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Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012
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Home Winemaking Mar.11.2012

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"Make Your Own Wine" Presentation on March 11, 2012

"Make Your Own Wine" Presentation on March 11, 2012

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  • 1. Make Your Own Wine March 11, 2012, Eastern Shore Wine Tasting Society 1 Ron Sasiela @ Academy Art Museum
  • 2. Presentation OutlineI. Introduction Reasons for home winemaking Federal regulationsII. Getting Started Purchasing/growing ingredients Grapes Juice Wine kits Fruit Equipment needsIII. Understanding structure: Acid, alcohol, tannin, sugar. 2
  • 3. Presentation Outline cont.III. Fermentation Containers; Adjusting the must; air locks, gases Temperature effect and its regulation Yeast, oak, other additives - - - - - - - - - - 15 minute Break- - - - - - - - - - -IV. Tracking the juice’s fermentation Sugar changes  Acid changes TemperatureV. Racking the wine 3
  • 4. Presentation Outline cont.VI. Ageing the bulk wine Temperature monitoring, air locks TastingVII. Clarifying the wineVIII. BottlingIX. Ageing the bottles X. Costs $ 4
  • 5. Why make your own wine?1. Adjust recipes to their own tastes2. Want fewer calories or lower alcohol wine3. Avoid certain ingredients4. Use creative skills – winemaking’s an art form5. Less cost than commercial wine6. Enter their wine in national contests, local clubs, county fairs; lower environmental impact7. Increase their wine knowledge and appreciation8. Visit wineries with more awareness9. Gifts for friends; Home Winemakers’ Centers10. Practice before commercial…more reasons… 5
  • 6. What do you like to drink? What do you want to make?White, red or rosé wine?Sweet, semi-sweet or dry wine?Drink now or age?Crisp (tart) or not?Alcohol level – “hot”?Still or sparkling?“Naked” or oaked?Advanced methods: Sur lee,Malolactic,……. 6
  • 7. Federal Regulations 27 CFR 24.75200 gallons/year tax-free to the headof the household for personalconsumption (100 gal/single adult person)Cannot be sold or offered for saleCan be tasted at organized events,competitions 7
  • 8. General Excise Tax Information What is the tax on wine? 26 U.S.C. 5041 (b)If ½ of 1% to not over 14% alcohol $1.07 per gallonIf more than 14% and not over 21% alcohol $1.57 per gallonIf more than 21% and not over 24% alcohol $3.15 per gallonArtificially Carbonated $3.30 per gallonSparkling $3.40 per gallonHard Cider $.226 per gallonMax saving $214 - $680/yr. 8
  • 9. Preview - Wines for Tasting Today Cranberry rosé: 1a and 1b Chardonnay: 2a and 2b Johannisburg Riesling: 3a and 3b Sauvignon Blanc: 4a and 4b Syrah: 5a, 5b and 5c Malbec: 6a and 6b Pinot Noir: 7a Nebbiolo: 8a and 8b Bill Novak’s (Merlot) wines 9
  • 10. What Matters? Relative contibutions 15 Winemakers contribution Varietals85 contribution 10
  • 11. Cranberry wine 11
  • 12. Cranberry Wine 12
  • 13. Cranberry Wine 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. 1st Wine Tasting - Cranberry 1% 2% 10% 17% Cranberry, fresh 4% Fresh sliced strawberries Red seedless grapes 8% Cranberry juice Cranberry/pomegrante juice Pomegrante juice40% Fresh blackberries 9% Red cherries Dry hibiscus flowers 9% 15
  • 16. Cranberry Wine Cost Analysis PercentageFruit composition Packaging Unit price Amount, oz. composition Cost Cost %Cranberry, fresh 10 x 12 oz. $ 1.69 120 17% $ 16.90 13%Fresh sliced strawberries 2 x 12 oz. $ 3.50 32 4% $ 7.00 6%Red seedless grapes 2 x 30 oz. $ 3.50 60 8% $ 7.00 6%Cranberry juice 1 x 64 oz. $ 3.00 64 9% $ 3.00 2%Cranberry/pomegrante juice 1 x 64 oz. $ 3.00 64 9% $ 3.00 2%Pomegrante juice 6 x 48 oz. $ 9.99 288 40% $ 59.94 48%Fresh blackberries 2 x 6 oz. $ 3.50 12 2% $ 7.00 6%Red cherries 4.26 lbs. $ 3.99 68 10% $ 17.00 14%Dry hibiscus flowers 1 x 4.4 oz. $ 4.95 4.7 1% $ 5.00 4% Total 712.7 100% $ 125.84 100% $125.84/55 bottle yield = $2.28/bottle + 16
