WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE & WHY? by Ronjula Dasher, M.P.H Program December 2011
▫Public Health’s Purposes, Services,& Funtions▫Public Health Careers▫Public Health Agency Organization and Structure▫The Science Behind Public Health▫Fulton County’s Department of Health &Wellness▫The Vision and Services Provided by TheNeighborhood Union Clinic of Fulton County▫Conclusion
There are 10 Essential Services that are Vital to Public Health’s Mission1.Monitoring health status to identify communityhealth problems.2.Diagnosing and investigating health problemsand health hazards in the community.3.Informing, educating, and empowering peopleabout health issues.4. Mobilizing community partnerships to identifyand solve health problems.5. Developing policies and plans that supportindividual and community health efforts.
6. Enforcing laws and regulations that protecthealth and ensure safety.7. Linking people with needed personal healthservices and assuring the provision of health carewhen otherwise unavailable.8. Assuring a competent public health andpersonal health care workforce.9. Evaluating effectiveness, accessibility, andquality of personal and population based healthservices.10. Researching new insights and innovativesolutions to health problems.
Public Health’s Mission:To promote physical and mental health, prevent disease, injury, and disability. There are 3 Levels of PreventionPrimary-preventing injury or disease fromoccurring at all.Secondary-minimizing damaged caused bydisease or injury.Tertiary-providing medical care or rehab. Tominimize any ensuing disability.
1 Preventing epidemics and the spread of disease.2. Protecting against environmental hazards.3. Preventing Injury4. Promoting and encouraging healthy behaviors.5. Responding to disasters and assistingcommunities in recovery.6. Assuring the quality and accessibility of healthservices.
1. Assessment-the collection, assembly andanalyzing of information on the health of thepopulation.2. Policy Development- use of scientificknowledge to develop strategies such aslaws, health mandates, and enforcements inorder to improve and protect the public’s health.3. Assurance- assuring that services such asenvironmental, educational, and basic medicalservices needed for the protection of the publicare available and assessable to everyone.
Sanitation and Hygiene- The first county health departments were established in 1908.From the 1930s-1950s, state and local health departments enforced disease prevention activities such as sewage disposal, water treatment, food safety, organized solid waste disposal, and public education about hygienic practices. (e.g., food handling and hand washing). Chlorination and other treatments of drinking water decreased the incidence of waterborne diseases.Animal and pest control also contributed to disease reduction.Vaccinations- In the U.S. vaccination campaigns have virtually eliminated diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella,influenzae, and type b meningitis.In 1955, the introduction of the Salk poliovirus vaccine led to federal funding of state and local childhood vaccination programs.1977, after a decade-long campaign involving 33 nations, smallpox was eradicated worldwide. Antibiotics and Other Antimicrobial Medicines-In 1928 Penicillin was discovered and in 1940 developed into a widely available medical product that provided treatment of previously incurable bacterial illnesses. Drugs also have been developed to treat viral diseases (e.g., herpes and HIV infection); fungal diseases (e.g., candidiasis and histoplasmosis); and parasitic diseases (e.g., malaria).
Public Health consists of a multidisciplinaryworkforce.It include physicians, nurses, social workers,dentists, epidemiologists, biostatisticians,political scientists, health educators,psychologists, policy analysts, and many others.The are employed by public or privateorganizations, and all public health workersperform one or more of the 10 essential publichealth services.
Epidemiology-studies the pattern of disease occurrence and the factors that influence them. Statistics-calculates the risk from exposure and the probability of occurrence . Genetics-studies the nature of diseases and who is at risk. Social and Behavioral Science- studies the behaviors that influence health.
Federal Level –The Dept. of Health & Human Services,Centers for Disease Control (CDC), EnvironmentalProtection Agency (EPA)-funds/oversees the states andsome local level agencies/efforts.State Level -funded mostly by state taxes and federalgrants. Coordinates activities of local or county health depts. has separate agencies within for environmental health, aging, social services, ect. Local Level- structure can vary from state to state. Responsible for health matters in their jurisdiction/county. Provides health care to the uninsured,i.e screenings, immunizations, chronic disease control programs, school health programs, and sanitation. Can be funded by the state, local property and sales tax, and the federal govt.
The vision of the local clinic of NeighborhoodUnion is to provide an integrated multidisciplinaryclinic with the goal of meeting as many health needsas possible of the community by providingtreatment, education, awareness, and preventativehealth services , while following the recommendedbest health practices. The clinic hopes to increasehealth outcomes of those living in the community sothat they will enjoy healthier, safer and longer lives.
Services Provided at the Fulton County Neighborhood Union Clinic Serving the Community of Vine City of Atlanta, GABehavioral Health Services ●Initial Screening ●Behavioral Assessments ●Nursing Assessments ●Psychiatric Assessments ●Medication Management/Administration ●Group Counseling ●Brief Individual Counseling (6-8 sessions) ●Behavioral Health Service Referral/Linkage ●Drug Abuse Treatment ●Anger/Anxiety Coping and Control ●Depression Treatment and Coping
Primary Care Services ●Doctor Visits ●Health Check Ups/Physical Exams ●STD/HIV Testing and Counseling ●Smoking Cessation ●Weight ManagementWomen’s & Children’s Health Services ●Parenting Help Services ●WIC/Family Nutrition ●Pregnancy Testing/Prenatal Care ●Birth Control ●Medicaid Referrals ●Child Medical Treatment Services/Pediatrics ●Teenage Counseling Services ●Newborn Baby Care ●Shots/Immunizations (Adults and Children) ●Aging/Senior Services ●New Born Baby Care
Dental Services For Adult and Children ●Treatment of Tooth Pain ● Extractions (non-wisdom) ● Cleanings ● Examinations and X-rays ● Root Canals ( Front teeth only) ● Emergency Dental Care ● Fillings( silver and tooth colored) ● ReferralsWork Force & Development Services ● Job Search and Resume Writing Services/Referral to GED Classes ● Job Training ● Reading and Writing Assistance ● Training and Help with Computer Skills ● Assistance with Locating Housing
Again the purpose of Public Health is toprevent epidemics and the spread of disease,protect against environmental hazards, preventinjury, promote and encourage healthybehaviors ,respond to disasters and assist inrecovery, and to assure the quality andaccessibility of health services. As noted theNeighborhood Union Clinic provides manyservices that support these purposes.
Schneider, M.J.(2006). Introduction to Public Health. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA. Jones and Bartlett.Turnock , B.J. (2006).Public Health: Career Choices That Make a Difference. Sudbury, MA. Jones and Bartlett.CDC. (1999).MMWR. Achievements in Public Health, 1900- 1999: Control of Infectious Diseases. 48(29);621- 629.Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm 4829a1.htm.Fulton County Department of Health &Wellness.(2011).Neighborhood Union Health Center. For further information visit http://www.fultoncountyga.gov/dhw-clinics-office- locations/