriptions and phrases on what 'Youngistaan ka wow' means to them. As the youngsters donned the role of lyricists, popular musical duo, Vishal & Shekhar gave the anthem a catchy background score.
    • This gave the youngsters a feeling that even they have contributed to such a global brand. A 45-second television commercial, which has been released alongside, shows how youth icon Ranbir Kapoor acts smart to get the last bottle of Pepsi. At a time when other brands are talking about the characteristics of the 'now' generation -- that they are impatient, restless etc -- the thought was of highlighting their smart moves, the route that they take to achieve their goals. Also, the word 'wow' has been used deliberately, keeping in mind the magic associated with it, which cuts across youngsters of all places and times. “Change The Game” – 2010 Pepsi, a brand that has been associated with every ball, run, wicket, century and inning of cricket in India since it entered the country, launched a new television campaign on football. The goal was to connect with the youth and their liking of the game. However, it claimed that it stood by cricket, and everything was official about it this time! Major Football players and also Cricket Players were shown playing against each other and swapping their games. This brought a very eye catching advert for the youth as it was one of the first football adverts consisting of major players from foreign leagues. This current TVC reflected the waning influence of cricket on Youngistaan. Pepsi believed in celebrating newer and emerging youth platforms; from cricket to movies to music, and had successfully created memorable campaigns and experiences for Youngistaan." But not wanting to lose the existing base of cricket and with the IPL and the following T20 World Cup at that time, Pepsi highlighted its association with the tournament through the campaign 'Change the game'. The campaign showcased the signature style of each cricketer through an interesting story. This had many of the most fan-loved cricketers. However, this will not stop Pepsi's association with cricket. "With an exciting line up of cricketing events including IPL, ICC World Twenty20 and a host of thrilling football initiatives, Pepsi promises an action-filled, fun year ahead," she adds. Pepsi has always been on the lookout for other platforms to connect with young people. Football is one such platform. People love cricket. But they have also started liking football. The idea was to convey what the young were starting to like football too. The campaign had a 360-degree approach including outdoor, consumer engagement and social media programmes.
    • “Oh Yes Abhi” – 2013 To catch the pulse of the youth of the nation, Pepsi launched a new campaign that portrays the ‘impatience’ of the so called ‘youngistaan’. The new brand positioning ‘Oh Yes Abhi’, in sync with the brand philosophy of Pepsi, targets the youth. The brand claims that it is the start of a new path and showcases a series of innovative initiatives to engage with its target audiences. The new positioning is all about the impatient youth, who believe in making the most of the moment and therefore wants action ‘right now!’. “‘Oh Yes Abhi’ translates into live for the present, ‘now’ is the time to bring about a change; ‘now’ is the time to take action and many such sentiments synonymous to the young generation today. Celebrity endorsers such as Ranbir Kapoor and Mahendra Singh Dhoni, who have earlier been associated with the beverage brand, have been roped in for the campaign. The commercial portrays Ranbir Kapoor, Mahendra Singh Dhoni and Priyanka Chopra in their moments of impatience. The campaign not only captures the stars in their impatient avatars, but also shows many moments from the everyday lives that exemplify the belief of ‘now’. The commercial shows Ranbir Kapoor impatient to go and eat ‘pani puri’ coupled with his Pepsi in midst of a traffic jam, Priyanka Chopra impatient to go and perform on stage and MS Dhoni impatient to celebrate after winning the World Cup. ‘Oh Yes Abhi’ reiterates the hunger for impatience seen in the youth today and brings it alive in a revolutionary format. “This campaign is a great combination of impatience of the cola and impatience of youth presented in a grand manner.
