Pssr w manila amend june 2013


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Pssr w manila amend june 2013

  1. 1. Revised June 2013 STCW Personal Safety & Social Responsibilities ( PSSR )
  2. 2. Introduction to STCW Basic Safety Training Module 1 - Introduction PSSR (STCW 2010) 2
  3. 3. Crew that are employed or engaged in any capacity on board a Yacht or as part of the Yachts’ compliment of crew with designated safety or pollution-prevention duties shall, before being assigned to any shipboard duties receive appropriate approved basic training STCW ‘95 Basic Safety Training comprises 4 modules taken over 6 days Incorporating the Manila Amendments 2010 PSSR (STCW 2010) 3
  4. 4. S.T.C.W. ’95 Basic Courses The 4 courses are: 1. Personal Safety and Social Responsibilities – 1 day 2. Personal Survival Techniques – 2 days 3. Fire Prevention and Fire Fighting – 2 days 4. Elementary First Aid – 1 day The objectives of the modules are to: Train all crew in understanding the possible hazards likely to be encountered while working on a vessel and the appropriate response/actions to be taken in the event an emergency should occur, Underscore the value and requirements for emergency on board drills and training and the impact for both the crew member and vessel Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers PSSR (STCW 2010) 4
  5. 5. S.T.C.W. ’95 Basic Courses Are mandated by ALL Flag States for all working seafarers. How are the “Rules” enforced in the International Maritime Forum? STCW and other “Conventions” are negotiated by the Maritime Flag States in the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). These conventions lead to internationally agreed rules and regulations for safe navigation and pollution prevention in all waters navigated by ships etc. PSSR (STCW 2010) 5
  6. 6. Organisational Structure for Nautical Qualifications United Nations International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 181 member and 3 Associate Member States Conventions Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Load Line Collision Regulations (COLREGS) Maritime Pollution (MARPOL) Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) UK MCA Maritime and Coastguard Agency USA USCG United States Coast Guard Canada Transport Canada Australia AMSA Australian Maritime Safety AuthorityPSSR (STCW 2010) 6
  7. 7. STCW Basic Training focuses on: Your actions, Your responsibilities, Your behaviour. • A framework for safe working practices • Understanding your functions in an emergency • Working as part of a team in a maritime environment • Like the other STCW courses, this course is focused on you, the individual, your actions, your responsibilities, your behaviour. • It will teach you that ignorance is not bliss and in the current culture of accountability – “blame and sue” – is no longer acceptable • Formal training such as this means you cannot say “I didn’t know or I wasn’t told” PSSR (STCW 2010) 7
  8. 8. • Introduction to PSSR • Accidents and emergencies compliance with emergency procedures • Safe working practices • Effective shipboard communications • Importance of teamwork/ team building and human relations • Fatigue, causes and effects, controls and rest required • Marine pollution, awareness issues, effects, controls and prevention PSSR Module Covers Crew competency PSSR (STCW 2010) 8
  9. 9. Crew Competency Crew Competency means: Physically fit Well trained Properly equipped Having a clear understanding of tasks Knowing requirements of tasks Being aware of dangers Knowing expected outcome of actions Understanding relationship to crew Having required depth of knowledge PSSR (STCW 2010) 9
  10. 10. Introduction to accidents and emergencies compliance with emergency procedures, drills and training Module 2 – Accidents and Emergencies PSSR (STCW 2010) 10
  11. 11. Safety Factors• Structural integrity of vessel • Safety equipment on board • Skill of the crew • Abilities of the crew • Qualifications of the crew • Training of the crew The best equipment in the world is useless unless it is properly maintained and the crew know how to use it. YOU CANNOT BUY A “SAFE” YACHT! PSSR (STCW 2010) 11
  12. 12. Maritime Dangers • Personal injury • Falling overboard • Mechanical breakdowns • Fire • Collision • Flooding • Sinking • Stranding • Bad weather PSSR (STCW 2010) 12
  13. 13. Value of Training • Training programmes the crew for proper response to these maritime dangers • Keeps crew up to date with best practice • Allocates time devoted to continuing professional development • Encourages teamwork • Instills responsibility PSSR (STCW 2010) 13
  14. 14. Value of Drills • Familiarisation with vessel • Familiarisation with equipment • Develops a team spirit among crew • Planned/correct response to emergencies • Prepared frame of mind • Practice leads to confidence in response PSSR (STCW 2010) 14
  15. 15. Accidents at Sea 80% of all accidents are caused by: • Stress • Fatigue • Poor communication skills • Poor health • Social isolation • Negative lifestyle choices • Human Factors PSSR (STCW 2010) 15
  16. 16. Common Accident Locations • Galley • Weather deck • Engine room • Laundry • Aloft • Over the side • Machinery spaces • Watersports and equipment PSSR (STCW 2010) 16
  17. 17. Causes of Accidents • Improper training • Carelessness • Fatigue • Improper use of or not using personal protective equipment • Poor work practices • No planning PSSR (STCW 2010) 17
  18. 18. Causes of Injury/accidents • Movement about the vessel • Galley cooker / knives / hot oil • Engine room equipment / hot moving parts • Laundry (lint) • Welding / soldering/grinding/”hot work! • Lifting / carrying to much weight • Handling lines • Electrical work • Painting • Hazardous materials • Fatigue PSSR (STCW 2010) 18
  19. 19. Your duties / responsibilities ARE In any Emergency to: • Know the emergency signals • Know your emergency muster station • Know how to raise the alarm • Know what to do on hearing the alarm • Know your specific duties PSSR (STCW 2010) 19
