Sent to the Gregorian University to earn three doctoral degrees
Assigned to teach at the seminary in Padua by Pope Leo XIII from 1882-1888
Academic Background Expert in palaeology ( the study of antiquities)
Academic Background Expert in palaeology ( the study of antiquities) Appointed to the Ambrosian Library in Milan by Pope Leo XIII
Academic Background Expert in palaeology ( the study of antiquities) Appointed to the Ambrosian Library in Milan by Pope Leo XIII Edited the Ambrosian Missal
Academic Background Expert in palaeology ( the study of antiquities) Appointed to the Ambrosian Library in Milan by Pope Leo XIII Edited the Ambrosian Missal Produced numerous articles and theses
Academic Background Appointed to the Vatican Library by Pope St. Pius X in 1911
Academic Background Appointed to the Vatican Library by Pope St. Pius X in 1911 Appointed Prefect of the Vatican Library in 1914 by Pope Benedict XV
Academic Background Appointed to the Vatican Library by Pope St. Pius X in 1911 Appointed Prefect of the Vatican Library in 1914 by Pope Benedict XV Sent to Poland in 1918 by Pope Benedict XV as Apostolic Visitor
Diplomatic Background Appointed Nuncio to Poland in 1919 by Pope Benedict XV
Diplomatic Background Appointed Nuncio to Poland in 1919 by Pope Benedict XV Only diplomat in Poland to remain in Warsaw as the Bolsheviks advanced from Russia
Diplomatic Background Appointed Nuncio to Poland in 1919 by Pope Benedict XV Only diplomat in Poland to remain in Warsaw as the Bolsheviks advanced from Russia After the Bolshevik revolution and the establishment of Poland, Ratti was recalled to Rome and made Cardinal Archbishop of Milan, June 13, 1921
Cardinal Ratti Becomes Pope Pope Benedict XV died of pneumonia on January 22, 1922
Cardinal Ratti Becomes Pope Pope Benedict XV died of pneumonia on January 22, 1922 The Consistory following the death of Pope Benedict went to 14 ballots
Cardinal Ratti Becomes Pope Pope Benedict XV died of pneumonia on January 22, 1922 The Consistory following the death of Pope Benedict went to 14 ballots On the 14th ballot, AchilleRatti was elected to the Throne of Peter
Pope Pius XI Pius chose as his motto: "Christ's Peace in Christ's kingdom“
Pope Pius XI Pius chose as his motto: "Christ's Peace in Christ's kingdom" December 23, 1922 Pius issued his first Encyclical: Ubiarcano which introduced Catholic Action, a movement of the Catholic laity
Pope Pius XI Pius chose as his motto: "Christ's Peace in Christ's kingdom" December 23, 1922 Pius issued his first Encyclical: Ubiarcano which introduced Catholic Action, a movement of the Catholic laity On December 11, 1925 he instituted the Feast of Christ the King
Threats to the Church The threat of Communism became serious and worldwide in the 1920’s
Threats to the Church The threat of Communism became serious and worldwide in the 1920’s Pius XI issued the Encyclical DiviniRedemptoris
Threats to the Church The threat of Communism became serious and worldwide in the 1920’s Pius XI issued the Encyclical DiviniRedemptoris This Encyclical exposed atheistic Communism and it’s threat
The Freedom of the Holy See On February 11, 1929 Cardinal Gasparini, for the Holy See and Premier Mussolini for the Italian Kingdom signed the Lateran Treaty
The Freedom of the Holy See On February 11, 1929 Cardinal Gasparini, for the Holy See and Premier Mussolini for the Italian Kingdom signed the Lateran Treaty For the first time in nearly a century, the Holy See was free of the politics of Italy and could stand on it’s own
The Freedom of the Holy See On February 11, 1929 Cardinal Gasparini, for the Holy See and Premier Mussolini for the Italian Kingdom signed the Lateran Treaty For the first time in nearly a century, the Holy See was free of the politics of Italy and could stand on it’s own Pius XI had truly established that the Papacy was a spiritual reign, not a temporal reign.