    • The brand has always targeted the youth brigade with positioning such as ‘Yehi Hai Right Choice Baby’, ‘There is Nothing official About it’, ‘Yeh Dil Maange More’, ‘Yeh Hai Youngistaan Meri Jaan’, ‘IPL, Na Tameez’, ‘Change the Game’ and with ‘Oh Yes Abhi’, it retains its core value of being a brand young at heart. Brand Equity of Pepsi is evaluated and measured using the Customer Based Brand Equity Pyramid and Brand Awareness framework; Young, Urban, Trendy, Rebellious are some of the traits Pepsi has acquired in India. This has been achieved by sending a consistent message in their advertising campaign over a decade.
    • Need for Celebrity Endorsements Traditionally, celebrity endorsement is based upon the persuasive effects. The reason companies indulge in this medium of marketing:  Studies have shown that celebrity endorsement increases the attention paid to an ad.  Celebrities are generally attractive, which helps persuasion when consumers are worried about social acceptance and others’ opinions or when the product is attractiveness-related.  Celebrities may be credible sources if they have expertise in a particular area, such as an athlete endorsing shoes(for e.g.- usian bolt endorsing PUMA shoes) or a beautiful model endorsing make-up .(L’Oreal)  Celebrities are often well-liked, possibly leading to identification and consumer persuasion in an attempt to seek some type of relationship with the celebrity. To be successful, brands need to convince consumers that they carry a different image and value from other competing products. In other words, brands have to show their true personality to the potential consumers. About a decade ago, one in three television commercials used celebrities' endorsements and today this advertising approach appears to be on the increase across all media types. Studies have found that celebrities are featured in 15 percent of the prime-time television commercials. In the United States, it was reported that about 20% of all television commercials feature a famous person, and about 10% of the dollars spent on television advertising are used in celebrity endorsement advertisements. Today, the use of celebrity advertising for companies has become a trend and a perceived winning formula of corporate image building and product marketing. This phenomenon is reflected by the recent market research findings that 8 out of 10 TV commercials scoring the highest recall are those with celebrities' appearances. Brands have become embedded in the consumer psyche and offer consumers the opportunity for self-expression, self-realization and self-identity. Celebrity endorsement is recognized as a potentially potent tool in communications. Celebrities are viewed as more powerful than anonymous models and campaigns tending to verbalize the meaning of the celebrity in relation to the brand are found to be more successful. Benefits of Celebrity Endorsements It can be observed that most brands start its life without a personality. Thus by tying itself with a celebrity, the product or the company itself takes on a glamourous and charming persona, one that is of aspiration to the consumer.
    • The 4 Qs The Quickness defines everything in Celebrity marketing and it hence has its four Qs:  Quick Connect: There needs to be no insight but the communication connects because the star connects with the masses, the potential customer.  Quick brand differentiation: In a category where no brand is using a celebrity, the first that picks one up could use it to differentiate itself in the market.  Quick Recall: It gets cut through because the star power ensures that the brand stays on top of the consumers mind.  Quick Brand values: The right star can actually telegraph a brand message fast without elaborate story telling. Eg: Roger Federer and Rolex are inseparable to the consumer since both radiates class. Factors driving Celebrity Endorsements While analyzing the major factors that are having maximum impacts of successful endorsement, the following things need to be considered, Consistency and long-term commitment: Companies should try to maintain consistency between the endorser and the brand to establish a strong personality and identity. More importantly, companies should view celebrity endorsements as long-term strategic decisions affecting the brand. A global brand must respect local needs, wants, and tastes while endorsing. Prerequisites to selecting celebrities: Before signing on celebrities to endorse their brands, companies need to