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Boy Scouts Photography Merit Badge Course

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Feb. 4 2012 Boy Scout Photography Merit Badge Course by Ron Mayberry & Manatee County Audubon

Feb. 4 2012 Boy Scout Photography Merit Badge Course by Ron Mayberry & Manatee County Audubon

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  • Thanks for sharing the great presentation. I assume it's OK to download use for doing a merit badge course as long as you get credit for the work on the slides?
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  • The Photography merit badge was one of the Original 57 Merit Badges issued by the Boy Scouts of America in 1911.
  • Capture the moment – make a memory - tell a story
  • One can define photography as "the recording of light rays". That's why taking a good picture depends so much on choosing the lighting carefully.
  • One can define photography as "the recording of light rays". That's why taking a good picture depends so much on choosing the lighting carefully.
  • The key to proper exposure is accurately measuring the lighting (pg 13 bshb)
  • The key to proper exposure is accurately measuring the lighting (pg 13 bshb)
  • It is also popular amongst artists. It works like this: Imaginary lines are drawn dividing the image into thirds both horizontally and vertically. You place important elements of your composition where these lines intersect.
  • Draw attention to center / foreground
  • Contrast adds interest by emphasizing difference in tone, color texture, size
  • Lead viewer eye
  • Symmetrical balance – divides image into distinct
  • Add or distract from subject.
  • Symmetrical balance – divides image into distinct
  • Try different angles-- Kilimanjaro
  • Try different angles-- Kilimanjaro
  • The amount of scene
  • The amount of scene
  • Discuss shutter speed / iso for stopping action
  • Discuss shutter speed / iso for stopping action
  • A camera consists of seven basic components: a viewfinder, a focusing mechanism, a shutter, an adjustable aperture, a lens, a body, and devices for controlling film alignment and advancement. In the example below we are using a Single Lens Reflex type camera to demonstrate the different components that make up a camera.
  • Care etc

Boy Scouts Photography Merit Badge Course Boy Scouts Photography Merit Badge Course Presentation Transcript

