MOTIVATIONIntrinsic and Extrinsic Influencesby Ron Newman
In understanding the work of a designer we need toaccept that the designer is playing to an audience; themarket, on behalf of a client the provider of a service or aproduct.In the design process the designer needs to have anunderstanding of what MOTIVATES the end user so thatthe end design conveys the message – hits the spot..!
Motivation is a psychological condition that arouses anindividual to act towards a desired goal and elicits,controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviours. Itcan be considered a driving force; a psychological drivethat compels or reinforces an action toward a desiredgoal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits adesire to eat. Motivation has been shown to have roots inphysiological, behavioural, cognitive, and social areas.
Motivation can be a basic impulse to optimize well-being,minimize physical pain and/or maximizing pleasure. It canalso originate from specific physical needs such as eating,sleeping and resting. Motivation is an inner drive to behaveor act in a certain manner. Its the difference betweenwaking up before dawn to pound the pavement or lazingaround the house all day. These inner conditions such aswishes, desires, goals, activate to move in a particulardirection in behaviour.
A class of theories about why people do things seeks toreduce the number of factors down to one and explain allbehaviour through that one factor. For example marketinghas been criticized for using self-interest as a mono-motivational theory. Mono-motivational theories are oftencriticized for being too reductive or too abstract. There aremany theories about motivation such as Machiavellianism butin this lecture we will talk mainly about Intrinsic (internal) andExtrinsic (external) influences
Intrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by aninterest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within theindividual rather than relying on external pressures or adesire for reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studiedsince the early 1970s. As an example students who areintrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the taskwillingly and work to improve their skills, which willincrease their capabilities.
Intrinsic motivationStudents are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they:attribute their educational results to factors under theirown control, also known as autonomy believe they havethe skills to be effective agents in reaching their desiredgoals, also known as self-efficacy beliefs are interestedin mastering a topic, not just in achieving good grades.
Extrinsic motivationExtrinsic motivation refers to the performance of anactivity in order to attain an outcome, whether or not thatactivity is also intrinsically motivated. Extrinsic motivationcomes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsicmotivations are rewards (for example money or grades)for showing the desired behaviour, and the threat ofpunishment following misbehaviour.
Extrinsic motivationMarketing and promotions are extrinsic motivatorsmodifying internally driven behaviours. Competition isalso an extrinsic motivator because it encourages theperformer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoythe intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd andthe desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives.
Push and pullThis model is best explained by discussing motivationwithin the marketing of tourism. Push factors determinethe desire to go on holiday, whereas pull factors determinethe choice of destination. Push motives are connected withinternal forces, for example the need for relaxation orescapism, while pull factors are the external factors, suchas landscape, cultural image or climate of a destination,that induces the traveller to visit a certain location.
Push and pullPush factors can be stimulated by external and situationalaspects of motivation in the shape of marketing focussedon pull factors. Then again pull factors are issues that canarise from a location itself and therefore „push‟ anindividual to choose to experience it. A large number oftheories have been developed over the years howeverthere is no single theory that illustrates all motivationalaspects of marketing to motivate people to travel.
Push and pullMany researchers have highlighted that because severalmotives may occur at the same time it should not beassumed that only one motive drives an individual toperform an action at a particular time, and thereforemarketing and promotional material can supplementexisting motivation or inherent motivation or provide morethan one aspect of „pull‟.
Incentive theoryA reward, tangible or intangible, can be used with theintention of motivating for the behaviour to occur. Studiesshow that if the person receives the reward immediately,the effect is greater, and decreases as delay lengthens.And so we can see that motivation comes from twosources: oneself, and other people. The two sources areintrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively.
ReinforcersReinforcement principles of behaviour differ from thehypothetical construct of reward. A reinforcer is anystimulus change following a motivated response thatincreases the future frequency or magnitude of thatresponse, therefore the cognitive approach reinforced byeffective marketing material is a way forward as in 1973Maslow described it as being the golden pineapple.