ensure that they meet three basic prerequisites, namely the endorser should be attractive, have a positive image in the society, and be perceived as having the necessary knowledge. Celebrity–brand match: Companies should ensure a match between the brand being endorsed and the endorser so that the endorsements are able to strongly influence the thought processes of consumers and create a positive perception of the brand. Kellogg’s opted out of a contract extension with Olympic swimmer Michael Phelps. The company simultaneously ripped Phelps’ bong-hit photo as being inconsistent with its image. “Kellogg is a family brand. The company in its statement said that it found Phelps image inconsistent
    • with what Kellogg stands for. Selecting unique endorsers: Companies should try to bring on board those celebrities who do not endorse competitors’ products or other quite different products, so that there is a clear transfer of personality and identity between the endorser and the brand. The controversy related to the endorser’s personal or professional life might hamper the associated brand image. Pepsi shied away from Madonna after her Like a Prayer video aired. Timing: As celebrities command a high price tag, companies should be on the constant lookout for emerging celebrities who show some promise and potential and sign them on in their formative years if possible to ensure a win–win situation. Myopic endorsement strategy: Most of the endorsement goes wrong due to myopic vision of endorsement. The real problem is that too many brands have a short term focus on short terms sales and ‘awareness’. With this mind-set they are logically driven towards ill- conceived celebrity endorsement campaigns. Brand over endorser: When celebrities are used to endorse brands, it is possible that the celebrity might overshadow the brand. Celebrity endorsement is just a channel: Companies must realize that having a celebrity endorsing a brand is not a goal in itself; rather it is one part of the communication mix that falls under the broader category of sponsorship marketing. Over dependency on celebrity: A celebrity is not a replacement for an idea. A brand without a focus will never find the correct celebrity to match the brand. The celebrity trap: Once into a celebrity, it is hard to get out of it. If the brand has done even moderately well after the break of a celebrity campaign, it becomes difficult to separate the role of message and the role of the celebrity in selling the brand. Trademark and legal contracts: Companies should ensure that the celebrities they hire are on proper legal terms so that they don’t endorse competitors’ products in the same product category, thereby creating confusion in the minds of the consumers. Overall Management: The organization’s senior leadership must champion the brand, ideally with the CEO leading the initiative. A leader’s continual articulation of the brand philosophy and the brand’s view of the world is meant to give the celebrity endorsement strategy a recognizable face. Investment: Intangible assets, including brand, now comprise the majority of the value of a company.
    • Cultural sensitivity: To go global with a brand, endorsement strategy should make sure you understand cultural sensitivities. Celebrity ROI: Even though it is challenging to measure the effects of celebrity endorsements on companies’ brands, companies should have a system combining quantitative and qualitative measures to measure the overall effect of celebrity endorsements on their brands. Managers’ reasons for utilizing celebrity endorsers Choosing the Right Celebrity According to managers, factors considered while selecting celebrities vary depending on how celebrities are utilized; celebrity as the central feature, or celebrity for the added interest.
    • Selection criteria 1. Celebrity-Product Sync 2. Celebrity-TG Sync 3. Celebrity Credibility 4. Celebrity Popularity 5. Celebrity Values 6. Celebrity Attractiveness 7. Celebrity Appeal : Regional & international 8. Multiple Endorsements 9. Celebrity Risk 10. Celebrity Fee 11. Advertising Idea Sync 12. Consumer Influencing Advertisement 13. Previous Endorsements 14. Medium of promotion 15. Brand Image Formation capability 16. Celebrity Selling Proposition 1. Celebrity-Product Sync There must be a high positive effect driven from congruent association between a celebrity and a product being promoted. This level of celebrity to product congruence will in turn dive the celebrity endorsement effectiveness.
