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Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
Renewable Energy Technology Overview
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Renewable Energy Technology Overview

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Overview of the renewable energy technologies, how they work, key issues, key advantages

Overview of the renewable energy technologies, how they work, key issues, key advantages

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  • 1. Renewable Energy Technology Overview July 3, 2010 by: Ron Miller, P.E.
  • 2. Solar Energy Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 2
  • 3. Photovoltaic (PV) Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 3
  • 4. U.S. Solar Resources Source: NREL Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 4
  • 5. Alamosa 8.2 MW PV Plant Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 5
  • 6. Alamosa 8.2 MW PV Plant Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 6
  • 7. PV Data • 1 megawatt (MW) per 10 acres • Installed price $5M – 7M/ MW • 1 MW of PV capacity produces 1,500- 2,100 megawatt-hour (MWh) per year in energy • 1 MW PV provide average annual energy for 200-280 Colorado homes Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 7
  • 8. Different PV Applications • Fixed – stationary on rooftop or ground- mounted • Single-axis tracking – tracks sun from east to west during day, more kWh than fixed • Double-axis tracking – tracks sun from east to west daily and seasonally north/south, more kWh than single-axis • Concentrating PV – lens on PV panel to intensify the sun’s brightness Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 8
  • 9. Alamosa 8.2 MW PV Plant Double-axis tracking PV Single-axis tracking PV Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 9
  • 10. Market Factors • Oversupply dynamic emerged in 2009 due to polysilicon production capacity increase and recession • Industry consolidation over next few years • Demand growth forecasted 38% for 2009, 59% in 2010 per Deutsche Bank Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 10
  • 11. Projected U.S. PV Installations Tremendous growth in U.S. PV installations, with more projected through 2025 Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 11
  • 12. PV Projected Price Decline 2007-2025 (cents/kWh) Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 12
  • 13. PV Project Size Increasing 3 large Colorado PV projects - Denver International Airport 2 MW ground-mounted PV, August, 2008 Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 13
  • 14. Top 10 Solar Utilities Source: Solar Electric Power Association Xcel Energy (Public Service) 5th place of solar utilities; strong California and Nevada presence Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 14
  • 15. Large Solar Utility Announcements Source: Solar Electric Power Association Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 15
  • 16. Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), Solar Thermal, or Solar Trough Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 16
  • 17. CSP Data • 250 MW per 1,600 acres (1 MW per 6.5 acres) • 250 MW with 3-hour storage per 2,000 acres • Installed price $3.0M to $4.0M per MW • 1 MW of CSP capacity produces 3,200 MWh per year in energy • 1 MW CSP provide average annual energy for 425 Colorado homes Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 17
  • 18. CSP Process Flow Source: NREL Similar to conventional generation plants, except solar provides heat to make steam for turbine generator Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 18
  • 19. CSP Collector Components Source: NREL Absorber pipe receives heat from parabolic reflector, heating synthetic oil to 700-800 degrees F. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 19
  • 20. CSP Collector Operation Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 20
  • 21. Solar Collector Operation Synthetic oil is circulated through solar collector to make steam for turbine generator Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 21
  • 22. CSP Power Plant Components Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 22
  • 23. Andasol 1 & 2 - Spain Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 23
  • 24. Nevada Solar One 64 MW Trough plant built for Nevada Power in Boulder City, NV Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 24
  • 25. CSP Growth Projection CSP growth projected to 43,000 MW by 2025; water rights for cooling water could be governing factor Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 25
  • 26. CSP Price Ranges 2007-2025 Total capital investment $53 billion Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 26
  • 27. CSP Players • Flagsol (part of Solar Millennium) • Solel Solar Systems • Acciona Solar Power (was Solargenix) • Sener / ACS Cobra • Solucar R&D (part of Abengoa) • IST Solucar (part of Abengoa) • Ausra Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 27
  • 28. CSP Price Trends • With full 30% ITC available, costs for “next” projects in SW US will be $130 - $150/MWh • Costs in the $100 -$120/MWh are expected by the end of this decade for large scale projects • R&D and other “efficiencies” will drop costs to below $100/MWh Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 28
  • 29. CSP Advantages / Trends • Storage of energy (heat) addresses peak energy, growing faster than base demand • Reduces need for expensive, under- utilized gas peaking plants • Applicability in tandem with combined cycle combustion turbine operations • Economies of scale driving unit cost down, as typical projects are 100 – 500 MW range Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 29
  • 30. CSP Advantages / Trends • Technology advances in primary loop medium increasing temperature by 100 degrees F - higher energy production • Demonstrated plant reliability beyond 20 years, lower Levelized Cost Of Energy (LCOE) by about 1.5 cents/kWh • CSP market in the SW US can grow to 1- 2 GW per year Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 30
  • 31. CSP Market for CSP in SW US • Arizona: 2,000 MW • Nevada: 1,500 MW • New Mexico/West Texas: 1,000 + MW • Colorado: 500 MW after 2010 Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 31
  • 32. Wind Energy
  • 33. Wind Turbines Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 33
  • 34. How Do Wind Turbines Work?