ReinforcersPositive reinforcement is demonstrated by an increase inthe future frequency or magnitude of a response due to inthe past being followed contingently by a reinforcingstimulus such a marketing and promotion. Negativereinforcement involves a stimulus change consisting of theremoval of an aversive stimulus following a response; inother word marketing arguing against a „negative‟.
ReinforcersAnd finally positive reinforcement involves a stimuluschange consisting of the presentation or magnification ofa positive stimulus following a response which of coursecan be through Marketing and promotional material.From this perspective, motivation is mediated byenvironmental events, and the concept of distinguishingbetween intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant.
Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsAs we learnt in the previous lecture content theory ofhuman motivation includes both Abraham Maslowshierarchy of needs and Herzbergs two-factor theory.Maslows theory is one of the most widely discussedtheories of motivation. American motivation psychologistMaslow developed the hierarchy of needs consisting of fivehierarchic classes. Maslow said people are motivated byunsatisfied needs.
Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsThe needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to mostcomplex (highest-latest) are as follows:Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.)Safety/Security/Shelter/HealthBelongingness/Love/FriendshipSelf-esteem/Recognition/AchievementSelf actualization
Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsBasic requirements build upon the first step in the pyramid:physiology. If there are deficits on this level, all behaviourwill be oriented to satisfy them. If you have not slept oreaten adequately, you wont be interested in your self-esteem desires. Then the second level, awakens a needfor security. Motives then shift to the social sphere,Psychological requirements are the fourth level, while thetop of the hierarchy is self-realization & self-actualization.
Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theoryIn contrast to Maslow and starting from studies involvingmore than 6,000 people, Professor Steven Reiss hasproposed a theory that found that there are 16 basicdesires that guide nearly all human behaviour  andthat motivate our actions and define our personalities:Acceptance, the need for approvalCuriosity, the need to learn25 “New Theory of Motivation Lists 16 Basic Desires that Guide Us . Research News Ohio State 2000-06-28. Retrieved 2012-06-0226 Reiss, Steven (March 5, 2002). Who am I? The 16 Basic Desires that Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. Berkley Trade. ISBN 978-0425183403.
Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theoryEating, the need for foodFamily, the need to raise childrenHonor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values ofones clan/ethnic groupIdealism, the need for social justiceIndependence, the need for individualityOrder, the need for organized, stable, predictableenvironments
Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theoryPhysical activity, the need for exercisePower, the need for influence of willRomance, the need for sex and for beautySaving, the need to collectSocial contact, the need for friends (peer relationships)Social status, the need for social standing/importanceTranquility, the need to be safeVengeance, the need to strike back and to compete
Dr Alberto Alessi is the proprietor of the well known theItalian Design Factory ALESSI, a company that marketsdesigned products worldwide, a company that takes thetraditions and values of hand made objects and translatesthem, via management of the design process into massproduction for the international mass market. Alberto Alessisaid: “I had some convictions, some philosophicalthoughts, on the role of objects in our actual society, theconsumer society.”
Alessi went on to say “We live in a society where allrelevant material needs are fulfilled by the production ofobjects, but the big mass production industry didnt seemto have understood this. I believe, that in most cases,mass production industry goes on working simply to satisfypeoples needs, instead of paying more attention to theirwishes, to their desires."
In this lecture you have seen images portrayingpromotions from various Olympic games as they are agood example of how graphic design can work towardsmotivating people to involve themselves in those events.The two images above are (left) Luck Hasegawa practicinghis marshal arts in „free air‟ on Sydney harbour, Australiaand the second photo (right) is a group of ski instructors ona ridge in Serfaus-Fiss-Ladis in the Tyrol, Austria
The Colours of Benetton marketing campaign has, overtime used photographic images to illicit emotionalresponses in the consumer, response that have then beenshown to lead to retail sales of products.
These two images have within them motivational valuesand as a mini project students are asked to find an imagethey believe is motivating and to use that image along witha maximum of 8 words to create a motivational poster.This mini project is due at the end of week 3
MOTIVATIONIntrinsic and Extrinsic Influencesby Ron Newman