    • Eg: MTV is a youth channel and hence its brand ambassador must be of the same frequency. Cyrus Broacha was roped inn by MTV since he is considered as friendly, young, mood-elevating and humourous. Inshort,bothMTV's and Cyrus Broacha's personalityblend. 2. Celebrity-TG Sync Celebrity is the mouthpiece for a brand in communicating messages to target audiences rather more effectively than any other voice. The personalities of celebrities are very strong and they can rapidly change perceptions of a brand. Consider the association of Indian TV star Smriti Irani endorsing the WHO recommended ORS Campaign in India. Indian mothers can associate with Smriti Irani through the facets she projects on screen or in regular life which helps develop a connect with the target audience since mothers medicate their children with ORS. 3. Celebrity Credibility The most important aspect of celebrity endorsement is credibility. Credibility is the most important criteria in choosing a celebrity endorser by the firm which is followed by familiarity and likeability. Cadbury’s worm fiasco would be the best example of a brand banking on Celebrity power to save the day. Amitabh Bachhan was roped in to infuse credibility into the brand, thereby helping it to get back on track. 4. Celebrity Popularity The lifecycle of celebrity popularity varies a lot. People tend to relate to the personalities of the celebrity with the brand, thereby increasing the recall value Celebrity. Eg: HPCL has had increased popularity and share of voice due to the endorsement of the brand through Tennis star Sania Mirza.. 5. Celebrity Values Celebrity branding is all about the transfer of the value from the person to the product he endorses or stands for. There are two concerns here. The first is how long this could last. Personal integrity however has always been a concern. If he/she is implicated in any kind of scandal, the celbrity would take the brand with him/her down. Eg: Amitabh Bachchan & Shahrukh Khan campaigning for Pulse Polio or Aishwarya Rai appearing in the Donate Eyes campaign are few examples, which reflect the transfer of celebrity values to the brand, creating an impact that generates recall. 6. Celebrity Attractiveness Physical attractiveness of the endorser may be central in context with change in attitude of the customer, observed Kahle & Homer in their study titled “Physical Attractiveness of the Celebrity Endorser (1985)”. The celebrity endorsements based on the attractiveness of the endorser most of the time produces positive effect on consumers. 7. Celebrity Appeal: Regional & international
    • While selecting an endorser its regional effect always comes into play. For a global foothold, the celebrities should be selected in such a manner that can create an overall impact. Eg:Steve Waugh campaigning for Tourism Australia in India is a pertinent example as he was one of the popular celebrities from Australia and could hence carry the message of Australia as a tourist destination effectively. 8. Multiple Endorsements At times, consumers get confused about the brand endorsed when a single celebrity endorses numerous brands. The recall then gets reduced and reduces the popularity of the brand. Eg: Sachin Tendulkar: people may recall Pepsi, TVS Victor and MRF, but might not remember brands like Britannia and Fiat. Thus, the formula when it comes to multiple endorsements where the same celebrity endorses several brands ultimately boils down to the power of the brand and the content. 9. Celebrity Risk Any action by the endorser that gives him a negative image among the audience, goes on to affect the brands endorsed. Eg: Siyaram Silk Mills Ltd. (Siyaram), one of India's leading textile companies, was also affected negatively by South African Cricket Captain Hansie Cronje match fixing controversy. 10. Celebrity Fee Companies must essentially have deep pockets to be able to afford the best available celebrities. Small firms hence stand at a disadvantage at not being able to leverage the use
    • celebrities in their ad campaigns. Eg: Industry sources say Oscar winning musician A. R. Rehman, who had signed up with AirTel, is believed to charge Rs. 1.75 crore while Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar's price is a whopping Rs. 2.0-2.5 crore per endorsement. 11. Advertising Idea Sync The need for sync between the Celebrity and the marketing ideas can be best illustrated by Richard Gere's endorsement for VISA in India gained acclaim due to its innovativeness and consumer connect. Richard Gere fit into the persona of the brand, meeting their communication objective to enhance VISA's brand leadership and consumer preference, and the motive to continue the "All it Takes" empowerment platform featuring international celebrities. 12. Consumer Influencing Advertisement The advertisement also should be well made and designed to portray the actual image of the brand and to convey the message intended to transfer to target audience. Sometimes due to poor performance in the advertisement, the promotion attempt fails although the celebrity was perfect for the brand. 13. Previous Endorsements While endorsing a celebrity, his/her prior endorsements should be monitored carefully. This will help in analyzing celebrity’s dedication, professionalism and credibility as well as will help in evaluating the impact. Endorser campaigning for the similar line of products should not be endorsed. 14. Medium of Promotion The most preferred medium for celebrity endorsement strategy was television although using several media including ‘Social media’ is the order of the day as form look for an effective way to get good return on investment Using multiple celebrities or a single celebrity depends on the time period over which a campaign is planned to have impact, campaign budget, and variance in target audience characteristics. Other medium like radio, hoarding, poster, newspaper can also be used to promote the advertisement. Eg: If Indian Cine star Amitabh Bachhan promotes something on air, most Indians can identify his voice while very few can identify the voice of Indian soccer captain Bhaichung Bhutia if he were to endorse the same. 15. Brand Image Formation capability Celebrity product endorsement is a form of co-branding, which influences brand image through meaning transfer from the endorser to the endorsed brand. Celebrity-product congruence has a positive impact on brand image, which in turn has a positive impact on brand equity.
