Plastics Saves Energy Plastics Europe

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  • 1. CO 2 2 Plastics - a climate change protector Michel Loubry Copenhagen, 11 Dec 2009
  • 2. Climate change is a global challenge CO Global climate protection is the answer 2 CO 2
  • 3. The industry is meeting the challenge “The impact of plastics on life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions in Europe.” Denkstatt A.G., Vienna, 2009 commissioned by PlasticsEurope • Part 1: Rough quantification of effects on energy and GHGs, if plastics were theoretically substituted with other materials (an update of the comprehensive 2005-GUA/denkstatt-study "The contribution of plastic products to resource efficiency“) • Part 2: Additional evidence of the beneficial aspects of plastics for energy efficiency & climate protection • Critical Reviews by: • Adisa Azapagic (University of Manchester, UK) • Roland Hischier (EMPA Sankt Gallen, CH) CO 2 CO 2
  • 4. Information on the impact of plastics on energy consumption and CO2 emissions Production Use End of life Raw Products Packaging Housing Transportation Recycle / Energy materials conversion Energy CO2 Energy CO2 Energy CO2 • Improved production efficiency • Improved product design with plastics • Production emissions reduction plastics CO • Lighter, more efficient products with • Preserved food by plastic packaging • Reduced land-fill 2 CO • Energy reclamation 2 • Recycling operations 4
  • 5. Energy savings in main application sectors Comparison of plastic products with alternative materials …split into life-cycle phases Energy savings (+) and additional energy demand (–) plastic packaging saves 27 million tons of oil - the equivalent of taking 25 million cars off the road CO 2 CO 2
  • 6. Energy consumption of plastic products and their potential substitutes Comparison of plastic products with alternative materials split into life-cycle phases + : Energy consumption CO CO - : Energy credits (prevented food losses / saved primary production / saved production of electricity & heat) 2 2
  • 7. Effect of Substitution of Plastics on Mass, Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions Total mass Energy consumption GHG emissions for same funct. units in total life-cycle in total life-cycle 7.230 Mill 46,4 Mill. t incl. not substitutable plastic products 144 Mill t/a GJ/a 360 Mill t/a +46% +50% 4.940 Mill GJ/a 2,300 million GJ/yr 240 Mill t/a Alternative materials = 50 million tonnes of crude oil Alternative materials Alternative materials x 3,7 = 194 very large crude oil tankers All plasticproducts All plasticproducts = 120 million tonnes CO2 (incl. not subst. plastics) (incl. not subst. plastics) = Total CO2 emissions of Belgium = 38% of EU15 Kyoto target 39 Mill t/a Subst. Plastics CO 2 CO 2
  • 8. Example: Benefits of insulation • As a result of all the plastics building insulation installed in one year (2004): • Lifetime energy savings of 9,500 million GJ • GHG savings of 290 million tonnes CO2 • Relevance of production: <1% • Relevance of recovery: <0,1% CO 2 CO 2 8
  • 9. Example: Plastics packaging When more is less On average only 1 to 3% of the weight of a packaged product in plastics comes from the packaging: • A plastic film of 2g packages 200g of cheese • A plastic Bottle of 35g packages 1.5 liter of drinks Inclusive the logistic packaging, it grows up to 3.56% on average GLASS JARS 36% IS PACKAGING PLASTIC POUCHES 3.56% CO IS PACKAGING CO 2 2 Without plastics, retailers’ fleets would make 50% more journeys
  • 10. The intelligent choice for innovative retailing Improving quality – Increasing shelf life • Vacuum packs; modified atmosphere packaging; breathable packs; confectionery flow packed bars CO 2 CO 2
  • 11. Enablers of renewable energy production • Wind turbine (2.5 MW) • Production demand: manufacture of plastic rotor blade • Use benefit due to “renewable electricity”: 33% of GHG savings allocated to rotor • Use benefit 140 x higher than production needs • Photovoltaic unit (1 kWp) • Production demand: production of plastic film • Use benefit due to “renewable electricity”: 25% of GHG savings allocated to plastic film • Use benefit 340 x higher than production needs CO 2 CO 2
