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  1. 1. Instructional Softwarein Elementary SchoolsEdTech 541Ron Gardiner
  2. 2. IntroductionSchools use many software applications every day. There issoftware to help manage student information, software toincrease productivity, and software to help with instruction.Instructional software, that is software students use to increaselearning, is divided into five types: • Drill and Practice • Tutorial • Simulation • Instructional Games • Problem Solving
  3. 3. Drill and Practice• Students work on exercises one at a time• Feedback is given after a question is answered • Feedback varies from correct or incorrect to detailed explanations• Types of drill and practice include • virtual flash cards • Fill-in activities • Branching activities • The program adjusts the difficulty level of the questions based on the user’s responses
  4. 4. Drill and Practice• Relative Advantage: • Help students gain automaticity • Provide immediate feedback • ease the burden of grading papers by teachers • Can assist in classroom management be being incorporated into classroom centers
  5. 5. Drill and PracticeExample: IXL Screenshot: Click the image or the link to launch video in a new window.
  6. 6. Tutorials• Designed to teach a lesson comparable teacher-created lesson on the same topic “. . . tutorials are true teaching materials. Gagne et al (1981) said that good tutorial software should address all nine instructional events," (Robley & Doering, 2012).• Tutorials can either be linear branching. • Branching tutorials adjust level the instruction based on user responses
  7. 7. TutorialsRelative Advantage:• A complete instructional package • Contain drill and practice activities and provide immediate feedback. • Branching tutorials automatically review areas of difficulty • Able to provide amore individualized, self-paced lesson • Can be used in the absence of a teacher • To activate prior knowledge • Acquire background information • To remediate • For students who are ahead of classroom pace
  8. 8. Tutorials• Example: Math Foundation • Screenshot: Click the image or the link to launch video in a new window.
  9. 9. Simulations• Learning through experience is at the heart of simulations • Teach about something • Teach how to do something• Manipulate on-screen objects to learn a process or perform an experiment• Observe processes at a faster or slower rate• Review processes steps to see how variables affect an outcome• How-to simulations can be procedural or situational. • Procedural teach the sequence of steps required to perform task. • Situational help learners adapt and change to solving problems, and making choices that lead to the best result
  10. 10. SimulationsRelative Advantage:• Safety • Dangerous materials or in inaccessible locations are simulated•Time can be sped up or slowed down•Review and redo • Segments can be revisited and the result of using variables can be observed.•Students like simulations•Accepted by constructivists. • Users employ critical thinking skills and learn about the subtleties of process or situations
  11. 11. SimulationsExample: The Layered Earth• Screen shot: Click the picture or the hyperlink. The demo opens in a new window.
  12. 12. Instructional GamesInstructional games take advantage of students desire tohave fun.•High-interest activities with game rules• Allow for competition• Many formats • Adventure • Role playing • Simulations•Used as drill and practice activities• Games need to be checked for educational value • Developmentally appropriate • Respectful of gender and diversity • Do not promote violence
  13. 13. Instructional Games• Relative Advantage: • Fun, motivational, and engaging• Example: ABCya • Screen shot: Click the image or the link to launch the video in a new window.
  14. 14. Problem SolvingDesigned to help students hone problem solvingskills•Help them achieve a goal when the solution isnot obvious•Content-area problem skills•General problem-solving skills•Works along side problem-solving processes • Big Six • Polya’s Four Step Process•Various tools used to solve problems•Multiple attempts possible
  15. 15. Problem SolvingRelative Advantage:•Highly visual and challenging format•Motivational to keep students engaged•Students identify and make meaningful connections to the skillsrequired to solve problems
  16. 16. Problem SolvingExample: Learn4Good•Cone Flip: Screen shot: Click the image or the link to open in a new window
  17. 17. ReferencesBerkowitz , R. E. (n.d.). Big6 introduction. [0]. Retrieved from / stream/launchflash.html?folder=slisal&filename=nquir03.m4vEducational simulations. In (2011). Educational Simulations. Retrieved from http:// Retrieved from strategies online. (2009). Retrieved from, G. S. (2011). Educational games. Retrieved from http:// four step problem solving process . (n.d.). Retrieved from, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2012). Integrating educational technology into teaching. (6 ed.). Prentice Hall.Robley, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2012). Integrating educational technology into teaching. (6 ed.). Prentice Hall.Taylor, D. (n.d.). The advantages of instructional software in classroom setting. Retrieved from