  20. 20. Your duties / responsibilities are: • To be familiar with your equipment, its location and how it is used • To keep equipment maintained • To inform head of department of any faults or problems PSSR (STCW 2010) 20 Continued:
  21. 21. Your duties / responsibilities are: Shipboard Familiarisation: • To be familiar with contingency plans • To be familiar with location of muster lists, boat stations/fire stations • To know signs/lights/alternate routes/ escape routes • To know types of alarm – light/audible/bell • To know location of safety equipment PSSR (STCW 2010) 21 Continued:
  22. 22. Discovering Emergencies • Initial Action – Fire – Injury – Man overboard – Flooding – Other collision etc Raise alarm and commence the drill PSSR (STCW 2010) 22
  23. 23. Alarms • General alarm (SOLAS only recognizes min of 7 short and 1 prolonged blast) • MOB • FIRE • Other By means of: • Ships bell, whistle or siren • Intercom • Electric bells/alarms • C02 alarm (rare on yachts) PSSR (STCW 2010) 23
  24. 24. Escape Options • Bridge • Hatches • Doorways • Windows • Engine room • Deck tunnel PSSR (STCW 2010) 24
  25. 25. Introduction to Safe working practices Module 3 – Safe Working Practices PSSR (STCW 2010) 25
  26. 26. Safe Working Practices • Standard shipboard safe working practices • Importance of understanding these • Safety management system • Safety Policies • Ship safety framework, safety officers etc PSSR (STCW 2010) 26
  27. 27. Safe working practices • Safe working practices are based on the premise: • Competent staff trained for the task • Necessary tools and equipment properly maintained • A safe platform to work with adequate ventilation and light • A safe system of work adequately supervised PSSR (STCW 2010) 27
  28. 28. Safe working practices • Work practice –COSWP (Code of Safe Working Practices) • Covers: Safety equipment Movements on board Entry into enclosed spaces Most severe hazards Safety Management System should be in place On Large yachts and commercial vessels work is: • Controlled by: – Safety Officer – Committee – Permit to work • The "Permit-to Work" system should be used aboard ship to make sure safety procedures for job are made known to the worker PSSR (STCW 2010) 28
  29. 29. Safety References • STCW-95 Table A-VI/1-1 through 1-4 of the STCW Code • SOLAS, 1997 • Code of Safe Working Practices UK MCA • MARPOL, 73/78 (International Treaty) • All maritime administrations issue Information Supplements regarding personal safety at sea and social responsibility • USA - Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) • USA - OP A-90 – (US Law) In March 1989 the Exxon Valdez (belonging to Exxon) ran aground and spilled oil in Alaska's Prince William Sound, covering 12,400 sq km/4,800 sq mi and killing at least 34,400 sea birds, 10,000 sea otters, and up to 16 whales. The incident led to the US Oil Pollution Act of 1990, which requires tankers operating in US waters to have double hulls. PSSR (STCW 2010) 29
  30. 30. Personal Safety Equipment • Lifejackets • Immersion suits • Face / eye protection • Hearing protection • Emergency escape breathing apparatus • Lumbar support belts • Respirators • Safety helmets • Safety boots / shoes PSSR (STCW 2010) 30
  31. 31. General Safety Rules • Flag state and port state regulations and ship’s standing orders must be followed • Obey all safety signs and instructions and heed all warning notices • Follow safety management system regulations, safe working policies, practices and procedures • Working areas are to be maintained in a safe, clean and tidy condition PSSR (STCW 2010) 31
  32. 32. General Safety Rules (cont.) • Always use personal protective equipment (PPE) • Maintain PPE properly PSSR (STCW 2010) 32
  33. 33. General Safety Rules (cont.) • Good housekeeping is essential - all equipment and tools are to be cleaned and checked • Do not use any faulty equipment • Known or suspected hazards or unsafe conditions or practices are to be reported • Maintain concentration • Use your common sense if in doubt Stop what you are doing and report to your supervisor. Don’t take chances. PSSR (STCW 2010) 33
  34. 34. General Safety Rules (cont.) • Do not try to lift or move any object if you think it is too heavy to do so • Never attempt any task unless the correct equipment and sufficient QUALIFIED people are available • Never operate any equipment or machinery unless you are qualified to do so PSSR (STCW 2010) 34
  35. 35. General Safety Rules (cont.) • Reported hazards or unsafe conditions should be rectified • All personnel involved are made aware of any hazard and that danger is minimized • Appropriate safety equipment must be used • Human error is the cause of many accidents • Before starting any project, personnel involved must conduct a safety meeting to establish safe procedures PSSR (STCW 2010) 35
  36. 36. General Safety Rules (cont.) • All accidents and injuries must be reported to the Captain and Safety Officer • Do not misuse any equipment and do not indulge in horseplay • Never operate any machinery unless all guards and other safety devices are in place • Never operate machinery or equipment while under the influence of alcohol or drugs PSSR (STCW 2010) 36
  37. 37. General Safety Rules (cont.) • Work areas must be properly lit and ventilated • No work may be carried out on any machinery or equipment unless a Permit to Work has been issued and the equipment has been isolated, locked or secured as necessary • No work may be carried out in any confined space unless the space has been thoroughly vented and proved safe • Ladders should be lashed top and bottom before use PSSR (STCW 2010) 37
  38. 38. Permit to Work Part of a Safety Management System • The Permit To Work system ensures – That authorized and properly trained personnel have considered all potential hazards – That all reasonable precautions have been taken to reduce risk to personnel involved in performing the task. – That all personnel who are signatory to the permit fully understand their responsibilities PSSR (STCW 2010) 38
