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ARTICULAR CARTILAGE MIC. STR. LAMINA SPLENDENS Bright line at free surface of articular cartilage seen on oblique sections on negative phase microscopy Not an anatomically distinct surface layer. Artifect at border between regions of different ref index 13
CLASSIFICATION OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS Based on shape of articular surface ∞ Plane jt ∞ Ellipsoid jt ∞ Hinge jt ∞ Saddle jt ∞ Pivot jt ∞ Ball and socket jt ∞ Bicondylar jt Articular shapes are never truly flat, spherical, cylinder, cone or ellipsoids but part of a spheroid. 23
FACTORS INFLUENCING MOVEMENTS OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS Complexity of form Degrees of freedom 31
ARTICULAR MOVEMENTS AND MECHANISMS Combination of translation and angulation Movement slight – similar sized reciprocal surfaces wide – habitually more mobile bone has larger articular surface 32
ARTICULAR MOVEMENTS AND MECHANISMS contd... Translation Angulation • Flexion and extension • Abduction and adduction • Axial rotation • Circumduction 33
DevelopmentMesodermal origin with some neural crest contribution. Regions of developing cartilage consist of widely spaced cells surrounded by matrix. Condensation of somatopleuric mesenchymal cells develop between developing skeletal elements to form plates of interzonal mesenchyme Their subsequent development varies acc. to type of joint Fibrous joint Cartilagenous joint Synovial joint 34