  • 12. Relevance of plastic products in total consumer „carbon footprint“ The average consumer Communication Other 1% carbon footprint for the government 3% Space heating EU27+2 is approx. 14 14% Education 4% tonnes CO2-equivalents per capita. Recreation & Aviation 6% leisure 18% Commuting 7% 170 kg per capita result from Hygiene & plastics consumption. Food & catering health 12% 13% This equals 1,3% of the total consumer carbon footprint. Clothing & Household 13% Plastic CO footwear 9% products: 1,3 % CO 2 2
  • 13. Plastics: Greenhouse gas balance over the product life cycle CO2 CO2 End of life Production + Applications Recycling + Energy energy generation Use phase recovery CO2 COCO2 2 CO 2
  • 14. Carbon balance for total market of plastic products – 2007, outlook 2020 Av. changes 2007 2020 "Carbon balance" until 2020 of EU27+2 plastics market Mt CO2-equ. Mt CO2-equ. Mt CO2-equ. SAVE UP TO 15 Production 160 180 TONNES OVER LIFETIME production increase (2% p.a.) 47 increased material SAVE UP TO 9 TONNES efficiency -21 OVER LIFETIME 20% PE from renewable resources? 1 TONNE -6 1 TONNE IN PRODUCTION IN Effects of PRODUCTION recycling/recovery/disposal -1 -6 to +18 -5 to +19 Exemplary use effects: substitution of less efficient materials -43 to -81 -56 to -104 -18 fuel savings -17 -34 2020 -17 2007 insulation -540 to -1.100 -1.200 to -1.800 -700 prevented food losses -100 to -200 -150 to -300 -75 wind power rotors & solar panels -60 -250 to -500 -310 Total carbon balance Ratio (Use+Recovery) vs. Production -600 to -1.300 -5 to -9 CO -1.500 to -2.500 -9 to -15 2 CO 2
  • 15. Main conclusions 1 • Plastics products enable significant savings of energy and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The production & use phases are the most important. • In existing applications plastics are very energy efficient materials enabling resource efficient solutions • Substitution of plastic products by other materials would in most cases increase energy consumption & GHG emissions. • Plastics often facilitate reduced material consumption. • Plastics used for thermal insulation, for food packaging and in the production of renewable energies result in very significant benefits during the “use” phase CO 2 CO 2
  • 16. Main conclusions 2 • A “carbon balance” of the total plastics market in Europe (EU27+2; 2007) shows that the estimated use phase benefits were roughly 5 – 9x higher than the emissions from production & recovery of all plastics SAVE UP TO 9 TONNES OVER LIFETIME 1 TONNE IN PRODUCTION 2007 SAVE UP TO 15 TONNES OVER LIFETIME • The increasing use-benefits and associated emission reductions from plastic applications up to 2020 are much greater than the additional 1 TONNE emissions arising from the growth of plastics IN PRODUCTION production. By 2020 the estimated use-benefits could be 9-15x higher than the combined emissions from production and waste management. CO 2 2020 CO 2
  • 17. Is plastic using up our oil and gas? • Plastics production accounts for just 4% of oil and gas use • Other non-energy use consumes a further 4% • The chemical and petrochemical industries consume around 5% • Heating, electricity and energy production consumes a further 42% • Transport consumes 45% of our oil & gas CO 2 CO 2 17
  • 18. A tiny amount used saves a lot! CO 2 CO2 18
  • 19. Methodology The study: • Covers the majority of applications through key class examples • is limited to the investigation of energy demand and GHG emissions, as they are of prime importance for EU policies. • does seek to not quantify other environmental impacts. • covers whole life cycle, but is not a full LCA according to ISO 14044. • is not a comparison of plastics and alternatives in single applications in detail, but rather gives a good estimation for the effects of the total market for plastic products. • Gives indications and trends for application sectors rather than details for single products. • should help put things into perspective, i.e. identifying important and negligible influences in the energy and GHG balance across the total life-cycle. CO 2 CO 2