  39. 39. Permit to Work (cont.) • The Permit To Work divided into the following categories: – Work details – Description of the work – Isolation (mechanical/electrical), testing – Personal protective equipment – Instruction and authorization – Pre-job safety meeting – The work permit – Authorization PSSR (STCW 2010) 39
  40. 40. Understanding orders Need for proper terminology Communicating effectively with shipmates Effective communications skills and the importance to safety and morale Module 4 - Effective Shipboard Communications PSSR (STCW 2010) 40
  41. 41. Shipboard Communication • Importance of understanding orders • Understanding the need for proper terminology • Communicating effectively with shipmates • Effective communications skills and the importance to safety and morale • Importance of effective communications to teamwork PSSR (STCW 2010) 41
  42. 42. On Board Communications • Internal telephone system • Hand held VHF radios • Walkie talkies • Public address system • Intercoms PSSR (STCW 2010) 42
  43. 43. Basic Shipboard Orders • Understand and learn terminology - for’ard, Aft, Port, Starboard, etc. • Know correct method of communication • Speak clearly/concisely/repeat confirmation. • If in doubt ask for clarification PSSR (STCW 2010) 43
  44. 44. Importance of Clear Communications • Safety • Productivity • Teambuilding • Morale PSSR (STCW 2010) 44
  45. 45. PSSR (STCW 2010) 45 Definition of Effective Communications Communication is about conveying information or exchanging ideas, information and knowledge Good communications is integral to leadership, teamwork and inclusion Effective communication and teamwork requires giving clear and concise information, listening, questioning and receiving feedback that confirms understanding by others in order to achieve a commonly held purpose or goal
  46. 46. Methods of Communication 46 Communications may be verbal, written or non-verbal. Verbal communication include: •Informal - casual conversation, advice or instruction that allows levels of voluntary participation. •Formal - order or command that is required to be obeyed and implemented. Written communications include: •notices, memos, signs etc. •formal information promulgated by management company or owner personnel, Master and officers, safety officers etc. which includes such items as Masters and engine room standing orders, various log books, safety management. Non-verbal communications include: •facial expressions, hand signals, body language, attire and attitude of the communicators. This informal communication can lead to misunderstandings with persons of differing backgrounds and cultures.
  47. 47. • Industry is very multicultural therefore the potential for misunderstanding communications is high. • Use formal verbal and non-verbal communication in operational situations, such as saluting in acknowledgment of instructions from a senior officer, repeating back orders, and use standardized hand signals for lifting and docking/mooring operations. PSSR (STCW 2010) 47 Methods of Communication (Cont.)
  48. 48. The Communication Process • Analogy of radio communications for the processes that are involved in all effective communications • Speaker • Receiver • Message • Feedback • Acknowledgment shows message has been received and more importantly understood. Gives the parties option to engage in questions/answers to ensure this is the case. PSSR (STCW 2010) 48
  49. 49. Reading • All crew members need to understand complex issues, ideas and orders to be an effective part of a disparate group of people, the crew. • Industry is becoming more complex and that requires distribution of information on factors ranging from safety, operations, regulations, etc. to social interaction while on board. • Majority of this information is distributed in writing such as standing orders, safety information, watch and muster information etc. • All crew need the ability to read orders etc. AND their level of comprehension is adequate. PSSR (STCW 2010) 49
  50. 50. Barriers to Communications • Physical – external noise etc. • Biased attitudes – based on race or sex • Language PSSR (STCW 2010) 50
  51. 51. Barriers to Communications, cont. • Factors such as background/other disruptive noise, other external factors, surrounding activities, fatigue or stress, low morale. • May also include language barriers, social customs barriers, and biased attitudes based on race or gender • IMO requirements for written safety materials and notices to be in English, the Flag State language and the language of the crew members PSSR (STCW 2010) 51
  52. 52. Barriers to Communications, cont. • Low moral may be a factor due to poor leadership, being away from family and friends, team not getting along, vessel conditions etc. • The ILO Maritime Labour Convention recommends that crew should be access telephone communications, email and internet facilities • ILO M L C also covers accommodation, rest and other facilities PSSR (STCW 2010) 52
  53. 53. Effective Transmission Skills • Key to communication is to be clear, concise and planned; simple - using short sentences • Orders - speak clearly, concisely, repeat the instruction and ask for confirmation • Recipient to confirm instruction by repeating; ask for clarification if in doubt • Good communicator considers who they are talking with and adjusts their language to that person's needs PSSR (STCW 2010) 53
  54. 54. Effective Transmission Skills, cont. • Failure to communicate may be due to: • Being too hot or too cold • Too tired • Preoccupied with other personal issues or upset • Language barriers • Difference in culture, • Difference in age • Difference in gender PSSR (STCW 2010) 54
  55. 55. Common mistakes in delivery may be: •Mumbling, speaking too softly or loudly. •Speaking too fast. •Repetition or talking too much. •Using inappropriate language/unfamiliar technical terms •Lecturing, boasting or interrupting. •Not speaking up or participating. PSSR (STCW 2010) 55 Effective Transmission Skills, cont.
