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  • 1. JOINTSCAPT RISHI POKHREL
  • 2. INTRODUCTION 2
  • 3. CLASSIFICATIONSFibrous Cartilaginous SynovialFixed Slightly movable Freely movable(Synarthroses) (Amphiarthroses) (Diarthroses)Types Types TypesSutures Pri.cart. joints Plane• Plane (Synchondroses) Hinge• Squamous Pivot• Limbous Sec.cart. Joints Bicondylar• Serrate (Syndesmoses) Ellipsoid• Dentate Saddle Schindylesis Ball and socketGomphosisSyndesmosis 3
  • 4. CLASSIFICATIONS JOINTS SYNARTHROSES SYNOVIALFIBROUS  SUTURES  SYNDESMOSIS  GOMPHOSESCARTILAGENOIS  SYNCHONDROSES  SYMPHYSES 4
  • 5. FIBROUS JOINTSSUTURES 5
  • 6. Sutures 6
  • 7. Syndesmosis 7
  • 8. GOMPHOSES 8
  • 9. CARTILAGENOUS JOINTS SYNCHONDROSES 9
  • 10. SYMPHYSES 10
  • 11. SYNOVIAL JOINT 11
  • 12. ARTICULAR SURFACE OF BONES 12
  • 13. ARTICULAR CARTILAGE MIC. STR. LAMINA SPLENDENS  Bright line at free surface of articular cartilage seen on oblique sections on negative phase microscopy  Not an anatomically distinct surface layer.  Artifect at border between regions of different ref index 13
  • 14. Joint capsule 14
  • 15. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE 15
  • 16. SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE 16
  • 17. SYNOVIAL FLUID  Volume – 0.5 ml in knee jt  Color – clear or pale yellow  pH - slightly alkaline  Proteins – 0.9 mg/dl  Cells – 60/ml  Amorphous metachromatic particles 17
  • 18. INTRAARTICULAR MENISCUS & DISC 18
  • 19. LABRUM 19
  • 20. BLOOD SUPPLY 20
  • 21. NERVE SUPPLY Hiltons law 21
  • 22. NERVE RECEPTORSRuffini endingsLamellated articular corpusclesGolgi tendon organsSimple nerve endings 22
  • 23. CLASSIFICATION OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS Based on shape of articular surface ∞ Plane jt ∞ Ellipsoid jt ∞ Hinge jt ∞ Saddle jt ∞ Pivot jt ∞ Ball and socket jt ∞ Bicondylar jt Articular shapes are never truly flat, spherical, cylinder, cone or ellipsoids but part of a spheroid. 23
  • 24. PLANE JOINT 24
  • 25. HINGE JOINT 25
  • 26. PIVOT JOINT 26
  • 27. BICONDYLAR JOINT 27
  • 28. ELLIPSOIDAL JOINT 28
  • 29. SADDLE JOINT 29
  • 30. BALL & SOCKET JOINT 30
  • 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING MOVEMENTS OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS  Complexity of form  Degrees of freedom 31
  • 32. ARTICULAR MOVEMENTS AND MECHANISMS Combination of translation and angulation Movement  slight – similar sized reciprocal surfaces  wide – habitually more mobile bone has larger articular surface 32
  • 33. ARTICULAR MOVEMENTS AND MECHANISMS contd...  Translation  Angulation • Flexion and extension • Abduction and adduction • Axial rotation • Circumduction 33
  • 34. DevelopmentMesodermal origin with some neural crest contribution. Regions of developing cartilage consist of widely spaced cells surrounded by matrix. Condensation of somatopleuric mesenchymal cells develop between developing skeletal elements to form plates of interzonal mesenchyme Their subsequent development varies acc. to type of joint  Fibrous joint  Cartilagenous joint  Synovial joint 34
  • 35. Development 35
  • 36. APPLIED ANATOMY1.Craniosynostosis 36
  • 37. 2. JOINT REPLACEMENTS 37
  • 38. 3. Premature fusion of synchondroses4. Arthritis 38
  • 39. DISCUSSION 39