  • 20. Denkstatt versus ICCA Study • ICCA study: “Innovations for Greenhouse Gas Reductions - a life cycle quatification of carbon abatement solutions enabled by the chemical industry” published June 2009 • Compares the use of chemical products versus the next best alternative, (like our Denkstatt study). • Methodology comparable: plastics 32 based case studies, chemicals on >100 • All the case studies for plastics in the previous Denkstatt study (GUA 2005) were input for ICCA study • ICCA: complete chemical industry, around the globe, while Denkstat includes only the plastics and EU27+2 • ICCA has included an abatement scenario, Denkstatt hasn’t • ICCA top 3: Insulation, lighting, packaging • Denkstatt top 3: packaging, building, transportation CO • Carbon ratio: • Chem ind: 2007: 2.1 – 2.6; CO 2 2030 BAU: 2.7 – 3.1; 2030 abatement: 4.2 – 4.7 • Plastics: 2007: 5 - 9, 2020 9 - 14 2
  • 21. Benefits of recycling & recovery for energy and GHG emissions Energy [MJ/kg plastic waste] GHG emissions 40 3 MSWI with average 2 energy efficiency 20 Energy/GHG- effects of Energy recovery Feedstock 1 recycling, recovery and with high energy Material recycling recycling (e.g. disposal processes for LDPE. efficiency (plastic to pl.) blast furnace) 0 0 2) Landfilling 2) -1 -20 1) Net benefit of recovery -2 -40 -3 -4 -60 1) -5 Values above include energy consumption / GHG emissions of recovery minus credits due to substituted primary processes / resources / fuels -80 -6 • Impacts of collection, sorting and recycling processes as well as credits due to substituted primary production and substituted primary fuels are already included up in the figures above • Plastic waste is a valuable secondary resource CO2 CO 2
  • 22. Calculation procedure Alternative product Plastic product (different materials) (different polymers) mass Functional mass Unit mass ratio market energy weight – energy share Saved Energy = [ x kg alt. product ratio ] x (plastic CO kg plastic product CO prod.) 2 database for production, use and waste 2
  • 23. Market data Plastics Europe Market Research Group (PEMRG) : • collects data for the estimated market demand of total plastics within the EU27+2 every year • data are provided “incl. others” (52.5 Mt for 2007) and “excl. others” (46.4 Mt for 2007) • “others” represent “non-plastics applications”, which are polymers & thermosets used for fibres, coatings, adhesives, sealants, etc. • this study is based on plastic products excluding others, as these are not recognised as "plastic products", neither in the public, in politics, or in waste analyses, etc. CO 2 CO 2
  • 24. EU targets • The EU is committed to cut Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions 20% below 1990 levels by 2020 • Around half of the emissions reduction is expected to come from increased energy efficiency • The plastics industry will therefore be making an important contribution CO 2 CO2 25
  • 25. The future for plastics • The use of plastics as a material has contributed, and will continue to contribute, to energy savings in society • Energy efficiency is a key driver in achieving sustainability goals and is important in all the life-cycle phases of plastics • GHG emissions are often lower than those associated with products from other materials • Plastics are an essential component of new innovative technologies CO 2 CO 2 26
  • 26. Benefits of continuing innovation (2) • A digital camera (SD) versus a film camera cartridge: • Energy decreased by a factor 26-107X • GHG emissions reduced by a factor 29-107X (Plastics an essential material for both) CO 2 CO2 27
  • 27. Benefits of continuing innovation (1) • MP-3 players versus CD player (incl. CD’s)’s: Energy decreased by a factor 60-94X Emissions decreased by a factor 69-106X (Plastics an essential material for both) CO 2 CO2 28
  • 28. Diversion of plastics waste from landfill CO 2 CO2 29