  56. 56. Use of Questions in Communicating • An effective communicator considers both verbal and non-verbal feedback • Questions will help to confirm understanding • Questions can be closed or open • Closed questions elicit short answers • Open questions require a more complex answer – will clarify if someone understands the message PSSR (STCW 2010) 56
  57. 57. Use of Questions in Communicating •Closed questions elicit short answers - begin with phrases such as “do you”, “can you”, “have you”, or “are you’. Usually elicit a “yes” or “no” response. e.g. "Do you have the torch?" or “are you on duty?" •Open questions require a fuller answer and will clarify if someone understands the message and begin with phrases such as how, what, where, when or why. e.g. "What kind of lighting will you need?" or “how long are you on duty?" PSSR (STCW 2010) 57
  58. 58. •Leading questions do not help in confirming understanding as they suggest the answer. examples: –"Don't you think this is correct?" –"You wouldn't want to waste time, would you?" PSSR (STCW 2010) 58 Use of Questions in Communicating (cont.)
  59. 59. Steps to Effective Listening • Stop talking • Create a positive listening climate • Concentrate • Judge content, not delivery • Avoid “screening out” or selective listening • Don’t jump to conclusions • Ask questions PSSR (STCW 2010) 59
  60. 60. Steps to Effective Listening (cont.) • Control your emotions • Look beyond words • Don’t be too quick to reply • Learn to listen & understand • Practice listening PSSR (STCW 2010) 60
  61. 61. Giving Constructive Feedback • Listen to message, not personality • Be specific • Be supportive • Be tactful & diplomatic, don’t overload • Can behavior be improved? • Avoid unwanted advice • Be positive • Be ready to receive constructive criticism PSSR (STCW 2010) 61
  62. 62. Effects and Consequences of Wrong Communication Misunderstood orders and written safety instructions misinterpreted Leads to: Danger to the individuals concerned, the entire vessel, other vessels or facilities where the vessel is positioned PSSR (STCW 2010) 62
  63. 63. Module 5 Teamwork, Team Building & Effective Human Relations PSSR (STCW 2010) 63
  64. 64. Teamwork Definition • Defined as working together in an organized and cooperative effort for the common good • Teamwork requires giving clear and concise information, listening, questioning and receiving feedback that confirms understanding by others in order to achieve a commonly held purpose or goal • A team is only as good as the sum of its parts PSSR (STCW 2010) 64
  65. 65. Achieving Effective Teamwork • Captain, Officers/Heads of Departments must encourage each crew member to develop a positive team atmosphere; • This is achieved by building trust through allowing open two-way communications. Maintaining a healthy team spirit is highly conducive to achieving great results which in turn leads to an efficiently run vessel PSSR (STCW 2010) 65
  66. 66. Coordination/Communication in a Successful Team • Requires common purpose and a plan • Crew must work flexibly and cooperatively to support others when required • A successful team manages common goals, joint action and cooperation • A strong team approach creates an organisation whose whole is greater than the sum of its parts PSSR (STCW 2010) 66
  67. 67. Elements of a Successful Team • Harmonious atmosphere • Shared workload • Shared responsibility • Mutual help • Shared resources • Reach the goals set • Conflict resolution is effective PSSR (STCW 2010) 67
  68. 68. Barriers to Successful Teamwork • Every crew member has both responsibilities and rights; but barriers can form when: – Everyone has their own personality – Everyone has ways of solving problems from their own experiences • Other barriers include: – cross cultural differences, – differences in interests, – different beliefs and lifestyles PSSR (STCW 2010) 68
  69. 69. Social Responsibilities / Teamwork/ Human Relations Includes Introduction to: •Harassment •Drug and alcohol abuse •Conflicts and lack of resolution •Fatigue (covered later as a separate issue) •Health, contracts and life on board PSSR (STCW 2010) 69
  70. 70. Harassment can take a number of different forms and it is defined as: Any form of discrimination against a person on account of gender, nationality, colour, or disability. It will polarise the crew and reduce the team spirit, maybe disastrously. Any such action has to be reported and dealt with immediately Harassment PSSR (STCW 2010) 70
  71. 71. Forms of Harassment Forms of harassment include: •Discrimination by age, sex, nationality, culture or a disability. •Ridiculing a person's behaviour or circumstances. •Criticising and putting someone down repeatedly. •Touching a person inappropriately. •Verbal insinuations of a sexual or other discriminatory nature •Coercing someone to undetake tasks that are outside of their job description. •Bullying or threatening behaviour and language. PSSR (STCW 2010) 71
  72. 72. Sexual Harassment Sexual Harassment is a form of sex discrimination that involves: • Unwelcome sexual advances, • Requests for sexual favors, and/or • Other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature • Conduct interferes with individual’s performance or creates intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment. PSSR (STCW 2010) 72
  73. 73. Combating Harassment • It is vital to combat harassment • Where does it come from? – Individuals – crew and guests – Supervisors – Captain – Bystanders – yard workers etc • Mariner has the right/ responsibility to report ALL problems • Hard to prosecute in the marine industry PSSR (STCW 2010) 73
  74. 74. Conflicts and Conflict Resolution • Conflict is the result of continuing misunderstanding of the views and perspectives of another • It may elicit two different responses, fight or flight. In both, there is a very real disruption for the team unless it is resolved quickly – Fighter is characterised by aggression and attempts to dominate the other person, aggressive posturing - can lead to acts of violence – Flight person will act passively, withdraw/walk away - suffer lowered self-esteem & anger with resentment PSSR (STCW 2010) 74
