Developing Others: Organization Development A Report under the guidance of Dr. Nita Vigilia in partialfulfillment to the requirements in the subject Agricultural Extension 212 – Human Relations and Group Dynamics Ronel D. Caña Student
I. IntroductionDeveloping other people is achallenging activityrelies on careful,planned and responsibilitymotivational and dutydelegation
I. IntroductionThus, there should be a high level of trust andknowledge of your colleagues"Organizations are no longerbuilt on force. They are built ontrust."
I. IntroductionOrganization development :a deliberately planned effort to increasean organizations relevance and viability.the framework for a change processdesigned to lead to desirable positiveimpact to all stakeholders and theenvironment.
I. IntroductionContents of this Report:Managing ChangeEmpowering peopleDeveloping teams
II. Learning ObjectivesAt the end of this report, YOU are expected to:• Understand how and why organizations change;• Learn how to increase peoples’ acceptance of change;• Know the importance of organizational culture;• Learn how to deal with change;• Understand when empowering others is a good idea;• Learn the levels of peoples’ input;• Learn what makes a group “a team”;• Learn how teams operate;• Understand why the team approach is not always best.
III. Managing ChangeWhat causes change?Here are some causesof change:
III. Managing ChangeA. Sacred Cow HuntsKriegel and Brandt (1996):• Search for the already-traditional activities that have invisibly reduced productivity;• The identification and reduction, if not eradication, of these counterproductive activities.
III. Managing ChangeA. Sacred Cow Hunts1. The Paper Cow • unnecessary paperworks – usually forms and reports that cost organizations money to prepare, distribute and read.
II. Managing ChangeA. Sacred Cow Hunts2. The Meeting Cow • meetings called in so many times with long durations but with no concrete output.
III. Managing ChangeA. Sacred Cow Hunts3. The Speed Cow • are the unnecessary deadlines which affect the quality of work, increases employee stress and often cause employees’ health problems.
III. Managing ChangeEncouraging Change (Kriegel and Brandt, 1996)• Think like a beginner – ask stupid questions, constantly ask why things are being done a certain way, and don’t assume that anything makes sense;• Don’t be complacent with something that is working well. Keep looking for ways to improve, new markets to enter, new products to introduce.• Don’t play with someone else’s rules, make your own.• Rather than penalizing mistakes, reward employees for making the attempt to change or to try something new.
III. Managing ChangeB. Peoples Acceptance of Change• People are often reluctant to change;• People are comfortable doing things the old way;• People fear that change will result in less favorable working conditions;• People feel out of control when confronted with change.
III. Managing ChangeB. Peoples Acceptance of Change1. Stages of Change (Carnall, 1990)Stage 1: Denial – people deny that any changes will actually take place;Stage 2: Defense – they become defensive and try to justify their positions and ways of doing things;Stage 3: Discarding – people begin to realize not only that the organization is going to change but that the people are going to have to change as well;Stage 4: Adaptation – people test the new system, learn how it functions, and begin to make adjustments;Stage 5: Internalization – people have become immersed in the new culture.
III. Managing ChangeB. Peoples Acceptance of Change2. Important Factors• The reason behind the change – people accept change if they fully understand the reason for it;• The person making the change – people react differently in response to the personality behind any proposed change;• The person being changed – the reaction of the people being changed highly influence the outcome of the proposed change.
III. Managing ChangeB. Peoples Acceptance of ChangePeople are classified into the following depending ontheir reaction and contribution to change:• Change agents – “I enjoy in making changes”• Change analysts – “I think deeply before responding to change”• Receptive changers – “I easily accept change”• Reluctant changers – “I do not easily accept change”• Change resisters – “I don’t accept change”
III. Managing ChangeB. Peoples Acceptance of Change3. Implementing Change• Creating an atmosphere for change – involves showing the dissatisfaction in the current system;• Communicating details – involves educating the organization about the proposed change;• Time frame – proper timing and duration effects the implementation of change;• Training needs – the people need to cope with its effects and in the process, needs training.
III. Managing ChangeC. Organizational Culture• The set of values, beliefs, and traditions that an organization follows;• Can influence change;• Decision making, taking tasks, accomplishing goals and other corporate culture-related issues may dictate the need for change;
III. Managing ChangeC. Organizational Culture1. Changing culture• the removal of inapplicable culture and retaining the applicable ones;• the refining of the organization’s culture.
III. Managing ChangeC. Organizational Culture2. Assessing the new culture• Needs assessment – studies and activities carried out to find the needs of the culture;• Determining executive direction – this activity will provide the organization the direction where its decisions will be based;• Implementation considerations – how the new culture will be implemented;• Training – includes the transfer of the philosophies of the new culture as a replacement/refinement of the implemented culture;• Evaluation of the new culture – an evaluation mechanism must be established to review the new culture.