    • 16. Celebrity Selling Proposition Great brand endorsement represents great ideas at right time. These brands express the uniqueness of position to all internal and external audiences. They effectively utilize all elements in the communications mix to position themselves within and across international markets. Eg: Apple has creatively addressed its marketing mix while ensuring its people embody its most ownable and beneficial brand attribute: ‘innovation’. The innovative advertisement planning, promoting, selection of animation, identification of media – all contribute to the success of the celebrity endorsements. John also noticed that Pepsi coupled its celebrity endorsement campaigns with the traditional forms of marketing. Pepsi’s Promotional & Marketing Strategy Pepsi is present in every avenue of advertising and promotion- both traditional and modern social media. Pepsi, Cricket and Bollywood have been joined at the hip since the cola’s entry into India. Its top brand endorser the captain of the Indian cricket team also given the fact that they have been consistently advertising in the popular TV & Print media for a decade now, they have managed to create a strong sense of market awareness especially in the urban areas. They recently promoted the 2011 Cricket world cup, which is a signature event in the Indian sporting calendar, Pepsi pours millions of rupees every year into celebrity advertising, and this is done by having a Pan India celebrity like the Indian Cricket teams captain MS Dhoni, or Sachin Tendulkar, while at the regional level, stars with a more local fan following are used. The one area where Pepsi has not been focussing much is in the online domain, with very little focus in areas of a viral / guerrilla campaign, despite having an increasing number of young Indians using social media like Facebook, You tube and twitter in India. Pepsi has been taking efforts to improve its brand presence in the social media. Though these efforts have been sincere, their results are yet to be fully achieved. For the Pepsi brand to be popular, the company must be intelligent in the manner of propagation in the social media. The social media is all about consumers and not about brands. Hence Pepsi must take efforts that make the customer to share information about the brand. This can be done through designing innovative advertisements that have the potential to be shared by networks and
    • hence virally marketed. A critical aspect is for Pepsi to give up control to the users and make them participate in the propagation of the brand. For instance, there could be "Make you own jingle campaigns" and "Demonstrate your Attitude" video campaigns where Pepsi is central in the campaigns that the users participate in. Pepsi's branding efforts have gone beyond the traditional advertising formats, and encompasses the entire spectrum of the environment - this has resulted in a greater increasing level of brand awareness and resonance.
    • CONCLUSION Through research and analysis, the following factors are observed: -  The celebrities' acceptability and appeal, popularity, image have a critical impact on the endorsed brand.  The customer wants a variety of aspects from the endorsement like the credibility and acceptability of the endorser.  Multiple endorsements creates a clutter in the minds of the consumer.  Previous endorsements must be clearly studied for conflict in idea conveyed.  Brand and image sync is vital for celebrity endorsement.  Association of the celebrity with a controversy can cause negative impact to the endorsed brands. However, Celebrity endorsements cannot replace the comprehensive brand building processes. Thus the choice regarding the perfect endorser must be coupled with several interlinked and equally pertinent factors which collectively influence the success of the Celebrity driven campaign. John builds a balanced case and presents the same before the Dazzle board of directors. The Dazzle board sees merit in the case brought forth by John and Bob, and initiates a committee headed by the both of them to select the perfect Celebrity endorser for Dazzle who satisfies the qualities identified in the Report John had tabled before the board of directors.
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