  75. 75. Conflict Resolution (Cont.) • The close working environment on a vessel may well heighten the conflict • Conflict resolution MUST occur quickly • Conflict resolution should be a part of the vessel’s procedures, as it is essential to maintaining the team spirit PSSR (STCW 2010) 75
  76. 76. Drug and Alcohol Abuse • Substance abuse will affect an individual’s performance and thus affect the team’s performance. • There is no place on any vessel for Illegal drugs or alcohol in the working environment • Has an impact on the safety of the vessel • If drugs are found on board it may lead to detention of the whole crew and the vessel • In some parts of the world possession of even the smallest amount of illegal drugs can lead to the death penalty PSSR (STCW 2010) 76
  77. 77. Drug and Alcohol Abuse (Cont.) • There should be a drug and alcohol policy in place for every vessel including zero tolerance for illegal drugs. • There may be a limited provision for reasonable alcohol consumption, provided the crew member is off-duty and has no safety responsibility role. PSSR (STCW 2010) 77
  78. 78. New Regulations Concerning Alcohol/Substance abuse (2013) Alcohol: • Limit of 0.05% blood alcohol content (BAC) or 0.25 mg/l alcohol in the breath for Masters, Officers and other seafarers while performing watchkeeping, safety, security and marine environmental duties has been established. • Flag State and International Safety Management (ISM) Auditors are required to randomly test PSSR (STCW 2010) 78
  79. 79. Drug/substances: • Drug abuse affects the critical operations and safety of any vessel • Zero tolerance and testing is required • Provides mandatory testing on a random basis • Required - a policy is required to be in place to cover training, crisis management, employee education, counseling, treatment, rehabilitation, substance and alcohol testing and evaluation PSSR (STCW 2010) 79 New Regulations Concerning Alcohol/Substance abuse (2013)
  80. 80. Alcohol • Most frequently abused drug • Central nervous system depressant – Puts mind to “sleep” • Abuse can lead to increased brain, liver, blood vessel damage • Risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, vision disturbances, neurological/psychological problems • Alcoholism is a DISEASE PSSR (STCW 2010) 80
  81. 81. Alcohol (Cont.) Alcohol abuse is responsible for: • 60% of all auto fatalities • 40% of assaults • 40% of rape cases • 60% of suicides • 50% of fire related deaths PSSR (STCW 2010) 81 • Mandatory Testing is required after marine casualty or serious marine incident • Random testing is required • Impacts on license issuing/renewal • Limit of 0.05% blood alcohol content (BAC) or 0.25 mg/l alcohol Alcohol & Regulations
  82. 82. Drug Abuse • Illegal activity • Discipline problems • Possible vessel arrested • Possible crew arrested or worse • Trauma associated with withdrawal often severe • PROFESSIONAL HELP IS A MUST!PROFESSIONAL HELP IS A MUST! 82 Drugs and Regulations • Mandatory Testing is required after marine casualty or serious marine incident • Random testing is required • Impacts on license issuing/renewal • Drugs - tests for marijuana, cocaine, opiates, phencyclidine (PCP), amphetamines, etc.
  83. 83. Signs of Drug Abuse • Sudden changes of mood • Unusual irritability • Loss of appetite • Loss of interest in work, hobbies or social life • Bouts of drowsiness or sleepiness • Strange behavior or evidence of telling lies • Petty theft and unexplained loss of money and personal possessions • Unusual smells, stains or marks on the body, on clothing or in cabin PSSR (STCW 2010) 83
  84. 84. Drug clearance times DRUG TIME Cocaine 2-4 days Amphetamines 1-4 days Opiates 2 days LSD 1-3 days Methadone 3 days Cannabis Depends on dose etc. see below 1-2 joints 2-3 days Oral ingestion 1-5 days Moderate (4 times per week) 5 days Heavy (daily) 10 days Chronic (> than 5 joints per day) 14-20 days PSSR (STCW 2010) 84
  85. 85. Getting Help For all vessels and owners • There must be a policy in place to cover, training, crisis management, employee education, counseling, treatment, rehabilitation, substance and alcohol testing and evaluation. • (In the USA - Employee Assistance Program (EAP) Required by US Coast Guard) Treat as Illness Seek Medical HelpTreat as Illness Seek Medical Help Patient Must Assume Responsibility!Patient Must Assume Responsibility! PSSR (STCW 2010) 85
  86. 86. Introduction to Life on Board Health Contracts etc. PSSR (STCW 2010) 86
  87. 87. Life on Board • Captain and crew should always be rested and alert so duties can be performed well and watchkeepers can keep safe watch of the vessel. • Crew must maintain a proper lookout at all times. • Crew should maintain a continuous record of speed, direction, position and be fully aware of the positions of other vessels and other hazards • Never pollute the water and always protect the environment. • Always maintain an effective radio watch. • Adhere strictly to the Captain’s orders. PSSR (STCW 2010) 87
  88. 88. Noise, hygiene, health • Living and working in limited and confined space • Consider other crew members, especially those on rest breaks • Limit noise • Important to shower and change clothes regularly • Take care of health, exercise and eat well • Make positive lifestyle choices PSSR (STCW 2010) 88
  89. 89. Climate Extremes • Hypothermia - body core temperature falls below that necessary to sustain life • Hyperthermia - overheating, sunstroke and heat exhaustion • Always dress appropriately, take breaks Hot and Sunny • Hats/sunscreen/long sleeves • Drink water Cold/Wet • Layer principal • Wet gear PSSR (STCW 2010) 89
  90. 90. Contracts • Verbal agreements are binding, but can be unenforceable • Independent written agreements are highly recommended • The standard in Merchant Navies is becoming the norm in yachting • Statutory form agreements are available such as MCA crew agreement PSSR (STCW 2010) 90
  91. 91. PSSR (STCW 2010) 91 Contract Terms and Inclusions: •Produced by owner/manager/agent •Job function •Compensation – frequency & method •Holidays /time off •Probationary period, usually 3 months •Summary dismissal, recourse option for dangerous behaviour •Repatriation to country of origin •Venue of jurisdiction in the event of legal action •Drug policy zero tolerance‑ •Smoking and alcohol policy •Special issues - confidentiality, tips •Personal hygiene – some personal matters are addressed formally such as dress code, jewelry etc.
