Rubrics: Transparent Assessment in Support of Learning
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Rubrics: Transparent Assessment in Support of Learning

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Rubrics provide a powerful tool for grading and assessment that can also serve as a transparent and inspiring guide to learning. Rubrics have been used to increase transparency and accountability ...

Rubrics provide a powerful tool for grading and assessment that can also serve as a transparent and inspiring guide to learning. Rubrics have been used to increase transparency and accountability across K-12 and higher education, and in corporate and government settings.
This presentation looks at defining rubrics, reasons for using them, types and designing them using the Moodle rubric tool.

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  • Let’s have a look at a sample rubric. <br /> This is an example of a simple rubric that could be used to make comparisons between two items. It is in essence a chart which describes levels of learning (exemplary, proficient and beginning) in designated aspects of a learning experience – in this case the processes of identifying characteristics and using these to make comparisons. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The expected qualities to be demonstrated in the task are described in the column on the left side of the rubric. In this case they are the skills of selecting the characteristics, identifying the similarities and differences and drawing conclusions from those comparisons. For a different task the expected qualities might also include reference to the knowledge or understanding that is expected to be demonstrated. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The performance levels are described in the headings of the other columns in the rubric. There are commonly three or four performance levels which reflect progressive levels of achievement or performance. In this example the rankings beginning, proficient and exemplary are used. (The order from left and to right can vary, that is, ‘Beginning’ might be the first column and ‘Exemplary’ the last.) <br /> The workshop materials include other suggestions for names of these performance levels. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The indicators of student performance are articulations of levels of performance in the development of skills or knowledge with reference to each of the expected qualities. These are the descriptions in the grid to the right of each expected quality. <br />
  • Let’s have a look at a sample rubric. <br /> This is an example of a simple rubric that could be used to make comparisons between two items. It is in essence a chart which describes levels of learning (exemplary, proficient and beginning) in designated aspects of a learning experience – in this case the processes of identifying characteristics and using these to make comparisons. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The expected qualities to be demonstrated in the task are described in the column on the left side of the rubric. In this case they are the skills of selecting the characteristics, identifying the similarities and differences and drawing conclusions from those comparisons. For a different task the expected qualities might also include reference to the knowledge or understanding that is expected to be demonstrated. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The performance levels are described in the headings of the other columns in the rubric. There are commonly three or four performance levels which reflect progressive levels of achievement or performance. In this example the rankings beginning, proficient and exemplary are used. (The order from left and to right can vary, that is, ‘Beginning’ might be the first column and ‘Exemplary’ the last.) <br /> The workshop materials include other suggestions for names of these performance levels. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The indicators of student performance are articulations of levels of performance in the development of skills or knowledge with reference to each of the expected qualities. These are the descriptions in the grid to the right of each expected quality. <br />
  • Let’s have a look at a sample rubric. <br /> This is an example of a simple rubric that could be used to make comparisons between two items. It is in essence a chart which describes levels of learning (exemplary, proficient and beginning) in designated aspects of a learning experience – in this case the processes of identifying characteristics and using these to make comparisons. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The expected qualities to be demonstrated in the task are described in the column on the left side of the rubric. In this case they are the skills of selecting the characteristics, identifying the similarities and differences and drawing conclusions from those comparisons. For a different task the expected qualities might also include reference to the knowledge or understanding that is expected to be demonstrated. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The performance levels are described in the headings of the other columns in the rubric. There are commonly three or four performance levels which reflect progressive levels of achievement or performance. In this example the rankings beginning, proficient and exemplary are used. (The order from left and to right can vary, that is, ‘Beginning’ might be the first column and ‘Exemplary’ the last.) <br /> The workshop materials include other suggestions for names of these performance levels. <br /> (Click mouse to animate.) The indicators of student performance are articulations of levels of performance in the development of skills or knowledge with reference to each of the expected qualities. These are the descriptions in the grid to the right of each expected quality. <br />

Rubrics: Transparent Assessment in Support of Learning Rubrics: Transparent Assessment in Support of Learning Presentation Transcript