  • Basics of Digital Photography Boy Scout Merit Badge
  • Objectives
    • Basic photography terms
    • Digital camera Technology
    • Understand your camera
    • Take photographs
    • Download images
    • Editing digital photographs
    • Display photographs (web, email)
    • Printing
    Ron Mayberry
    • In Focus
    • Proper Exposure
    • Pleasing to the
    • Viewer
    What is a good image?
  • What is a good image?
    • Compose:      This is the creative or artistic part. Arrange all of the elements of the picture within the frame or viewfinder to produce what should hopefully be a pleasing composition.
    • Expose:       This is the scientific and mechanical bit . Expose the image to light through the lens of the camera and preserve the image for posterity.
    Basics of Digital Photography
  • Basics of Digital Photography
  • Basics of Digital Photography It’s all about the Light !
  • Basics of Digital Photography It’s all about the Light ! Sunlight                                                   
    • Natural light (Sunlight)
    • Ambient (Light in this room)
    • Flash
  • Flash
    • Off Camera Flash.
    • Why do we use it?
    • Fill Flash.
    • Main Light.
    • Stop Action .
  • Flash Mode For dim light or for “filling in” backlit pictures. Most cameras default to auto flash, but you need to know how to manually turn the flash off or on for special conditions. Turn off the flash when it will be useless. For example, photographing a person far away under dim light conditions.
  • Flash
  • Exposure - (histogram)
    • The ability to judge tonality in all colors is paramount in order to quickly evaluate the overall scene and ultimately determine your “desired” exposure
    Middle Light Extra Light Dark Extra Dark
  • Exposure - (histogram)
    • The ability to judge tonality in all colors is paramount in order to quickly evaluate the overall scene and ultimately determine your “desired” exposure
    Middle Light Extra Light Dark Extra Dark
  •  
  • Aperture
        • Aperture is the size of the lens opening and is referred to as an “F stop”. Higher values represent a smaller aperture, l ower values represent a l arger aperture
        • Examples of full stops are: F5.6, F8, F11 or F16
        • Smaller aperture = less light (LDOF),
        • Larger aperture = more light (NDOF)
  • Shutter Speed
        • Shutter speed is how long the shutter is open and is indicated in fractions of a second.
        • Examples of full stops are: 1/125, 1/250, 1/500 or 1/1000
        • Faster shutter speeds = less light,
        • slower shutter speeds = more light
  • ISO International Standards Organization
        • ISO is the film or digital sensors “sensitivity” to the light entering. Each stop in ISO will double or halve the sensitivity
        • Examples of full stops are: 100, 200, 400 or 800
        • Lower ISO = less sensitive,
        • Higher ISO = more sensitive
  • Aperture < > Shutter Speed
    • Aperture and shutter speed interact to give a correct exposure there is a balance between the two. These settings would
    • give about the same exposure:
    Shutter 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 Aperture F22 F16 F11 F8 F5.6 Examples: moving from f16 to f8 is: TWO STOPS brighter. moving from f5.6 to f8 is: ONE STOP darker moving from f4 to f2.8 is: ONE STOP brighter Every step in this table » represents a ONE STOP change in light .
  • Shutter Speed + Aperture = Exposure
    • Shutter speed and aperture interact to produce
    • good exposure. While Auto Exposure is usually the default, it can be overridden on some cameras by setting the camera to:
    • Aperture-priority auto: the user sets the aperture and
    • the camera sets the speed.
    • Shutter-priority auto: the user sets shutter speed and
    • the camera sets the aperture.
    • Manual: the user sets both speed and aperture.
  • Histogram ?
    • Each pixel in an image has a color which has been produced by some combination of the primary colors red, green, and blue (RGB).
    • Each of these colors can have a brightness value ranging from 0 to 255.
    • A RGB histogram results when the camera logic scans through each of these RGB brightness values and counts how many are at each level from 0 through 255.
    Technically the histogram simply tells you if your image is properly exposed. It provides an indication that some part of your image may be under or over exposed, but that determination is yours to decide. Underexposed Normal Exposure Overexposed
  • -2..1..0..1..2+
  • Sunny 16
      • Rough guidelines for the following outdoor lighting condition @ ISO 400 – f/8
        • Sunny day outdoors — 1/2000 sec
        • Hazy bright day — 1/1000 sec
        • Bright cloudy day without shadows — 1/500 sec
        • Overcast day, or open shade on a sunny day — 1/250 sec
        • A heavily overcast day Deep shade — 1/125 sec
        • Woods on an bright overcast day — 1/60 sec
        • Just before a thunderstorm or a heavily overcast day — 1/30 sec
    • Why is the background all blurred in the right picture, and sharpest in the left ? Because if the exposure is made with a wide aperture ( like f2.8 ), then objects farther away from the subject are thrown farther out of focus. This effect is referred to as &quot;depth of field&quot;
    • So.. if the aperture is small (like f22) then objects in the background (and foreground ) will appear sharper. However, since more light was required to make the exposure on the left ( 1/4 Second ) the subjects became blurred from MOTION. At 1/250th of a second, the shutter is fast enough to freeze motion.
    Depth of Field -DOF
  • White Balance
    • White balance adjusts the white
    • Color quality of your image.
    • Digital cameras usually have
    • adjustable white balance settings for electronic flash, shade, sunlight, fluorescent lighting and tungsten lighting.
    • Most cameras default to “auto”
    • white balance and some cameras allow it
    • to be set separately.
  • The Rule of Thirds Place important elements of the composition where the lines intersect.
  • Framing
  • Contrast
  • Leading Lines
  • Balance
  • Backgrounds
  • Backgrounds
  • Camera Angles
  • Camera Angles
  •   Getting Close & Keeping Steady When shooting fast-moving animals such as birds in flight, you may want a shutter speed as high as 1/1250th of a second to freeze your subject. And of course, proper technique in stabilizing your camera can go a long way. Camera Angles