  92. 92. Personal Safety • Follow the rules/safety guidelines and all orders when on board When ashore be aware of all surroundings and circumstances: • Learn the customs of the countries you will be traveling to and abide by them • Do not compare, criticize or complain about other countries • Never show prejudice and respect the cultures of the country you are visiting • Be wary when using public transportation - pick-pockets are active in crowds • Foreigners and tourists are often viewed as easy targets PSSR (STCW 2010) 92
  93. 93. Personal Safety cont. • Some cities are very dangerous. When in cities that are viewed as dangerous you should remain on the vessel if possible. • All crew should go ashore in groups • Females should avoid traveling into cities alone. PSSR (STCW 2010) 93
  94. 94. Fatigue, causes, effects & controls Regulations required for proper rest for all members on board Module 6 - Fatigue PSSR (STCW 2010) 94
  95. 95. Fatigue PSSR (STCW 2010) 95
  96. 96. Fatigue Defined Fatigue can be defined as: • a state of feeling tired, weary, or sleepy as a result of prolonged mental or physical work, extended periods of stress or anxiety, exposure to harsh environments or lack of sleep. •Fatigue leads to impaired performance and diminished alertness. PSSR (STCW 2010) 96
  97. 97. Causes of Fatigue • Yachting is a specialised industry prone to fatigue because of 24 hours a days, 7 days per week on call • This also requires constant alertness and intense concentration from the crew • Seafarer is a captive at his or her work environment • Seafarer may spend between three to six months working and living away from home • Moving vessel is subject to unpredictable environmental factors such as weather conditions • No clear distinction between work and recreation • Multi-cultural crew who work and live together PSSR (STCW 2010) 97
  98. 98. Causes of Fatigue cont. • Weariness or exhaustion through strenuous work and long hours • Over exertion • Inadequate sleep or poor quality sleep • Stress • Poor lifestyle choices • Poor health PSSR (STCW 2010) 98
  99. 99. Causes of fatigue in the maritime industry 4 categories •Crew-specific factors •Vessel specific factors •Management factors •Environmental factors PSSR (STCW 2010) 99
  100. 100. PSSR (STCW 2010) 100 Crew-specific factors include: •Amount of sleep, rest, quality, quantity, duration, disruptions •Biological clock/circadian rhythms affected by watchkeeping, shift work and work schedules •Psychological and emotional factors e.g. stress, fear or monotony/boredom •Health of the crew member, diet and illness •Stress factors such as personal or financial problems, interpersonal relationships on board •Ingested chemicals such as drugs (prescription and non- prescription), alcohol etc. •Age •Workload (mental/physical) •Jet lag
  101. 101. PSSR (STCW 2010) 101 Management factors include: •Shift schedules, breaks •Paperwork requirements •Voyage scheduling factors such as frequency of port calls, time between ports, routing, weather, traffic density and work load during port time. Ship-specific factors: •Ship design and age of vessel •Physical comfort of accommodation spaces •Equipment reliability •Work space comfort
  102. 102. PSSR (STCW 2010) 102 Environmental factors: •Temperature •Humidity •Excessive noise levels •Vibration •Ship motion
  103. 103. • Affects visual perception • Affects mental calculations • Slows reaction time • Lowers productivity • Decreases morale & motivation • Causes poor communication • Causes accidents • Can cause sleeping on watch Effects of Fatigue Fatigue causes impairment in every aspect of human performance (physically, emotionally, and mentally) PSSR (STCW 2010) 103
  104. 104. Causes of Sleepiness • Rough seas • Background vibration • Background “white” noise • Watch routine interrupts “normal” rest patterns • Stress, lifestyle, health etc PSSR (STCW 2010) 104
  105. 105. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 2400 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Time of Day Alertness Circadian Rhythm PSSR (STCW 2010) 105
  106. 106. Control of Fatigue • Comply with maritime regulations on minimum hours of rest and/or maximum hours of work • Take breaks when scheduled • Develop and maintain good sleep habits • Maintain a balanced diet, eat regular meals including fruits and vegetables • Keep properly hydrated • Stay fit and exercise • Use “rested personnel” to cover for those travelling long hours / jet lag PSSR (STCW 2010) 106
  107. 107. Control of Fatigue (Cont.) • Crew members should be encouraged to inform supervisors when fatigue is impairing their performance and that there will be no recriminations • Schedule drills to minimise disturbance of rest/sleep • Break up monotony and work with low demand tasks • Encourage long-term health benefits from appropriate lifestyle (exercise, relaxation, nutrition, avoiding smoking and low alcohol consumption) PSSR (STCW 2010) 107
  108. 108. Control of Fatigue (Cont.) • Ensure that sufficient manning and resources are available so that the requirement of minimum hours of rest and maximum hours of work is met • Ensure that shipboard conditions are maximized for the crew accommodation and off duty areas • Enforce adequate rest is received and follow IMO and ILO recommendations PSSR (STCW 2010) 108
  109. 109. STCW Fatigue Standards Updated (2013) • Manila Amendments have addressed rest and fatigue by harmonizing hours of rest with the requirements of ILO Maritime Labour Convention (2006). • Under STCW / ILO Rest hours have been increased from 70 to 77 for a set of 7 day periods with a minimum of 10 hours rest in every 24 hours period. The 10 hours of rest cannot be divided in to less than three periods, one of which must be at least 6 hours. • The intervals between rest periods cannot be more than 14 hours. PSSR (STCW 2010) 109
  110. 110. PSSR (STCW 2010) 110 Watchkeeping schedule must be posted (see sample below)
  111. 111. Introduction to Awareness, Controls & Prevention Module 7 Marine Pollution PSSR (STCW 2010) 111