  • 17. Grapes vs. JuiceJuice yield from grapes: 1 lb. of grapes ---> 1 cup juice 85-90 lbs.  5 gallons +/- Cluster size Press pressure Pre vs. post pressing Varietal variations Annual vintage variationsJuice yield from juice 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. Chardonnay – Sur LeeHeron Bay brand wine kit from CaliforniaStarting sp. gr. = 1.109 = 26.4oBrix; April 25, 2011@55% conversion to alcohol = 14.5%Titratable acidity (TA) increased from 0.40 to 0.81pH went from 3.4 to 2.8Bentonite added for clarificationLalvin #EC-1118 yeast usedIn two days fermentation rate = 48 bubbles/min.At 9 days vat moved to 55oF cellar, sp. gr. 1.028, move backto 68oFAt 18 days sp. gr. = 1.017 moved back to 55oF room for Surlee ageing; no bâtonnage.At 9 months, sp. gr. = 1.003, RS = 1/10%, Bottle off w/SO2 19
  • 20. Tracking Malo-lactic Fermentation 20
  • 21. Harford Vineyard & Winery 21
  • 22. Harford Vineyard Supply 22
  • 23. Harford Vineyard’s Grape Crushing 23
  • 24. How to Measure Juice SugarAbout ½ of the juice sugar is converted toalcohol – the other half becomes carbondioxide gas.24% juice sugar results in a 12% alcohol tablewineMeasuring devices: Hydrometer – measures specific gravity (Brix) of juice, potential alcohol and is inexpensive ($6) Refractometer – measures the refractive index of the juice and converts it directly to % sugar ($90) 24
  • 25. Hydrometer in Use 25
  • 26. Refractometer 26
  • 27. Must adjustment pH and Acid• What are the recommended ranges?• How are they measured?• How do you make corrective adjustments?• When do you make adjustment(s)? 27
  • 28. Must Acid RecommendationsWine Type pH TA, %White 3.25 – 3.45 0.70 – 0.95Red 3.40 – 3.55 28 0.50 – 0.75
  • 29. Measuring TA: Kit’s parts.2 N NaOH Beaker, flask 20 ml Indicator syringe 29 solution
  • 30. Measuring Titratable AcidityMeasure 15 ml of juice into containerAdd a few drops of indicator solutionSlowly add 0.2 N sodium hydroxideNote volume usedMultiply ml. of NaOH used by 0.15 = TA, %Example: 4.5 ml. x 0.15 = 0.68 % Titratable acidity 30
  • 31. Measuring TA 31
  • 32. Measuring pHCalibrate pH meter with pH 4.00 and7.00 solutionsPlace pH probe’s into juice, stir slowly,stopAllow meter reading to stabilizeRead value from display panelIf using fresh grapes then measureseveral values and calculate an averageAdjust, if necessary, with tartaric acidbefore fermentation 32
  • 33. pH Meter Measurement 33
  • 34. Calculating Acid AdjustmentThe Wine Acid Website Calculator:http://www.anaesthetist.com/mnm/wine/Findex.htm#wine.htm 34
  • 35. Johannisburg RieslingMade from fresh California juice (Harford Vineyard)Starting sp. gr. = 1.096, pH = 2.91, TA = 0.34%Yeast used was S. bayanus, October 9th, 2011Fermented at ~71oFSp. gr. = 1.083 on Oct 16th, 1.066 on Oct. 22nd, 1.011 onNov. 9thOn 11/20 adjust TA to 0.7, sp. gr. = 1.002 and take to55oF cellar, so2 to 39 ppm.1/22/12 – degas, r.s. = ¼% 35
  • 36. TanninA significant taste component of awine’s experienceCauses the mouth puckering sensationFound in strong tea beveragesIn wine making it’s contributed by: If using grapes – stems and seeds Oak contact from new barrels, chips, etc. Added tannin sources – dry extract, chip vodka extract, strong tea 36
  • 37. Tea is a Good Source of Tannin 37
  • 38. Sauvignon BlancMade from fresh Chilean juice (Harford Vineyard)Starting sp. gr. = 1.096, pH = 3.16, TA = 0.52%Yeast used was S. bayanus, May 4th, 2011Fermented at from 58 to 71oFSp. gr. = 1.060 on May 8th, 1.039 on May 13thAdjust TA to 0.80 and take to 55oF cellarSp. gr. = 1.002 on June 4th 38
  • 39. Air Locks 39
  • 40. Air Locks 40
  • 41. Dissolved Carbon DioxideCarbonic acid: H2CO3 Found in Coca Cola Our lungs ChampagneBut not ordinarily desired in still table wines 41
  • 42. Removing Dissolved Carbon Dioxide 42
  • 43. Measuring Residual Sugar (RS)Hydrometer readings during fermentationprovide a visual guide to the grape juice to wineconversionAs sugar is nearing completeconsumption the CO2 ratewill taper offPaper glucose test strips – commonly used by diabetics are an easy and inexpensive tool to check remaining wine sugar levels 43
  • 44. R. S. Measurement 44
  • 45. Oak Options 45
  • 46. SO2 Measurement 46