  • 35. U.S. Wind Resources Source: NREL Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 35
  • 36. Wind Energy Statistics • U.S. passed Germany in 2008 as #1 wind producer in world at 25,170 MW • U.S. wind power capacity surged by 39% in 2009, with 9,922 MW added, after record-breaking 2008 with 8,358 MW • Achieved in two years what had previously taken 2 decades (the 10,000-MW mark reached in 2006) • Current capacity of 35,159 MW Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 36
  • 37. Trends • Wind power contributed 42% of all new U.S. electric generating capacity in 2008 • U.S. wind turbine manufacturing expanded; now >50% components made domestically • Average turbine size continued to grow • Developer consolidation continues Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 37
  • 38. Trends, cont’d. • Project cost increases as a function of turbine prices, and turbine prices have increased dramatically • Solutions to transmission barriers emerging, but constraints remain • Installed project costs continued to rise in 2007/2008, after a long period of decline • Policy efforts continued to affect the amount and location of wind development Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 38
  • 39. Wind Energy Projections • New starts in 2010 projected to slow • Top states: Texas, Iowa, California, Washington, Minnesota, Oregon, Illinois • Upward pressure on wind power prices Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 39
  • 40. 21,000 MW Wind Capacity Impact • Generate >60 billion kWh in 2009 • Serve over 5.5 million American homes • Eliminate burning of: • 30.4 million short tons of coal (enough to fill two 1,000-mile-long coal trains) • 91 million barrels of oil per year • 560 billion cubic feet of natural gas (about 9% of the natural gas used for electricity generation) Source: December 22, 2008 AWEA press release Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 40
  • 41. Growth In U.S. Wind Power Capacity Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 41
  • 42. U.S. Overtakes Germany in Wind Capacity in 2008 Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 42
  • 43. U.S. Wind Capacity Source: AWEA Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 43
  • 44. U.S. Wind Capacity By State Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 44
  • 45. Top 20 Wind Utilities Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 45
  • 46. Wind Turbine Manufacturer’s Share Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 46
  • 47. U.S. Wind Turbine Installations By Manufacturer Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 47
  • 48. U.S. Wind Manufacturing Facilities Source: NREL Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 48
  • 49. Average Turbine Size Growing Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 49
  • 50. Wind Farm Size Declined Slightly Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 50
  • 51. Wind Industry Consolidating Source: AWEA Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 51
  • 52. Wind PPA Energy Prices Increasing Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 52
  • 53. Wind Project Ownership IPPs own majority of wind projects, but recent legislation allows IOU ownership, which is increasing Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 53
  • 54. Geographic Diversity of Wind Wind production decreases during peak power demand period; without demand, wind production may be curtailed Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 54
  • 55. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 55
  • 56. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 56
  • 57. Biomass Energy
  • 58. Biomass Wood / Pellets To Energy Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 58
  • 59. Microgy’s Biomass to Methane Project, Stephenville, Texas Source: Environmental Power website Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 59
  • 60. Biomass Issues / Concerns • Increasing regulation of agricultural waste and environmental concerns for air/water • Concentrated animal feeding operations face new costly regulations • Increasing costs of MSW disposal • A number of states are implementing a cap and trade system for greenhouse gases • Federal legislation for more greenhouse standards increased in pace and scope Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 60
  • 61. Biomass Feedstocks • Agricultural and forest residues • Primary and secondary mill residues • Municipal solid and urban wood waste • Methane emissions from landfills, manure management, wastewater treatment plants • Wood-processing residues • Animal wastes Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 61
  • 62. Biomass Technologies • Gasification • Thermal • Chemical • Incineration • Anaerobic digestion Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 62