  112. 112. Pollution Definitions • Pollution is defined as the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment • Marine pollution is introduction of harmful substances or products into the world’s oceans and also emissions into the air by marine engines PSSR (STCW 2010) 112
  113. 113. Pollution Sources 2 main areas of concern for the maritime industry: •Operational type, covered by legislation such as MARPOL and individual States and local / regional laws, •General human impact, which is the individual’s impact PSSR (STCW 2010) 113
  114. 114. Impacts of Pollution • Harm to living resources • Hazards to human health • Hindrances to marine activities including tourism, shipping, fishing • Impairment of the quality of sea water and reduction of amenities Only humans make products that nature cannot digest PSSR (STCW 2010) 114
  115. 115. Economic Impact from Pollution • Harm to the economies of coastal and inland waters states and regions. • The industries dependent on the marine environment include fisheries, coastal tourism and coastal urban development. • The impact on an economy relying on these resources is significant on terms of income generated and jobs lost. PSSR (STCW 2010) 115
  116. 116. Environmental Impact from pollution • The environmental impact is hard to measure but there is evidence of significant harm to living marine life which may be hard to reverse. The ecosystem relies on a huge and balanced diversity, the alteration of which may lead to a chain reaction of resource loss due to changes in the food chain and loss of habitat. • Sea, rivers and lakes water quality can lead to significant harm to human health as well as the plant and animal life. PSSR (STCW 2010) 116
  117. 117. Climate Change • Climate change could put many thousands of miles of coastline and island states at risk. • Smoke and gas emissions from vessels may not seem high compared to other industries but do add to the pressure on the atmosphere PSSR (STCW 2010) 117
  118. 118. Pollution Facts • Approx. 80% of marine litter is land-based • In 2004, marine water samples contain 6 times more plastic than plankton, i.e. out of 7 kilos of water, 6 kilos were plastic and only 1 kilo was made up of plankton • Cruise ships dump 95,000 m³ (cubic metres) of sewage from toilets 5,420,000 m³ of sewage from sinks, galleys and showers, all released into the oceans each day • 250,000 kg of waste are removed from the North Sea yearly (source: KIMO) • 1 kg out of every 5 kg of plastic waste ends up in oceans PSSR (STCW 2010) 118
  119. 119. Effects of Pollution • Plastic never biodegrades, but with the sunlight it splits into ever and ever smaller pieces • In the end they are ingested by over 180 known marine species, being mistaken for food and thus entering the food chain PSSR (STCW 2010) 119 Time taken to Photo-Degrade Plastics
  120. 120. Effects of Pollution cont. • Impacts of invasive marine species from bilge and water tanks as well as from cargo/spaces are often irreversible • Underwater noise affects sea life; it can confuse navigation systems of sea mammals. The noise produced by ships can travel long distances, and marine species that may rely on sound for their orientation, communication, and feeding, can be harmed by this sound pollution • Shallow coastal/estuarine waters, bow waves/wash can have a considerable impact by disturbing seabed species, breeding/nesting areas, erosion of banks and coastline PSSR (STCW 2010) 120
  121. 121. Protecting from Individual’s Impact • Going aground may cause damage to the natural habitat. • Beaching in reeds/grasses may damage fragile environments • Never operate a vessel to disturb, chase, or harass wildlife • Avoid causing erosion; use low speed not creating a large wake. In shallow water sand, mud and plant life may be sucked into the engine damaging the engine and the environment. • When fuelling diesel, oil and gas/petrol spills are detrimental. Even small spills can attract a very high fine in some states. • Observe requirements for black/grey water disposal, use pump out facilities to dispose of holding tanks. • Always take home any rubbish, garbage etc., especially plastics. 121
  122. 122. Operational Pollution 2 main types: operational and accidental Recognised and dealt with by International Convention, state and local legislation: •Oil, chemicals/gasses/noxious liquids as cargo •Dangerous goods hazardous to the environment if spilled or lost. •Garbage, including bio and non-biodegradable waste. •Sewage •Exhaust emissions, gases, unburnt hydrocarbon particles adding to smog, acid rain & greenhouse effect. PSSR (STCW 2010) 122
  123. 123. Operational Pollution (Cont.) • Cargo vapours emissions including their toxic effect on health, climate and plant life. • Exhaust emissions, including gases and unburnt hydrocarbon particles and their contribution to smog, acid rain and the greenhouse effect. • Ozone depleting substances, including CFCs and halon gases and their effect on global warming • Noise levels from machinery and its effect on ships’ crews as well as on local populations. • Office generated waste, including waste paper, special waste and other consumables. • Ballast water. This includes the possibility of aquatic organisms or water-borne pathogens being transported in ships’ water ballast. • Anti-fouling paints and their effect on shellfish and other aquatic life 123
  124. 124. Operational Pollution cont. • Noise levels from machinery and its effect on ships’ crews as well as on local populations. • Office generated waste, including waste paper, special waste and other consumables. • Ballast water. This includes the possibility of aquatic organisms or water-borne pathogens being transported in ships’ water ballast. • Anti-fouling paints and their effect on shellfish and other aquatic life PSSR (STCW 2010) 124
  125. 125. International Response to Pollution • International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) • International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments • The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships PSSR (STCW 2010) 125
