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150 B Vs

  1. 1. Anatomy and Physiology, Seventh Edition Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Chapter 21 Lecture Outline *
  2. 2. Types of Blood Vessels <ul><li>Arteries - carry blood away from the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterioles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capillaries : site of exchange with tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect arteries with veins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veins : carry blood back to the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small veins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium or large veins </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Vessel Wall <ul><li>Tunica interna (intima) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth inner layer that repels blood cells and platelets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple squamous endothelium overlying a basement membrane and layer of fibrous tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunica media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>middle layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually thickest; smooth muscle, collagen, some elastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth muscle for vasomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tunica externa (tunica adventitia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outermost layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loose connective tissue with vasa vasorum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lumen – central blood-filled space of a vessel </li></ul>
  4. 4. Arteries <ul><li>Elastic (Conducting) arteries - largest (2.5 cm to 1 cm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aorta, pulmonary trunk, common carotids, subclavians, common iliac arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunica media consists of perforated sheets of elastic tissue, alternating with thin layers of smooth muscle, collagen and elastic fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand during systole, recoil during diastole; lessens fluctuations in BP; pressure reservoirs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muscular (Distributing) arteries - medium size (1 cm-0.3 mm) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute blood to specific organs; brachial, femoral, renal, and splenic arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle layers constitute 3/4 of wall thickness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Arterioles and Metarterioles <ul><li>Arterioles - smallest arteries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumen diameter ranges from 0.3 - 10  m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arterioles control amount of blood to various organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter of arterioles controlled by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local factors in the tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system Blood flow into capillary beds is controlled by arterioles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Metarterioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short vessels connect arterioles to capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells form a precapillary sphincter about entrance to capillary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of vasodilation and vasoconstriction </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Arterial Sense Organs <ul><li>Major arteries above heart </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid sinuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in walls of internal carotid artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitors BP – signaling brainstem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HR  and vessels dilate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Carotid bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oval bodies near carotids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor blood chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adjust respiratory rate to stabilize pH, CO 2 , and O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aortic bodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in walls of aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>same function as carotid bodies </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Capillaries <ul><li>Smallest blood vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diameter from 8–10 µm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red blood cells pass through single file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site-specific functions of capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the lungs – oxygen enters blood, carbon dioxide leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the small intestines – receive digested nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In endocrine glands – pick up hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the kidneys – removal of nitrogenous wastes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Capillary Beds <ul><li>Network of capillaries running through tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Precapillary sphincters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate the flow of blood to tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tendons and ligaments – poorly vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelia and cartilage – avascular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive nutrients from nearby connective tissues </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Capillary Beds Figure 19.3a
  10. 10. Capillary Beds Figure 19.3b
  11. 11. Types of Capillaries <ul><li>Continuous - occur in most tissues (skin and muscle) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>endothelial cells have tight junctions with intercellular clefts (allow passage of solutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fenestrated - kidneys, small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organs that require rapid absorption or filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>filtration pores – spanned by very thin glycoprotein layer - allows passage of only small molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sinusoids - liver, bone marrow, spleen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>irregular blood-filled spaces; some have extra large fenestrations, allow proteins and blood cells to enter </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Capillary Structure Figure 21.4
  13. 13. Veins <ul><li>Veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lower blood pressure: 10mmHg with little fluctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thinner walls, less muscular and elastic tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expand easily, have high capacitance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>valves aid skeletal muscles in upward blood flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Venules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>postcapillary venules more porous than capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>muscular venules have tunica media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Venous sinuses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>veins with thin walls, large lumens, no smooth muscle </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Valves <ul><li>Valves found in all veins greater than 2 mm in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Folds in intima form two flaps that overlap. </li></ul><ul><li>More valves in veins of lower extremities than in veins of upper extremities. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Other Vessel Types <ul><li>Vasa vasorum : blood vessels that supply the walls of arteries and veins. Penetrate vessel walls from the exterior. Branches of arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Arteriovenous anastomoses . Vessels allow blood to flow from arterioles to small veins without going through capillaries. If arranged in a convoluted fashion and surrounded by collagenous connective tissue, referred to as a glomus. In kidney, glomerulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Portal veins : veins that begin in a primary capillary network, extend some distance and end in a secondary capillary network without a pumping mechanism, such as the heart, between. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Nerve Supply <ul><li>Unmyelinated sympathetic nerve fibers form plexi in tunica adventitia: cause vasoconstriction </li></ul><ul><li>Small arteries and arterioles innervated to greatest extent </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels of penis and clitoris innervated by parasympathetic </li></ul><ul><li>Some blood vessels innervated by myelinated fibers and act as baroreceptors that monitor stretch and detect changes in blood pressure </li></ul>
