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    The Cell (Slideshow) The Cell (Slideshow) Presentation Transcript

    • CELL ANATOMY
    • THE CELL THREE MAIN REGIONS OF A GENERALIZED CELL 1. THE NUCLEUS > the control center (gene-containing)‏ > has DNA - contains all instructions needed to build the whole body > has the instruction for building proteins necessary for cell reproduction 2. PLASMA MEMBRANE > fragile, transparent barrier that contains the cell contents bilipid layer contains phospholipids* and cholesterol** *impermeable to most water-soluble molecules **has a stabilizing effect and helps keep the membrane fluid 3. CYTOPLASM > cellular material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane “ factory area”- site of most cellular activities
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    • The Nucleus
      • 3 Distinct Structures:
      • NUCLEAR MEMBRANE / NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
      • > double membrane (fluid-filled space) with nuclear pores
      • > selectively permeable
      • > nucleoplasm- nucleoli and chromatins are suspended
          • NUCLEOLI
      • > site where ribosomes are assembled
          • CHROMATIN
      • > loose network of bumpy threads
      • > when cell is not dividing, it will coil and condense and form dense, rod like bodies called chromosomes
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    • The Plasma Membrane bilipid layer contains phospholipids* and cholesterol** *impermeable to most water-soluble molecules **has a stabilizing effect and helps keep the membrane fluid CHONS are scattered in the bilipid layer > some proteins are enzymes > receptors sites for hormones or other chemical messengers > some have transport functions ( those that span the membrane) glycoproteins are attached to proteins whose functions are: > determine blood type > acts as receptors that certain bacteria and viruses can bind to > play a role in cell to cell interaction
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    • The Cytoplasm 3 Major Elements: CYTOSOL > semi-transparent fluid INCLUSIONS > non-functioning units > chemical substances that may or may not be present depending on the cell type > mostly are stored nutrients or cell products e.g., melanin, mucus, fat droplets ORGANELLES / CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES > metabolic machinery of the cell
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    • The Cytoplasmic Organelles 1. RIBOSOMES > tiny, round, dark bodies made of proteins > Acts to protein synthesis
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    • The Cytoplasmic Organelles 2. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM > minicirculatory system A. RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum)‏ > s tudded with ribosomes; cell’s membrane factory > proteins made inside its tubules are dispatched to other cell areas > the amount of RER a cell has is a good clue to the amount of CHON that cell makes B. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum > no role in CHON synthesis a. cholesterol synthesis and breakdown b. fat metabolism c. detoxification of drugs
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    • The Cytoplasmic Organelles 3. GOLGI APPARATUS > a stack of membranous stack of flattened membranous sacs, associated with swarms of tiny vesicles > found close to the nucleus > “traffic director” for cellular proteins > major function: modify and package proteins
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    • The Cytoplasmic Organelles 4. LYSOSOMES “ demolition sites”- contain powerful digestive enzymes capable of digesting worn-out or non-usable cell structures and most foreign substances that enter the cell > abundant in WBC
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    • The Cytoplasmic Organelles 5. PEROXISOMES > membranous sacs containing powerful oxidase enzymes that use molecular oxygen to detoxify a number of harmful or poisonous substances. E.g., alcohol, formaldehyde > important function: disarm dangerous free radicals how? Peroxisomes + free radicals = hydrogen peroxide + catalase = water > numerous in liver and kidneys > they replicate by dividing in half
    • The Cytoplasmic Organelles 6. MITOCHONDRIA > “ sausage-shaped” organelles > walls are composed of a double membrane outer membrane- smooth inner membrane- has cristae > “power house of the cell”- produce energy to form ATP molecules ATP provides energy for all cellular work
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    • The Cytoplasmic Organelles 7. CYTOSKELETON > network of protein structures scattered throughout the cytoplasm > cell’s bones and muscles a. microtubules b. microfilaments c. intermediate filaments
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    • The Cytoplasmic Organelles 8. CENTRIOLES > come in pairs that lie near the nucleus > rod shaped bodies that lie at right angles to each other > during cell division, centrioles direct the formation of mitotic spindle
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    • CELL PHYSIOLOGY
    • MEMBRANE TRANSPORT SOLUTION > homogenous mixture of two or more components SOLVENT > substance present in largest amount in a solution > dissolving medium SOLUTES > substances present in smaller amounts
    • MEMBRANE TRANSPORT INTRACELLULAR FLUID > collectively the nucleoplasm and cytosol > solution containing small amounts of gases( Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide) nutrients and salts, dissolved in water > fluids found inside the cell INTERSTITIAL FLUID > fluid that continuously bathes the exterior of the cell >contains nutrients (amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, vitamins), regulatory substances such as hormones and neurotransmitters, salts and waste products
    • MEMBRANE TRANSPORT SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY > a barrier that allows some substances to pass through it while excluding others > allows nutrients to enter the cell but keeps many undersirable substances out > valuable cell proteins and other substances are kept within the cell, and wastes are allowed to pass out of it
    • MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESSES > substances are transported across the membrane without any energy input from the cell ACTIVE TRANSPORT PROCESSES > cell provides a metabolic energy (ATP) that drives the transport process
    • TRANSPORT PROCESSES 1. PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS A. Diffusion B. Filtration 2. ACTIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS A. Solute Pumping B. Bulk Transport
    • PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS 1. DIFFUSION > process by which molecules tend to scatter themselves throughout the available space > molecules move down their concentration gradient > speed of diffusion is affected by the size of the molecules and temperature > plasma membrane is a physical barrier to diffusion > molecules will move passively through the plasma membrane by diffusion if: they are small enough to pass through the pores they can dissolve in the fatty portion of the membrane
    • PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS DIFFUSION Simple Diffusion > unassisted diffusion through the plasma membrane > solutes transported this way are either lipid soluble or small enough to pass through the pores Facilitated Diffusion > provide a means for certain substances (glucose) that are both lipid insoluble and too large to pass through the membrane pores > a protein carrier is needed as a transport vehicle > some of the proteins in the plasma act as carriers to move glucose passively across the membrane and make it available for cell use
    • PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS 2. FILTRATION > process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane by a fluid or hydrostatic pressure > pressure gradient pushes solute containing fluid from a high pressure area to the lower pressure area
    • ACTIVE TRANSPORT PROCESS 2. FILTRATION > process by which water and solutes are forced through a membrane by a fluid or hydrostatic pressure > pressure gradient pushes solute containing fluid from a high pressure area to the lower pressure area