Spiritual Leadership in a Dangerous World The 1920’s were a period of unrest in the world
Spiritual Leadership in a Dangerous World The 1920’s were a period of unrest in the world The Treaty of Versailles created animosity and hardship in Germany and Austria
Spiritual Leadership in a Dangerous World The 1920’s were a period of unrest in the world The Treaty of Versailles created animosity and hardship in Germany and Austria Dangerous political movements sprang up throughout the world
Spiritual Leadership in a Dangerous World The 1920’s were a period of unrest in the world The Treaty of Versailles created animosity and hardship in Germany and Austria Dangerous political movements sprang up throughout the world Atheistic Communism became a threat in the East
Spiritual Leadership in a Dangerous World The 1920’s were a period of unrest in the world The Treaty of Versailles created animosity and hardship in Germany and Austria Dangerous political movements sprang up throughout the world Atheistic Communism became a threat in the East Pagan Fascism became a threat in the West
Pius XI Leads His Flock Pope Pius Taught the Church throughout his Pontificate
Pius XI Leads His Flock Pope Pius Taught the Church throughout his Pontificate He issued many Encyclicals dealing with spiritual, theological and political matters of the day
Encyclicals UBI ARCANO DEI CONSILIOENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XION THE PEACE OF CHRIST IN THE KINGDOM OF CHRIST (December 23, 1922) One thing is certain today. Since the close of the Great War individuals, the different classes of society, the nations of the earth have not as yet found true peace. They do not enjoy, therefore, that active and fruitful tranquility which is the aspiration and the need of mankind. This is a sad truth which forces itself upon us from every side. For anyone who, as We do, desires profoundly to study and successfully to apply the means necessary to overcome such evils, it is all-important that he recognize both the fact and the gravity of this state of affairs and attempt beforehand to discover its causes. This duty is imposed upon Us in commanding fashion by the very consciousness which We have of Our Apostolic Office. We cannot but resolve to fulfill that which is so clearly Our duty. This We shall do now by this Our first encyclical, and afterward with all solicitude in the course of Our sacred ministry.
RERUM OMNIUM PERTURBATIONEMENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XI ON ST. FRANCIS DE SALES (January 26, 1923) In Our recent encyclical We examined the disorders with which the world today struggles for the purpose of discovering a sure remedy for such great evils. At that time We pointed out that the roots of these evils lie in the souls of men and that the sole hope of curing them is to have recourse to the assistance of the Divine Healer Jesus Christ by the means which He has placed at the disposal of His Holy Church. The great need of our day is to curb the unmeasured desires of mankind, desires which are the fundamental cause of wars and dissensions, which act, too, as a dissolving force in social life and in international relations. It is no less necessary to turn back the minds of men from the passing things of this world to those which are eternal, which latter unhappily are too often neglected by the great majority of mankind. We are now happily called upon to celebrate the Third Centenary of the entrance into heaven of another great saint, one who was remarkable not only for the sublime holiness of life which he achieved but also for the wisdom with which he directed souls in the ways of sanctity. This saint was no less a person than Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva and Doctor of the Universal Church. Like those brilliant examples of Christian perfection and wisdom to whom We have just referred, he seemed to have been sent especially by God to contend against the heresies begotten by the Reformation. It is in these heresies that we discover the beginnings of that apostasy of mankind from the Church, the sad and disastrous effects of which are deplored, even to the present hour, by every fair mind.
Pius XI Encyclicals Ecclesiam Dei (November 12, 1923) on Saint Josaphat In order that this unity and concord might be perpetuated forever, God, in His supreme providence consecrated it, so to speak, by the seal of sanctity and of martyrdom. The great privilege of being both a saint and martyr belongs to Josaphat, Archbishop of Polotsk, of the Eastern Slavic Rite, who is rightly looked upon as the glory and support of the Eastern Slavs. Certainly it would be difficult to discover another man who has brought greater luster to his people or who has done more for their eternal welfare than he, their pastor and apostle. This is particularly evidenced by the fact that he shed his very blood in order to preserve the unity of Holy Church. MAXIMAM GRAVISSIMAMQUE (January 18, 1924) ON FRENCH DIOCESAN ASSOCIATIONS We recall, but with sorrow, those sad days when in your country the evil project of separating the interests of the Republic from those of the Church was conceived and how, what is more unfortunate, steps were taken to put the project into execution. We cannot forget either how, at one fell stroke, the relations which existed between the Holy See and France were brusquely and unjustly broken off, how on December 9, 1905, the law of separation was passed by which the Concordat which had been in force over a long period of time was abrogated by but one party to the contract in direct violation of all the formalities demanded by law, how also, without the slightest regard either for the hierarchy of the Church or for the authority of the Holy See, unjust and arbitrary laws were enacted concerning the rights and possessions of the Church, as well as on the subject of divine worship.