  17. 17. Aging of the Arteries <ul><li>Arteriosclerosis : general term for degeneration changes in arteries making them less elastic </li></ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis : deposition of plaque on walls </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pulmonary Circulation <ul><li>From right ventricle into pulmonary trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary trunk divides into left and right pulmonary arteries . </li></ul><ul><li>Two pulmonary veins exit each lung and enter left atrium </li></ul>
  19. 19. Systemic Circulation <ul><li>Aorta : exits left ventricle and is divided into three parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascending aorta : right and left coronary arteries branch from here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic arch : arching posteriorly and to the left and has three branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brachiocephalic artery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left common carotid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Left subclavian artery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descending aorta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic aorta : portion in thorax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal aorta : inferior to diaphragm. Ends as two common iliac arteries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Branches of the Aorta
  21. 21. Major Arteries
  22. 22. Head and Neck Arteries
  23. 24. Major Arteries of the Head and Thorax
  24. 25. Arteries of Upper Limb and Shoulder
  25. 26. Arteries of Abdomen
  26. 27. Arteries of Abdomen and Pelvis
  27. 28. Arteries of Pelvis and Lower Limb
  28. 29. Arteries of Lower Limb
  29. 30. Systemic Circulation: Veins <ul><li>Return blood from body to right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Major veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary sinus (heart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior vena cava (head, neck, thorax, upper limbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferior vena cava (abdomen, pelvis, lower limbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial, deep, sinuses </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Major Veins
  31. 32. Venous Sinuses Associated with the Brain
  32. 34. Veins of Head and Neck
  33. 36. Head and Thorax Veins
  34. 37. Veins of the Upper Limbs <ul><li>Deep Veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the paths of companion arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have the same names as the companion arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superficial veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visible beneath the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cephalic vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basilic vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median cubital vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Median vein of the forearm </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. Veins of Shoulder and Upper Limb
  36. 39. Veins of Thorax
  37. 40. Inferior Vena Cava and Its Tributaries
  38. 41. The Hepatic Portal System <ul><li>A specialized part of the vascular circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Picks up digested nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers nutrients to the liver for processing </li></ul>
  39. 42. The Basic Scheme of the Hepatic Portal System Figure 19.22
  40. 43. Hepatic Portal System <ul><li>Portal system : vascular system that begins and ends at a capillary bed with no pumping mechanism in between. </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatic portal- liver; renal portal- kidney; hypothalamohypophyseal portal between hypothalamus and pituitary. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood entering the hepatic portal vein is rich with nutrients collected from the intestines, but may also contain toxic substances. Both nutrients and toxic substances will be regulated by the liver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients: either taken up and stored or modified chemically and used by other parts of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotransformation : Toxic substances can be broken down by hepatocytes or can be made water soluble. To be transported in blood and excreted by the kidneys. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 45. Veins of Abdomen and Pelvis
  42. 46. Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs <ul><li>Deep veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share the name of the accompanying artery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superficial veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great saphenous vein empties into the femoral vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small saphenous vein empties into the popliteal vein </li></ul></ul>
  43. 47. Veins of Pelvis and Lower Limb
  44. 48. Veins of Lower Limb
  45. 49. Disorders of the Blood Vessels <ul><li>Aneurysm </li></ul><ul><li>Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limb </li></ul><ul><li>Venous disease </li></ul><ul><li>Microangiopathy of diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Arteriovenous malformation </li></ul>
  46. 50. Blood Vessels Throughout Life <ul><li>Fetal Circulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All major vessels in place by month 3 of development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between fetal and postnatal circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fetus must supply blood to the placenta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very little blood is sent through the pulmonary circuit </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 51. Vessels to and from the Placenta <ul><li>Umbilical vessels run in the umbilical cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paired umbilical arteries - carry blood to placenta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpaired umbilical vein - carries blood away from placenta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ductus venosus - bypasses liver sinusoids </li></ul><ul><li>Ligamentum teres - remnant of umbilical vein </li></ul><ul><li>Ligamentum venosum - remnant of ductus venosus </li></ul><ul><li>Medial umbilical ligaments - remnants of umbilical art’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Shunts Away from the Pulmonary Circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Foramen ovale - between R & L atria </li></ul><ul><li>Ductus arteriosus - shunts blood from pulmonary trunk to aorta </li></ul>
  48. 52. Fetal and Newborn Circulation Compared Figure 19.26a
  49. 53. Blood Vessels in Adulthood <ul><li>Atherosclerosis begins in youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequences evident in middle to old age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Males – more atherosclerosis until ages 45-65 </li></ul><ul><li>Females – experience heart disease and atherosclerosis later in life </li></ul>
  50. 54. An atheroma (arrow) in the anterior descending artery (a branch of the left coronary artery). Note the reduced size of the lumen of the vessel as a result of the atheroma. From a 37-year-old man. Homicide was the cause of death.
  51. 55. Thrombus (arrow) in a branch of the left main coronary artery. Note the fatty deposits (yellow) that have thick-ened the arterial wall and reduced the size of the lumen. From a 45-year-old man who died of acute myocardial infarction.

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