  • ubricsubrics Ken Ronkowitz
  • What are we going to cover in thisWhat are we going to cover in this session?session? Defining rubricsDefining rubrics Reasons for using themReasons for using them TypesTypes Moodle rubric toolMoodle rubric tool
  • 1. What types of assessments do you use in your courses? 2. Do you use rubrics? 3. Do you use rubrics for grading? 4. Do you use rubrics for non-graded assessment? 5. Do you have students use them for self-assessment? But first
  • ubric historical A rubric was a word or section of text which was traditionally written or printed in red ink to highlight it. The word derives from the Latin: rubrica, meaning “red ochre” and originates in Medieval illuminated manuscripts where these red letters were used to highlight initial capitals, section headings and names of significance. They evolved to also includenotes or directions in the margins and carried over to university professors making notes on student writing in such a manner. Many teachers still do so – and even continue to use red ink.
  • What is a rubric?What is a rubric? • “A rubric is a scoring tool that lays out specific expectations for an assignment” (Stevens & Levi) • A description of explicit learning goals • A checklist of assignment criteria • A vehicle for feedback • A guide for planning future learning • A scoring chart
  • Why Use Rubrics?Why Use Rubrics?
  • Why use rubrics?Why use rubrics? A good rubric tells the performer (student) and evaluator (teacher) •by what criteria the work will be judged •the difference between good work and weaker work •that our judgments (or scores) are valid •a standard (continuity) for judging •When used correctly, it can help both performers and judges focus on improvement and achieving excellence.
  • Rubrics canRubrics can 1) Save grading time (eliminating the need to repeatedly write the same comments etc.) 2) Convey effective feedback 3) Give transparency and consistency in marking 4) Reduce hassles by minimizing marking complaints 5) Result in better understood assignment requirements 6) Provide more perceived objectivity 7) Reveal standards in a discipline 8) Share benchmark qualities
  • Pedagogically, rubrics canPedagogically, rubrics can • Guide feedback - descriptively • Characterize the desired results - objectively • Operationalize performance standards - purposefully • Develop self-assessment competence - constantly • Involve students – thoughtfully • Focus instruction – intentionally 
  • Rubrics putRubrics put intentionalintentional focus on elementsfocus on elements • They help guide the evaluator in giving feedback that is descriptive as well as evaluative. • Rubric creation by students is an excellent way to use active learning. o Active learning focuses the responsibility of learning on learners. It can be eye-opening to see what students believe is important or what they believe they will be judged on in the performance.
  • Typically, teachers use rubrics to assess an assignment, but they can also assess 1)The course MATERIALS 2)The DELIVERY of the course 3)Student UNDERSTANDING of broad concepts and knowledge elements 4)Student & instructor PERFORMANCE (problem solving, research, communication skills) 5)Student & instructor COMPETENCE (expertise) with the subject-matter. 6)Student & instructor HABITS OF MIND (perseverance, flexibility, tolerance for ambiguity, applying prior knowledge to new situations... see www.habits-of-mind.net Costa & Kallick
  • What’s In It For Students? Students can use rubrics: • when they plan their work • Before submission or performance as a checklist • at the completion of the task In designing rubrics, students will: • have a voice in their own assessment • be partners in learning • understand the expected qualities and indicators • understand feedback
  • Types of RubricsTypes of Rubrics
  • • A holistic rubric has one global, holistic rating for a behavior divided into levels of that rating. • More commonly, an analytic rubric has separate, ratings of specified characteristics of a behavior.
  • Holistic rubrics • Describe levels of performance in terms of the product or performance as a whole. • Are most useful when the ‘whole’ is more important than the ‘parts’. • Are often used in summative assessment, but may also be used for formative assessment. Analytical rubrics • Identify separately each of the qualities expected to be in evidence in the produce or performance. • Are most useful in formative assessment.
  • Holistic because each singular criterion above can receive 0-5 points. A criterion can also have simply a 0 or 1 rating.
  • In an analytical rubric, the cell descriptions of levels of achievement will contain different descriptions and items.
  • Scoring & Performance Rubrics • Although rubrics are often used for scoring (grading), there are good reasons for using them besides grading – for example, to evaluate current performance. • Rubrics used for grading are often called "scoring rubrics" and might be a form of summative assessment (grading). o By supplying students with a scoring rubric along with the initial assignment, you are making it very clear what is expected of them. Rubrics may help eliminate comments such as “ I wasn't sure what you wanted.” or “I don't see why I got a ‘B' instead of a 'A' .”
  • Eliminating the point values on this rubric for online discussion posts, takes away the scoring element.
  • SummativeSummative FormativeFormative • MOST COMMONLY USED assessment type - done at the conclusion of a module, course or any instructional period (eg, end of unit or program) • Like tests assignments and exams, generally used to assign marks or grades or to determine whether the student gains credit for the unit, level of achievement, the success or to what extent the program, project or course met its goals. • Assessment that is ongoing and • intended to give students feedback on their learning progress and • to give the teacher an indication of what students have mastered so far and areas of difficulty • and not to assign marks or grades toward determining whether the student gains credit for the work.