  • 63. Biomass Products • Electricity • Heat • Biogas • Ethanol • Biodiesel • Hydrogen Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 63
  • 64. Biomass Energy Advantages • Diversion of waste from landfills, saving transportation costs • Relatively-high capacity factor (80-90%) • Distributed generation near energy demand, reducing transmission losses (7-10%) • Process agricultural wastes to eliminate production of greenhouse gas (GHG) • Largely carbon-neutral Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 64
  • 65. Biomass Projects Source: Environmental Power website Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 65
  • 66. Biomass Process Overview Source: Environmental Power website Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 66
  • 67. Key Success Factors • Biomass feedstocks in close proximity to generator • Net metering for full retail rate relief • Interconnection to grid for export • State RPS requirements to include biomass to drive urgency • High utilization rates • Customer demand for combined heat and power (CHP) Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 67
  • 68. Hydro Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 68
  • 69. Hydro • Hydro static reservoir release • Hydro pumped storage Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 69
  • 70. Hydro Static Reservoir Release Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 70
  • 71. Hydro Static Release - How It Works Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 71
  • 72. Lower Granite Dam, Snake River Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 72
  • 73. Key Points • Power generation depends on flow to reservoir (rate), pressure of water (head) • Generation can be at odds with dam’s purpose of flood control and seasonal changes • For highest price for energy produced, power needs to be at peak demand period for utility • May not be dispatchable to utility Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 73
  • 74. Key Points, cont’d. • Access to federal tax credits, accelerated depreciation incentives • Helps to meet state renewable portfolio standards Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 74
  • 75. Hydro Pumped Storage (HPS)
  • 76. Hydro Pumped Storage - How It Works Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 76
  • 77. Basic Principle • Two reservoirs at different elevations and pipeline connecting two is required • Energy produced when water released from upper to lower reservoir • Daytime, higher-priced energy produced • Energy consumed as water pumped back to the upper reservoir • Night-time, lower-priced energy used Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 77
  • 78. Advantages • Quick startup • Provides demand for wind farm energy production during night-time/off-peak periods, allowing higher wind utilization • Provides peak energy during periods of excessive demand on the grid system • HPS not renewable, but enhances wind energy production during off-peak periods • Dispatchable energy for utility Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 78
  • 79. HPS Project Ludington, Michigan Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 79
  • 80. Questions and Answers Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 80
  • 81. Contact Information Ron Miller, P.E. 303-723-5465 303-748-3441 cell ronmiller74@comcast.net http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 “Drivers of the New Renewable Energy Transmission System” CLE Renewable Energy Transmission March 2010 conference available at link above Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 81
  • 82. Building A Wind Farm Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 82
  • 83. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 83
  • 84. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 84
  • 85. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 85
  • 86. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 86
  • 87. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 87
  • 88. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 88
  • 89. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 89
  • 90. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 90
  • 91. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 91
  • 92. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 92
  • 93. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 93
  • 94. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 94
  • 95. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 95
  • 96. Copyright© 2010 Ronald L. Miller. Material can be shared or copied with attribution to the copyright holder. http://www.linkedin.com/in/ronmiller10 96

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