  • Angle of View
  • Angle of View
  • Stopping Action
  • Macro Macro refers to a digital camera function that takes “close-up” pictures—images of objects that are only a few inches away. Most digital cameras have a macro setting and take good macro pictures because of the inherent design of digital cameras.
  • Time Lapse Photography
  • Cameras & How They Work
  • Other Settings
    • Camera settings (language, auto-off, etc.)
    • Timer (so the photographer can be in the picture)
    • Metering (how the camera decides on brightness)
    • Continuous shooting (camera shoots as fast as it can)
    • Best Shot Selector (multiple shots at different settings)
    • Saturation Control (controlling color intensity)
    • Image Sharpening (electronic improvement of shot)
    • Etc. (etc.)
  • Equipment
    • Camera
    • Operating manual (!)
    • Batteries/power cord. Use NiMH batteries.
    • Extra storage (memory cards)
    • Computer interface cable
    • Optional: lens, Camera bag, tripod, flash, UV filter, etc.
  • Digital Camera features & terminology
    • You don’t need to know terminology or
    • your camera’s features, you can just shoot
    • “ auto” and hope for the best.
    • OR!
    • If you understand your camera and have
    • experience using it’s features, you will
    • take better pictures.
  • Understanding your camera
    • What are your camera’s abilities and limitations, what features does it have?
      • You need to read and understand your Camera’s operating manual!
    • You need to have experience shooting pictures and studying the results.
  • Megapixel A megapixel is equal to 1 millions pixels. How many megapixels a camera shoots at indicates the maximum size and/or detail of a digital picture. Generally, more pixels are better (and cost more), but it is not only factor that should be considered when choosing a camera.
  • Pixels
    • A pixel is a contraction of the term Picture Element. Digital images are made up of small squares, just like a tile mosaic on your kitchen or bathroom wall. Though a digital photograph looks smooth and continuous just like a regular photograph, it's actually composed of millions of tiny squares as shown below.
    • On the left the full image, on the right the area in the red square magnified to show individual pixels
    • Each pixel in the image has a numerical value of between 0 and 255 and is made up of three color channels. So for example a pixel could be 37-red, 76-green and 125-blue and it would then look like this . If it was 162-red, 27-green and 12-blue, it would look like this .
  • File Types
    • JPEG (JPG): The most common format.
    • This is a “lossy” compression format that can be saved at various qualities.
    • TIFF: A “loss-less” compression format of
    • a higher quality that is better for very high quality prints but has larger file size.
    • RAW: Actual image from the camera sensor
  • Image Size
    • Refers to the dimensions
    • of the image, measured in
    • pixels. Pictures taken at
    • smaller sizes require less
    • memory and are suitable for distribution by email or on the
    • web. Conversely, the larger the image, the larger the size at which
    • it can be printed or displayed without loosing quality (becoming
    • “ grainy”).
  • Image Size Image Size Pixels Print Size (@300dpi) 3264 x 2448 8MP 11” x 14” 2592 x 1944 5MP 8½” x 6½” 2048 x 1536 3MP 7” x 5” 1600 x 1200 2MP 5” x 4” 1280 x 960 1 MP 4” x 3” 640 x 480 .5MP Email and Web
  • Practice with Your Camera
    • The best way to take good pictures is to take a lot of them and to experiment with your camera.
    • Understand your camera settings
    • Take pictures and do tests: Take the same picture
    • several times while changing the settings for each shot. Then compare the result. What settings work best under what conditions? What are the
    • characteristics of your camera?
    • Digital pictures are FREE
    • until you print them!
  • Transferring Pictures
    • Most cameras use a USB
    • cable that connects the camera to the computer.
  • Photographing wildlife takes patience, steady breathing, perseverance, and a good camera A Career in Photography
    • Why photograph wildlife?
    • Nature and wildlife is one of the primary subjects of photography today.  
    • The natural beauty that surrounds us in the form of landscapes, plants, and wildlife is a compelling subject to capture in still images.
    •  
    A Career in Photography
    • But more than that, the experience of photographing wildlife is one of the most thrilling forms of the craft.  There is something deeply compelling about being in the middle of a great migration, wading an Alaska stream with Brown Bears, and documenting their beauty and behavior. 
    A Career in Photography
    • Why photograph wildlife?
    • Nature and wildlife is one of the primary subjects of photography today.  
    • There are upwards of 46 million bird - watchers
    • in the United States
    • The natural beauty that surrounds us in the form of landscapes, plants, and wildlife is a compelling subject to capture in still images.
    •  
    • But more than that, the experience of photographing wildlife is one of the most thrilling forms of the craft.  There is something deeply compelling about being in the middle of a great migration, wading an Alaska stream with Brown Bears, and documenting their beauty and behavior. 
    A Career in Photography
  • A Career in Photography Portrait Photography
  • A Career in Photography Sports & Media Photography
  • A Career in Photography Products & Advertising Photography
  • Photographing Wildlife Some Parting Shots Passion! If you love observing and photographing wildlife in their natural habitat and you get a rush every time you are able to share a few special moments with your subject… then Patience & Perseverance Wait for it, wait… wait… wait! You learn to take better pictures by taking Lot s of pictures, and the beauty of digital photography is that bad pictures only cost you the amount of time it takes to throw them away. “ f/8 and be there” — the idea being you’ll never take a great photo unless you’re out among the proper picture-taking raw material. You’ve taken the picture; is your job done?
  • www.ronmayberry.com www.ronmayberry.com