QUAS PRIMAS ON THE FEAST OF CHRIST THE KING (December 11, 1925) In the first Encyclical Letter which We addressed at the beginning of Our Pontificate to the Bishops of the universal Church, We referred to the chief causes of the difficulties under which mankind was laboring. And We remember saying that these manifold evils in the world were due to the fact that the majority of men had thrust Jesus Christ and his holy law out of their lives; that these had no place either in private affairs or in politics: and we said further, that as long as individuals and states refused to submit to the rule of our Savior, there would be no really hopeful prospect of a lasting peace among nations. Men must look for the peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ; and that We promised to do as far as lay in Our power. In the Kingdom of Christ, that is, it seemed to Us that peace could not be more effectually restored nor fixed upon a firmer basis than through the restoration of the Empire of Our Lord. We were led in the meantime to indulge the hope of a brighter future at the sight of a more widespread and keener interest evinced in Christ and his Church, the one Source of Salvation, a sign that men who had formerly spurned the rule of our Redeemer and had exiled themselves from his kingdom were preparing, and even hastening, to return to the duty of obedience.
Pius XI Encyclicals RERUM ECCLESIAE February 28, 1926 (ON CATHOLIC MISSIONS) In reviewing attentively the history of the Church, one cannot fail to notice how, from the first ages of Christianity, the especial care and solicitude of the Roman Pontiffs have been directed to the end that they, undeterred by difficulties and obstacles, might spread the light of the Gospel and the benefits of Christian culture and civilization to the peoples who "sat in darkness and in the shadow of death." The Church has no other reason for existence than, by developing the Kingdom of Christ on earth, to make mankind participate in the effects of His saving Redemption. RITE EXPIATIS April 30, 1926(On Saint Francis of Assisi) …it seems necessary for Us to affirm that there has never been anyone in whom the image of Jesus Christ and the evangelical manner of life shone forth more lifelike and strikingly than in St. Francis. He who called himself the "Herald of the Great King" was also rightly spoken of as "another Jesus Christ," appearing to his contemporaries and to future generations almost as if he were the Risen Christ. He has always lived as such in the eyes of men and so will continue to live for all future time.
INIQUIS AFFLICTISQUENovember 18, 1926(ON THE PERSECUTION OF THE CHURCH IN MEXICO) If in the first centuries of our era and at other periods in history Christians were treated in a more barbarous fashion than now, certainly in no place or at no time has it happened before that a small group of men has so outraged the rights of God and of the Church as they are now doing in Mexico, and this without the slightest regard for the past glories of their country, with no feelings of pity for their fellow-citizens. They have also done away with the liberties of the majority and in such a clever way that they have been able to clothe their lawless actions with the semblance of legality. It is assuredly not in the power of man to control the course of events or of history, nor can he direct them as he may desire to the welfare of society by changing either the minds or hearts of his fellow-men. Such action, however, is well within the power of God, for He without doubt can put an end, if He so desires, to persecutions of this kind. Nor must you conclude, Venerable Brothers, that all your prayers have been in vain simply because the Mexican Government, impelled by its fanatical hatred of religion, continued to enforce more harshly and violently from day to day its unjust laws. The truth is that the clergy and the great majority of the faithful have been so strengthened in their longsuffering resistance to these laws by such an abundant shower of divine grace that they have been enabled thereby to give a glorious example of heroism. They have justly merited, too, that We, in a solemn document executed by Our Apostolic authority, should make known this fortitude to the whole Catholic world. Martyrdom of Fr. Miguel Pro
APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTION: RerumCondicioON THE APPROBATION OF THE RULE OF THE THIRD ORDER REGULAR OF THE SERAPHIC FATHER ST. FRANCIS November 3, 1927] …no one is ignorant that the duty of emending the society of those times had been divinely committed to Francis of Assisi, who countering unbridled vices with the study of Christian humility and poverty, strove to conjoin all in mutual charity. And so when very many disciples flowed together from all sides towards such a man, there grew up an indeed immense Franciscan Family, since from the members of the three Orders which Francis himself established, then successively from those tertiaries who, desirous of a more perfect life, (and) observing a common life, were named members of the Third Order Regular. … indeed all know how diligently, from the beginning of their institute, the tertiaries regular contended to put on the holy spirit of Francis, and accustomed themselves to the same (spirit) in displaying many works of religion and charity… it was necessary that that law of Leo XIII be accommodated to these Our times and likewise to the more recent decrees of the Church, so that the Tertiaries Regular, and the many other religious families of simple vows which, since they have put on the spirit of Francis in the establishment of the same and use the Franciscan name, have Francis as (their) Father in a certain manner…