  • The aim of authentic assessment is to IMPROVE performance not merely to audit it. That includes the performance of the instructor, the course materials, the program...
  • Rubrics can be formative when used for self-assessment, critiques & peer-editing where consistency of judgment is critical. Assessment cannot be fair unless students as well as teachers know the “rules of the game” when they are beginning on a task.
  • Rubrics consist of 1. Columns = standards 2. Rows = objectives or criteria 3. Cells = measurement type 24
  • Rows (Objectives/Criteria)Rows (Objectives/Criteria) A learning objective becomes an assessment criterion o Example: Essay is written with correct grammar, spelling and mechanics. Building Rubrics 25
  • An objective in a simple rubric for comparing two items Exemplary Proficient Beginning Ability to select appropriate characteristics for comparison Selects important characteristics that provide a significant basis for comparison. Selects characteristics of varying importance that allow some comparison between two items. Selects characteristics which allow for a little comparison. Ability to identify similarities and differences between two items. Accurately identifies and selects the major similarities and differences for both items. Some similarities and differences identified. Important similarities and differences not included. Identifies either similarities or differences. Ability to use the identified similarities and differences to reach significant conclusions Draws insightful and thoughtful conclusions from the similarities and differences. Some thoughtful conclusions are drawn from the comparisons. A few conclusions are drawn from the comparisons. Expected Qualities
  • Columns (Standards)Columns (Standards) • First, determine the number of proficiency levels - 4 levels are typical Odd numbers are often avoided to avoid “sitting on the fence” or “splitting the difference” o Excellent/ Exceeds expectation/ Expert o Good/ Meets expectation/ Proficient o Satisfactory/ Needs some improvement/ Developing o Weak/ Needs much improvement/ Novice • Total of “meets expectation” column grades will often be the average mark or a “B”
  • A standard of proficiency Exemplary Proficient Beginning Ability to select appropriate characteristics for comparison Selects important characteristics that provide a significant basis for comparison. Selects characteristics of varying importance that allow some comparison between two items. Selects characteristics which allow for a little comparison. Ability to identify similarities and differences between two items. Accurately identifies and selects the major similarities and differences for both items. Some similarities and differences identified. Important similarities and differences not included. Identifies either similarities or differences. Ability to use the identified similarities and differences to reach significant conclusions Draws insightful and thoughtful conclusions from the similarities and differences. Some thoughtful conclusions are drawn from the comparisons. A few conclusions are drawn from the comparisons. Expected Qualities 2 2 2 2 6 points would be average-proficient-”B”
  • Cells (Measurement Type)Cells (Measurement Type) • Select measurement type for each criteria. You might want to measure: o Quality (How well was the task done?) • Eg How well did student apply theory to facts? o Quantity (How many of the tasks were done?) • Eg Were all the instructions followed? o Frequency (How often was the task done?) • Eg How frequently were grammatical/spelling errors made? o Consequence (What is effect of the work done?) • Eg Did the presentation hold the attention of the class?
  • A measurement of quality Exemplary Proficient Beginning Ability to select appropriate characteristics for comparison Selects important characteristics that provide a significant basis for comparison. Selects characteristics of varying importance that allow some comparison between two items. Selects characteristics which allow for a little comparison. Ability to identify similarities and differences between two items. Accurately identifies and selects the major similarities and differences for both items. Some similarities and differences identified. Important similarities and differences not included. Identifies either similarities or differences. Ability to use the identified similarities and differences to reach significant conclusions Draws insightful and thoughtful conclusions from the similarities and differences. Some thoughtful conclusions are drawn from the comparisons. A few conclusions are drawn from the comparisons. Expected Qualities
  • Breaking the RulesBreaking the Rules You can find examples of any rubric “rule” being broken
  • Does not describe the rating of 2 or 3
  • Designing a rubricDesigning a rubric
  • 4 high 3 2 1 low 0 or NA criterion
  • Designing a rubricDesigning a rubric usingusing
  • Using Moodle RubricsUsing Moodle Rubrics Rubrics can be added to an assignment or created when making a new assignment. 
  • When creating a new assignmentWhen creating a new assignment
  • MoodleRooms VIDEO TUTORIALS Creating a Moodle Rubric from Scratch http:// youtu.be/tdWqHBAH6XA Using a template http://youtu.be/wRRy0huMdqE Grading within a rubric http://youtu.be/ZC_SNqNgFw0 http://www.moodlerooms.com/resources/blog /best-practices-%E2%80%9Chow-to%E2%80%9D-videos-creating-moodle- rubrics
  • Rubric ResourcesRubric Resources • RubiStar http://rubistar.4teachers.org o Helps the teacher who wants to use rubrics, but does not have time to develop them from scratch. Provides template rubrics that can be printed and used for many typical projects and research assignments. • iRubric http://www.rcampus.com/indexrubric.cfm o Site for free development and sharing of rubrics and a public gallery, how-to videos and building tools. • My collection of rubric resources http://web.njit.edu/~ronkowit/teaching/rubrics/ 42