  126. 126. Ballast Water and Anti Fouling Management • Ballast Water poses serious ecological, economic and health problems due to the multitude of marine species carried - ballast water management systems can be used to prevent intentional or accidental introduction of harmful or alien species to a particular part of the marine environment • Anti-fouling Systems Convention - restricts the use of harmful anti-fouling systems on ships flying their flag, as well as ships not entitled to fly their flag but which operate under their authority and all ships that enter a port, shipyard or offshore terminal of a party PSSR (STCW 2010) 126
  127. 127. MARPOL Convention • Annex I – oil • Annex II – noxious liquids • Annex III – hazardous materials • Annex IV – sewage • Annex V – garbage / plastics • Annex VI - air PSSR (STCW 2010) 127 MARPOL applies to all ships over 400 gt, excluding warships and state owned ships generally. It must be noted that the provisions of MARPOL apply to ALL VESSELS of whatever size; however the requirement for documents and records may not apply
  128. 128. MARPOL Rules to Combat Pollution • Annex I – oil discharge, absolutely forbidden • Annex II – noxious liquids discharge, very restricted • Annex III – hazardous materials discharge, very restricted • Annex IV – sewage discharge, outside 4 miles, must be treated • Annex V – garbage disposal varies but, no plastic ever • Annex VI – sets engine emission standards PSSR (STCW 2010) 128
  129. 129. Oil Pollution • 3.2 million tons spilt annually due to – 33% vessel operations – 12% marine accidents – 37% in ports – 7% natural spillage – 2% drilling and rigs – 9% other PSSR (STCW 2010) 129
  130. 130. Effects of Oil Pollution • Damage to the environment • Damage to wildlife and places of beauty • A little oil can do a lot of damage • Nuisance to beaches and water transport • Hazardous from fire, health and safety aspect • Costly to clean up • Economic devastation – fisheries etc. PSSR (STCW 2010) 130
  131. 131. Nature’s Safeguards Limited • INDUSTRIALIZATION has put pressure on recovery • Economic pressure to grow results in greater pollution • Lack of global willingness/strategy to make meaningful impact on pollution PSSR (STCW 2010) 131 Oil Annex Regulations Required Documents include: • International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate • Oil Record Book • Shipboard Oil Pollution Emergency Plan (SOPEP)
  132. 132. Oil Record Book Requires a RECORD of any movement, loading, unloading or disposal of any oil or oily substance MARPOL requires the following must be recorded: •Ballasting or cleaning oil fuel tanks •Discharge of ballast or cleaning water from oil fuel tanks •Disposal of oily residue (sludge) •Discharge overboard of bilge water Oil/Oily Water etc Disposal •Ports required to provide reception facilities for all oil residues. In all cases a receipt should be obtained from the reception facilities. The entry must be made asap, signed by the officer. Master must sign each completed page. PSSR (STCW 2010) 132
  133. 133. Noxious/Hazardous Materials • Toxic (can kill on contact) • Smothering (reduces oxygen in water) • Tainting (stains everything it comes in contact with) • Ingestion (kills wildlife) • Causes damage to habitats • Can take years to restore PSSR (STCW 2010) 133
  134. 134. Sewage Discharge of sewage into the sea is prohibited unless: • from an approved treatment plant within 4 miles offshore. • 4 to 12 miles discharge only with a disinfecting system • 12 miles offshore providing vessel is proceeding at 4 knots or more and with a controlled rate of discharge A sewage certificate is required An approved sewage system is also required PSSR (STCW 2010) 134
  135. 135. Garbage Disposal • NO PLASTICS • Outside 3 miles with treatment to break down to small size • Outside 12 miles for all garbage except packing materials • Outside 25 miles for packing materials • Required documents include garbage record book • Garbage Management Plan (see next page) PSSR (STCW 2010) 135
  136. 136. Garbage Management Plans • Required if vessel > 400 tons or carries 15 or more passengers/crew • Written procedures for: – Collection – Storage – Processing – Disposal • Responsible parties designated PSSR (STCW 2010) 136
  137. 137. Air Pollution • Mandatory technical and operational energy efficiency measures to significantly reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships and are to enter into force on 1 January 2013 PSSR (STCW 2010) 137
  138. 138. Special Areas • Areas where for ecological reasons the IMO has recognized the need for special measures to reduce or restrict disposal of the various Annex substances. The selection in the Convention may be because of one or more of the following: – The area is environmentally sensitive – There is a lack of movement of water – High traffic volume – An area of dense population • Each Annex specifies different areas and not all the signatories recognize all of these areas. See examples on next page. PSSR (STCW 2010) 138
  139. 139. PSSR (STCW 2010) 139 Examples of Special Areas
  140. 140. Report Pollution It’s the Law! PSSR (STCW 2010) 140
  141. 141. United States Coast Guard Specific This part of the course may be reviewed by those taking the United States Coast Guard STCW or for those intending to work in U.S. Waters PSSR (STCW 2010) 141
  142. 142. Reporting Right Whale Sightings • The Right Whale Reporting system was developed to alert merchant vessels to the presence of the Northern Right whale, to avoid possibly fatal collisions in U.S. waters. • Pleasure vessels and yachts must also not approach closer than 500 yards/ 455 meters. • It is your job, while on watch on the bridge, to keep a sharp lookout for the Right Whale. PSSR (STCW 2010) 142
  143. 143. PSSR 143
  144. 144. PSSR 144
  145. 145. Ask any questions you have NOW The written exam is next GOOD LUCK! Module 8 Final Review PSSR (STCW 2010) 145
  146. 146. THANK YOU PSSR (STCW 2010) 146