Pius XI Encyclicals MORTALIUM ANIMOS January 6, 1928(ON RELIGIOUS UNITY) We were created by God, the Creator of the universe, in order that we might know Him and serve Him; our Author therefore has a perfect right to our service. God might, indeed, have prescribed for man's government only the natural law, which, in His creation, He imprinted on his soul, and have regulated the progress of that same law by His ordinary providence; but He preferred rather to impose precepts, which we were to obey, and in the course of time, namely from the beginnings of the human race until the coming and preaching of Jesus Christ, He Himself taught man the duties which a rational creature owes to its Creator: "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners, spoke in times past to the fathers by the prophets, last of all, in these days, hath spoken to us by his Son." From which it follows that there can be no true religion other than that which is founded on the revealed word of God: which revelation, begun from the beginning and continued under the Old Law, Christ Jesus Himself under the New Law perfected. MISERENTISSIMUS REDEMPTOR May 8, 1928(ON REPARATION TO THE SACRED HEART) Among the many proofs of the boundless benignity of our Redeemer, there is one that stands out conspicuously, to wit the fact that when the charity of Christian people was growing cold, the Divine Charity itself was set forth to be honored by a special worship, and the riches of its bounty was made widely manifest by that form of devotion wherein worship is given to the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, "In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge" (Coloss. ii, 3). For as in olden time when mankind came forth from Noe's ark, God set His "bow in the clouds" (Genesis ix, 13), shining as the sign of a friendly covenant … assuredly among those things which properly pertain to the worship of the Most Sacred Heart, a special place must be given to that Consecration, whereby we devote ourselves and all things that are ours to the Divine Heart of Jesus, acknowledging that we have received all things from the everlasting love of God. When Our Savior had taught Margaret Mary, the most innocent disciple of His Heart, how much He desired that this duty of devotion should be rendered to him by men, moved in this not so much by His own right as by His immense charity for us; she herself, with her spiritual father, Claude de la Colombiere, rendered it the first of all.
Pius XI Encyclicals RerumOrientalium, September 8, 1928 (ON THE PROMOTION OF ORIENTAL STUDIES) …since, among Oriental nations, on account of the confusion of the times, nearly all the possibilities of scientific study were destroyed and it was impossible to cultivate higher studies among students well qualified for them, you know, Venerable Brethren, that Our Predecessors also were careful that not only in the chief Universities of that age there should be Oriental centers of learning, but also in a special manner that seminaries should be opened in the heart of this mother city of Rome, easily accessible to students of those nations, whence after a careful education they should go forth prepared to fight the good fight. On that account monasteries and colleges were opened in Rome for the Greeks and the Ruthenians, and also houses were given to the Maronites and Armenians. We may see what gain for souls was achieved when we consider the liturgical and other works which the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda caused to be published in various Oriental languages, and the precious Oriental codices which the Vatican library diligently gathered together and religiously preserved. MENS NOSTRA, December 20, 1929 (ON THE PROMOTION OF THE SPIRITUAL EXERCISES) …pious retreats of this kind do much greater things than this, for since they compel the mind of a man to examine more diligently and intently into all the things that he has thought, or said, or done; they assist the human faculties in a marvellous manner; so that the mind becomes accustomed, in this spiritual arena, to weigh things maturely and with even balance, the will acquires strength and firmness, the passions are restrained by the rule of counsel; the activities of human life, being in unison with the thought of the mind, are effectively conformed to the fixed standard of reason; and, lastly, the soul attains its native nobility and altitude, as the holy Pontiff St. Gregory declares in his "Pastoral," by a concise similitude: "The human mind, like water, when shut up around, is gathered up to higher things; because it seeks that from which it descended; but when it is left loose, it perishes; because it spreads itself uselessly on lowly things."
Pius XI Encyclicals Quinquagesimo Ante Anno, December 23, 1929 (On His Sarcerdotal Jubilee) Settlement of Roman Question …the convention contracted with the Republic of Portugal for establishing the confines and prerogatives of the Diocese of Meliapor, We also concluded a Concordat with Rumania, and another with Prussia. Eastern Church Draws Nearer Joy at Promise of More Priests