  • 47. SyrahSyrah has many attributes: big, lusciousand framed with masculine tannins. Yet,Syrah can be alluringly balanced with darkfruit and elegant floral aspects. It is notsurprising to learn that the French call it"La Syrah" - one of the few femininevarieties. So, think of Syrah as a ballerinawho took up kick boxing and has anattitude. 47
  • 48. Wild vs. Cultured Yeast? ConsiderationsAlcohol level desiredResistance to sulfite’s inhibitionCharacteristic of lees producedFlavor nuances soughtTemperature sensitivity 48
  • 49. Commercial Wine Yeasts 49
  • 50. Yeast Growinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJyFGYPyHbY 50
  • 51. Malbec 2010 Started Sept. 5, 2010; a Chilean concentrate kit wine. Four liters of warm water placed in the primary fermenter and let stand, open, overnight to reduce the amount of Easton-town chlorine. Juice and oak chips were added, along with a jar of grape skins that had the consistency of grape jam. The starting specific gravity was 1.085. Yeast was sprinkled over the surface and not stirred. Fermentation was rapid at ~73oF, sp. gr. = 1.004 eight days later. Racked on Oct. 8th and four additives introduced (Kiesolol, Ksorbate, chitosan, SO2). 31 bottles onWine complementsOf Tom Divilio Dec. 17th51 (@14 wks.)
  • 52. Clarifying the Wine (Beyond simply settling)Pectic enzymesBentonite – a colloidal claySparkaloidKiesolol – a hydrocolloidChitosan – shellfish extractEgg whitesIsinglassPaper filtrationPotassium sorbate added to prevent bottlere-fermentation 52
  • 53. Pinot Noir, 2009Made from Vintner’s Reserve ConcentratePrepare bentonite treatmentStarting sp. gr. = 1.097(23o Brix); TA = 0.2% , adjust to0.6%Yeast used: Red Star Premier Cuvée, March 29th, 20096 oz. oak chips added to vatFermented at 74oFSp. gr. = 1.064 on April 1st, add ¼ tsp dry tannin, moveto 55oF then two days later back to 73oF, 1.018 on April7 , 1.004 on April 11; Rack, 39 ppm SO2, Vit. CCellar age for 18 monthsBottle on Oct. 2, 2010 53
  • 54. Bottling the WineSelect bottles in keeping with the wine’s styleUse either screw caps, corks, Zorks, capsClean bottles, treat with SO2Use special bottom-up filler tube to avoid air contactPurge headspace with inert gasIf using corks rest the bottles upright for 3 days toseat the corks in the bottle’s neckPrepare a descriptive labelAdd a decorative capsuleKeep the corks moist by laying the bottles on sideLet rest for 2 months to avoid “bottle sickness”Enjoy! 54
  • 55. Bottle Closures 55
  • 56. Wine after Corking 56
  • 57. NebbioloNebbiolo produces lightly colored red wineswhich can be highly tannic in youth with scentsof tar and roses. As they age, the wines take ona characteristic brick-orange hue at the rim ofthe glass and mature to reveal other aromasand flavors such as violets, tar, wildherbs, cherries, raspberries, truffles, tobacco, and prunes. Nebbiolo wines can require years ofaging to balance the tannins with othercharacteristics. 57
  • 58. Casata Monticello Nebbiolo dAlba 2008This young Italian charmer is an excellentexample of Nebbiolo that can show offits big brother Barolos best qualities,but is accessible and ready to drink now.Exhibiting typical flavors of dark fruit, tarand leather, it is balanced by a freshacidity and lush, lengthy finish. A greatvalue, and a great introduction to theseductive Nebbiolo grape. 58
  • 59. Sulfite Free Winehttp://www.naturalwine.net/index.htm1. Select only the freshest fruit2. Wash the fruit3. Use meticulous sanitation4. Use vitamin C as an antioxidant5. FDA regs allow up to 10 ppm6. Keep acid level high (e. g. >.7 TA)7. Keep pH low (e. g. <3.5) 59
  • 60. Merlot, 2010 Compliments of Bill NovakMade 5 gallons from 100 lbs. fresh grapes inSept.Starting Brix = 21o, pH = 3.3Yeast = k121 day primary fermentationMalolactic fermentation completedOak treatment = 7 sticks for 5 monthRacking = three timesBottled in June 2011 60
  • 61. Resources Winemaker Magazine http://winemakermag.com/ Making Wine Website http://www.sentex.net/~bacchus/faq.html The Home Winemakers Manual (free download!) http://www.winebook.webs.com/winebook.pdf Enjoy your winemaking hobby responsibly!P. S. Sunday, November 4th , 3 – 5 PM Wine-in-Art @ AAM 61

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