III. Managing ChangeC. Organizational Culture3. Maintaining the new cultureUpon having the new system established, then itmust be maintained. A rewarding system may beemployed for those who cooperate with the newsystem.
III. Managing ChangeC. Organizational Culture4. Selection of People• Different people react towards the implementation of the new system;• This creates a selection of those who adopt effectively and those who do not;• In the recruitment of new members of the organization, the selection criteria should contain understanding and interest to the new system.
III. Managing ChangeD. Coping with change• organizational change can be traumatic;• it can also be exciting and full of new opportunities;Following are advices which the organizationmembers can follow to cope with change:
III. Managing ChangeD. Coping with change1. Speed up ”If you paddle faster than the current, you can control where you are going”;2. Take the initiative Instead of waiting for instructions, initiate action!3. Spend energy on solutions Spend your time and effort on solving problems and making the new system work: • Post baby pictures of managers (bosses); • Create a stress-free zone; • Give employees a surprise hour off;
IV. Empowering PeoplePeople are moresatisfied with theirjobs if they feel theyhave some controlover what they do.
IV. Empowering PeopleA. Making the Decision to EmpowerFactors in making the decision to empower• Importance of decision quality – Is one decision is better than the other?• Leader knowledge of the problem area – Do the leaders have sufficient information to make the decision alone?• Structure of the problem – Do the leaders know what information is needed at how it can be obtained?
IV. Empowering PeopleA. Making the Decision to EmpowerFactors in making the decision to empower• Importance of decision acceptance – Will the subordinates accept the decision?• Subordinate trust and motivation – Will the subordinates be motivated to achieve the organizational goals and be trusted to make decisions that will help the organization?• Probability of subordinate conflict – Will there be conflict among subordinates when various solutions to the problem are considered?
IV. Empowering People B. Levels of the People’s InputAbsolute – Shared/ Advisory – Ownership Following –the people Participative the people of own worked ishas sole / Team – the make product – closelyresponsibilit people has recommend the people checked/y for an equal vote ations, sugg becomes approvedmaking in making ests new responsible by others.decisions decisions and ideas, provi for own The peopleand is reaches des input quality is closely orresponsible consensus constantlyfor the with one supervisedoutcomes anotherof decisionsHigh Level Trust and Responsibility Low Level
IV. Empowering PeopleB. Levels of the People’s InputConsequences to EmpowermentPower to make decisions Risk of making bad decisions Punishment or deprivation of rewards.
V. Developing Teams• Teams can improve performance in some, but not all situations;• Teams work best in situations in which the job requires high levels of people interaction;• A team can do something an individual cannot.
V. Developing TeamsA. What is a team?Following are the considerations into which a teamcan be based:1. IdentificationGroup members identify with the team than other groups.2. InterdependenceMembers need and desire the assistance, expertise andopinions of the other members.3. Power differentiationMembers try to decrease power differentiation by treatingothers as equals and taking steps to ensure equality.
V. Developing TeamsA. What is a team?Following are the considerations into which a teamcan be based:4. Social DistanceMembers try to decrease social distance by being casual, usingnick names, expressing liking, empathy, and common views.5. Conflict Management TacticsMembers respond to conflict by collaborating.6. Negotiation ProcessMembers negotiate in a win-win style in which the goal is forevery person to come out ahead.
V. Developing TeamsB. Types of TeamsTeams come in many forms:Cross-functional teams• consisting of representatives from various departments within an organization.• members are often torn between representing the interests of their function and doing what is best for the organization as a whole.
V. Developing TeamsC. How Teams DevelopTeams typically go through four developmental phases:• Forming stage – members get to know each other and decide what roles each member will play;• Storming stage – members often become frustrated with their roles, begin to disagree with one another and challenge each others’ ideas;• Norming stage – members have either accepted their initial roles or made adjustments to roles to which they are better suited;• Performing stage – the team begins to accomplish its goals; members enjoy their team membership.
V. Developing TeamsD. Why Teams Don’t Always WorkFollowing are six most common problems encountered byteams:1. The Team is Not a Team There are teams where the “team” is limited only to their names.2. Excessive Meeting Requirements Some teams meet either too often or they waste time during their meetings. These situations can reduce the motivation and enthusiasm of a team.3. Lack of Empowerment Teams that lack empowerment lack the authority to overcome any given difficult task.
V. Developing TeamsD. Why Teams Don’t Always WorkFollowing are six most common problems encountered byteams:4. Lack of Skill Team with members lacking the appropriate skills required for the conduct of their assignments will find it hard to accomplish.5. Distrust of the Team Process Many teams don’t succeed because management doesn’t trust the concept of teams.6. Unclear ObjectivesTeams work best if they know why they were formed, what they areexpected to accomplish and when they are supposed to be finished.